American English Pronunciation: Vowels | Sheila Lebedenko | Skillshare

American English Pronunciation: Vowels

Sheila Lebedenko, accent reduction coach

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
14 Lessons (1h 31m)
    • 1. American English Vowels Intro General

      1:55
    • 2. Vowel Chart Lesson

      16:02
    • 3. 1 C 1 Vowel Lengthening

      8:53
    • 4. 2 C Front Vowels

      2:49
    • 5. 3 C Long E and Short I

      3:38
    • 6. 4 C Long A vs

      12:01
    • 7. 5 C Short A and Short O

      2:20
    • 8. 6 C Central Vowels

      2:00
    • 9. 7 C ER

      4:21
    • 10. 8 C Short O and Short U

      10:43
    • 11. 9 C Back Vowels

      2:28
    • 12. 10 C Short Back U and Long U

      3:04
    • 13. 11 C Long O and Short Back O

      9:13
    • 14. 12 C Moving Vowels

      11:50

About This Class

Learn how to produce and recognize all the American vowels and how to avoid common pitfalls.

Transcripts

1. American English Vowels Intro General: Welcome to American English vowels for I T professionals. Let's polish your vowels so others can better understand you. My name is Sheila Lebanon Co. And I'm a working accent reduction coach in Silicon Valley. I've been teaching international professionals here for over 15 years. I have a master's degree in teaching SL from the University of Illinois. I'm an Illinois native, and Illinois is considered home to the mainstream neutral American accent. I love the sound of English, and this is why I chose to become an accent reduction coach. This course is designed to show students from around the world the errors that are commonly committed when trying to pronounce vowels. In general, foreigners don't spend enough time on vowels or open their mouths enough. So let's get you confident in each vowel so that you'll want to open your mouth enough. Learn everything you can hear by printing out the written notes and following along during the video lesson. Pause and imitate me, be an act of learner, then further enhance your imitation skills and build muscle memory by doing the repetition . Practice provided for each sound. As you repeat each sentence after me, notice everything about the sentence, not just the vowels. Noticed the constants, the pitch, the volume, all the little details, even how I link the words together. These keen observation skills and repetition practice will develop your American accent in no time. 2. Vowel Chart Lesson: I'm going to teach you how to use the vowel chart on this chart. We can see all the vowels in American English. Well, look at the columns and the rose and these columns and rows are organized. So if something's in the same row, it's because those two vowels have something in common. And if something's in the same column, it's because they also have something in common. So knowing what they have in common can help you produce each one correctly. Take a picture of this chart now so you can refer to it throughout the lesson. First, let's look at the first column tongue and jaw heights. The jaw lowers so that that's hunk and lower. So here's my jaw. If my jaws very low, that means my mouth is very open. That's very low. Ah, but if my jaw is very high, my mouth is almost close, such as E. That's Ah, high jaw and a high tongue. Mm ah ah, I I low high start slow. Ah, and ends high, E. I. The top row says front center and back. A front vowel is where the tip of the tongue is higher than the rest of the tongue. So for the front vowels, here's my tongue. This is the tip of my tongue. It should point upward. A central Val is when the tongue is flat and a back Val is when the front of the tongue is lower and the back of the tongue is higher. Now, front vowels and back valves also have two versions. A short version and a long version. The short vowels will be relaxed, meaning the tongue will be relaxed, relaxed. The long vowels will be tense, meaning the tongue will be tense. The next row of the chart shows the high valves remember, the chin or jaw will be very high. Long, e and long. You are in the same horizontal row, so that means they have this same jaw height so I can go back and forth between them without moving my jaw. You? Yeah. Oh, as I do that, the angle of my tongue is changing because I'm going from a front bell to a back about He has the high tongue tip and who has the low tongue tip. But see how my chin doesn't move. Yeah. Mm. Oh, of course. The lips were moving a lot short I and short back. You are also both on the same horizontal row. They're a little bit lower than the long ian along you. Also, the distance between them is shorter because they're both short valves, so there's not as much difference between them. They're both relaxed again. They'll both be at the same job. Height. Yeah. Yeah. Notice how I'm gently rounding my lips for the short back. You It's not a lot of movement, and there's not a lot of difference between them, but the angle of the tongue is changing slightly inside the mouth. Yeah, man, it, um the next row are the mid vowels for the mid vowels. Your mouth is about halfway open A. I'm gonna put the tip of my tongue rate under my bottom teeth. A the next val in the center center Vallis e r her Notice how they're on the same chin height. Ah, uh ah, ah. Again. I changed the angle of my tongue from tongue tip up to flat tome. Ah, Um um um, the back fell on the same horizontal row is the long Oh, we will have very strongly rounded lips and the tip of the tongue will be down. Oh, notice how all three are at the same jaw Height? Ah ah, oh I can even go back and forth between a and o a o a o and right in the middle if I stop in between and no, I will find e r a o a girl. Sure, e In short, you are also mid vowels, but they're relaxed. Med valles. They're on the same horizontal row. Yeah. Uh, yeah. Uh, you can't even see a difference. I feel my tongue tip go up on at and it comes down on up. Otherwise they look pretty similar, right? Being at the same jaw height. Yeah, uh, and, uh, I noticed that my mouth is halfway open. And, uh so it looks like this with my tongue. Yeah. And the bottom row are the low vowels, starting with short A, which is very American. Open your mouth a lot. Put your tongue at the bottom of your mouth, but lift up that tip. And now there's two ways to do the short A and I'm going to show you both. So let's start with the first method. Tongue tip up to show you this, I'm going to show you the difference between short a and short. Oh, yeah. Uh and, um, did you see my tongue tip come up for the short? A. But notice how the jaw stated the same height. And, uh, yeah, uh, now here's method to for making the short A. You can just put your tongue tip on your bottom teeth and arch your tongue up so we can see the tub. A But you'll have to lower your chin a lot. Yeah, uh and oh, you can do it. Whichever way is more comfortable for you, the back vow of the low veils is the short back. Oh, and it's optional because only 50% of Americans use it. Those who don't use it just use the central, short Oh, all the time. Notice how all three of these vowels are un about the same job height. So we have Yeah. Ah! Oh, So the short bac O is just rounded. The tongue tip is lower than the back of the tongue, and the lips are oval shaped. Um, so we have. Yeah. Uh um, Now, let's look at the long I, which is a low high front vowel. It consists of two different parts. It starts with the short Oh ah, and ends with a long e e as in Hi. Hi. Watch my chin. Go from very low to very high. Hi. When a voice continent such as de follows the I we also start from the short Oh, and ended the long e for example Hide, hide. But when a voiceless continent such as t follows the I we don't start from the short Oh, we start from the short you which is a mid central vowel notice. Uh uh Heights heights. I don't need to say heights and that would sound rather awkward. Now let's look at the next low, high vowel called Oy. Some instructors call these vows dip thongs or moving vowels. So oy starts with the long Oh, which is actually a Midvale. Oh, and then it ends with the front vowel Long E, which is high. So it goes, Boy boy, make sure you around your lips on the o and smile on the E boy. Now let's look at the third low high vow along o U as in how it starts with the Short A which is the low front vowel, and then it ends with a long you Ah, high back vowel. So this Val moves all the way across the Valle chart. It's really fun to say it because it's a lot of movement. If you have a word like bow where the word ends in the vowel, you'll go really deep. You'll start with a big short, a A and then proceed all the way to the tight lipped who bow if the word ends and a voice continent such Aziz bound, which ends in an N. D. I will still start with the short A and end with along you bounds. It might not be as deeper is biggest Bow, however, And if the word ends in a voiceless continent such as T like about, I'm not going to say about how that's too much. Instead, all start from the short e and end with the short back you so that I'm using too relaxed vowels and not putting as much effort into it about Oh oh, about now we've lifted all the vowels on the Val chart, but let's look at some more details about them and get some practice in Let's look at all five front vowels from hide alot I want you to notice how my jaw or my chin lowers and my mouth gets bigger Each time I say a different vowel I'll start from the high vowel E Yeah. Um, yeah. And again e a a. And with the words, it would be feed thin, fade, fed fad. Try practicing in a mirror after this lesson and see if you can do those words really fast . Feed Finn Fade. Fed bad. Remember for the front vowels. Your tongue tip is up. Now let's look at all three central bells which have a flat tongue. Um oh. Oh. Um oh. Ah! Notice how my chin was dropping between each one for her. We want to pinch the corners of our lips her and pull your tongue backward like you're gonna swallow it. Your tongue should be all the way backward. Ah, now, for, uh, the tongue is relaxed up and the chins a little lower. And for aw, your tongue is all the way at the bottom of your mouth. Open wide like the doctor says Say aw, and sticks the tongue depressor in your mouth. So again we have her. Ah, um curler Cut. Copped. Now let's look at the four back vowels altogether. All of the back veils will have the tongue tip lower than the back of the tongue. And all of the back males are rounded, though short back, you is relaxed and very gently rounded. So let's start and notice how my chin gets lower for each vowel. Who? Oh, oh, um, again Who? Uh Oh. Ah, Boots. Hello, Bone boss, Let's practice all the vowels while you look at the valve chart. I have chosen a word that always begins with P and always ends with L. But the vowel in the middle is always different, and we use all of the valves on the chart. So let's say them together. Repeat after me. Let's start with the front vowels from high to low peel. That's the long e peel pill Pale pellet, pal. Now the central Els Pearl Pulse pollen. Now the back vowels pool poem Pull, Paul! And now the moving vowels. The three on the top row pile spoil Powell Practice makes perfect 3. 1 C 1 Vowel Lengthening: in American English. Make sure the sound is placed far back in your mouth. Imagine that you have so much space in the back of your mouth that an entire apple could fit there. This space creates an echo chamber where the sounds can ring or resonates. If you don't leave enough space in the back of your mouth, then you can't really resonate. And your voice will sound kind of constricted like this. We don't want that kind of vocal quality, so let's open up our mouths and have a ringing vowel sound. Vowel sound different before different types of continents. So let's learn the two different types of continents, voiceless and voiced, so that you can learn to distinguish between these types of continents. Your vocal cords, which are located in the middle of your throat, create buzzing when we make a voice continent. Such a Z Z is the easiest constant to understand with voicing it sounds like this. Ah, if you place your fingers over your vocal chords like this and you say you can feel the vibration in your throat. Now the voiceless counterpart for Z is s, which sounds like there's no more vibration in my throat, and it sounds like a hissing, almost whispering kind of sound. So now I'm going to show you all of the voiceless and voiced constant pairs so that you can start to memorize them. Once you understand why they're voiced or voiceless, then it'll be really easy to memorize them. It's just intuitive. Don't worry, but it's essential that you memorize them before you can understand all of my other lessons . Let's begin. The first pair of voiceless and voiced continents is P and B P is voiceless and B is voiced . Put your fingers over your throat to feel the difference. But T and D duh next C H and J Sure, Yeah, K and G God F and V Mm. We have two types of th both voiceless and voiced Ah s and Z Uh, S H and the H H is a voiceless continent. The remaining continents are all voiced and they don't have any voiceless counterparts. Are l le? Why, Yeah, W what? And, um, in ah and finally n g ah, In the other course, I'll teach you all about all of these continents. But for now you need to understand which ones air voiced in which ones are voiceless. To learn about all the vowels, please rewind and replay this section until you've memorized or really understand the difference between the voiced and voiceless continents. Vowel lengthening is important because vowels do not sound exactly the same before different types of continents. When you put a vowel before voiced or vibrating continent such as B, D, J, G, V or Z, then you need to stretch out that valor spends more time on that vow. When you put a vowel before voiceless, constant or a non vibrating constant like P T C, H K f or s, then you need to say the val more quickly. If you spend too long on the vowel than the vibrating, nature of the valve will contaminate the voiceless constant that comes after it. Finally, if you're Val is at the end of a word, you want to spend the most time on it. You want to really let that vow ring. You can even go up and down on the same vowel to stretch it out, such as in the word P. I don't just say P, but I say P, I really stretch it out. Let's look at some other pairs of words so that we can show how to contrast them. AP AB Notice that I said app very quickly, but in the second word, I stretched out the vowel AB rates Raid Ray less laser life live. I noticed that in this pair, the long I've sounds very different before a voiceless or voiced constant before the voiceless, constant f. I don't open my mouth nearly so much, and it's very quick life. But before the V and live, I opened my mouth a lot more. Watch the difference in the size of my mouth Opening life. Live built, build set said pick pig Insert, Sir Buck Bug Note Node. If you're not sure if you're making the voice lists or voiced continent, try placing your fingers over your vocal cords. No node. When I do the 2nd 1 I feel the vibration lasting a lot longer. Node. Do not add a Schwab or short U sound or any other vowel sound after a constant at the end of a word. This might happen if you work too hard to try to be clear. Don't make a vowel sound after a continent to try to make it clear. Let me show you some examples. Pig. Not Pigna Slide not slider Kage, not Kenya. Love not Glover Ranked, Not ranked with Not with a Finally each, not it. 4. 2 C Front Vowels: Now let's talk about the different kinds of front vowels we're going to study The front vows from high to low. Long E is the high front bow. And that means that the tongue is very close to the top of the mouth and the mouth looks like it's almost closed. Mm. The next one is short. I It's a little bit lower. My chin and my jaw and my tongue will be a little bit lower. Yeah. Yeah. And then the 3rd 1 is long. A long a is a mid vowels. So the tongue is in the middle of the mouth and the mouth is halfway open. Ah, a The 4th 1 is the short E, which is even lower. Yeah, uh, and finally we have the short A where the back of the tongue is all the way at the bottom of the mouth. And now for all of these front vowels, the tip of the tongue must be pointed upward. So a front vowel means that here is my mouth with my teeth. And here is my tongue. I want the tongue two point upward. In a central vowel, the tongue will be flat. And in a back vowel. The back of the tongue will angle upward. We know that the long e and long a sound just like the e and A and alphabet A B C d e f g those of the long A and long eat By making them tense, we mean maybe engaging your cheeks and definitely contracting your tongue and feeling that tension in your tongue as though you were flexing your arm A and the other three vows short . I short e and short A are all relaxed. Your chicks should feel like they're sleeping. Yeah, I m when I say those five vowels in order, you're going to notice that my chin progressively and gradually lowers and lowers. Mm, yeah, A Yeah. And so each time my mouth got a little bit bigger to make room for my tongue going lower and lower, look again And yeah, A Yeah, and so I'll talk about where the tongue needs to be precisely in the mouth for each of out as we go over them in detail. 5. 3 C Long E and Short I : Let's start by distinguishing between the long E and the short I for the long E, which is tense. You should keep the tip of your tongue behind the crack between the top and bottom teeth. Um, it's not touching the crack, but the tongue is somewhere right there behind the crack. That's the level that it is at in the mouth. Now, for the short I you want your tongue to be just maybe a centimeter or less lower the tip of the tongue will be behind the bottom teeth. Yeah, yeah. So if these air my bottom teeth, I put the tip of the tongue right on it for the short I. But then I let the rest of the tongue relax like a hammock resting between trees. Just let it relax. Yeah, let's try some word pairs so you can distinguish between E and it. First word in each pair will be a long E. The second will be a short I at least list peace Piss Sheep chip tweaks. Twix Read, read. Least list. Reach rich. Here are some sentences to practice Long E will be in bold print and short. I will be in italics feel free to pause and rewind toe. Listen again and repeat. We need ink for the printer. Now. Notice. I did not say we need ink for the printer. I didn't emphasize every single word or even every single syllable. Instead, I emphasized need bank pence And then I put every other syllable squeezed between those three stresses. We need ANC for the printer. We need bank for the printer. Scientists build silicon chips. The engineer who invented that system is rich. A V engineer instead of the engineer read the agreement for the Intel Utilities, software and materials. How many hits or visits did he receive? The image will appear on the screen and a different window CD Rahm means compact disc with read only memory. The why at the end of only and memory should be clear long. Any sounds do not shorten these sounds. Our service includes an Internet streaming feature. The system has a mechanism, an algorithm for encrypting specific and sensitive parts of a configuration file. Recipients receive video and visual images via riel time transmissions 6. 4 C Long A vs: now let's look at the long A long A is made by putting the tip of the tongue right underneath the bottom, teeth pressed up against the hard gums underneath your bottom teeth? A. A When I say a, the tip of my tongue is touching the hard gum tissue right underneath my bottom teeth. Also, the tongue is tense and the cheeks attempts. The tongue is in the middle of your mouth and your mouth will be halfway open And remember , you want the sound to be coming from the back of your mouth where there's lots of space in the back of your mouth. A. Let it ring long A will be typed in orange. Bold print in the following words and phrases. Notice the different spellings for long, eh? Way E I, as in way often makes a long A sound, but not always be careful. E. I could make a long E as in ceiling or along I, as in height, Way Brok, long a can also be indicated by the following spellings E. T. As in brok e y, as in Convey and a plus constant plus final Silent E as in cake, convey the layout might take us all day. Notice how the last word day rises and falls in pitch on the Long A. This often happens on the last word in a sentence. The layout might take us all day. The engineers in San Jose have a long work day. The day in workday is not prolonged, as it was in a day in the compound noun work day work is stressed. Instead of day. The engineers in San Jose have a long work day. Chevrolet uses a new digital display. Other long A spellings include E T. As in Chevrolet and E. As in Jose. These come from foreign words. Chevrolet uses a new digital display design, a pathway through which we can convey information you have experienced. DeLay because yesterday was a holiday. Enrique works for a company called Broke a Computer. The computer operates with breakaway speed in the U. S. A. More long A spellings include U E as in Enrique and E A. As in break. Be careful with E A. Because it is often a short E. As in bread, Enrique works for a company called Broke A Computer. Computers are hard to throw away because they dont decay. The costs of the survey would outweigh the benefits more long. A spellings include E I G H as in Way and E y. As in survey, the costs of the survey would outweigh the benefits. Each element will overlay an element of the data structure array distinguish between Long E and long A for long e. The tip of the tongue is behind the crack between the top and bottom teeth for long a. The tongue is lower. The tip of the tongue will be under the bottom teeth, touching the hard gum tissue under the bottom teeth. Mm, a ah a. I noticed that my mouth is more open for the long A than it is for the long e. Try these word pairs. Well, wail Dean, Dane steer stare ST straight. I noticed that for both a long E and long A. I get a big smile. I get some dimples. Intention. In my cheek. These air both tense vowels, but the long A requires a bigger, more open mouth. Trees trays weary, wary, seen same read raid. Let's try some sentences. Long E will be in blue and long a will be an orange. The team will save money by laying off three people. See the real time data. Let's make a deal. Create speedy software. Keep the mainframe safe. Payment was received on Monday. Keep the information from leaking the sounds like V and has a long E sound before a vowel. Sound. Information begins with a vowel, so it sounds like the information. Keep the information from leaking. Seek economies of scale. Wait patiently for the legal proceedings. Aim to please the employees the employees. The employees aim to please the employees. Now let's distinguish between long A and short E. Remember Long A has a higher tongue than short E. The short E tongue will be much lower, and it's where the gun tissue starts to get a little bit soft and mushy. And it's also a relaxed home in the following words and phrases Long a will be an orange. Bold prints and short E will be in purple bold print sale. Sell the spelling patterns of sale and sell. Help you predict which vowel to use sale is what is called a V C E pattern. It ends in vowel continent. Final silent E this v c E pattern predicts that you will need a long vowel in this case. Along. A sell, however, uses a VCC pattern. It ends in a vowel, constant constant. This predicts that we will need a short vowel or, in this case, a short e sales cells Made Med Waste West James Gems Let's look at the long A and short E In some sentences, the long A will be an orange bold prints and the short you will be in purple. Bold print Mainframe computers have huge memories. The sales four cells on weekdays. The medical components are made in the U. S. A. Abbreviations are stressed on the last letter. Notice how the A in USA is extended U. S. A. The medical components are made in the U. S. A. Find many e waste solutions on the West Coast. The same information was disseminated in both locations. Information and location. Both ends with an Iot. Suffolk six. The spelling io in at the end of the word is called an Iot suffix. The word stress will always fall one vowel to the left of this type of Suffolk six. So stress the A in both words, the same information was disseminated in both locations. The fact that we were delayed led to a poor result. Fred is afraid he will lose his job. Ai is a common long A spelling as in afraid. Fred is afraid he will lose his job. You will have accumulated more debt by that date. Please test the software, but don't taste it. Learning to use a text editor takes time. Distinguish between long A and short A for long a Remember, the tip of the tongue is just below the bottom teeth but short a has a much lower tongue. The tongue is all the way at the bottom of the mouth. But the tip of the tongue points upward. I can show you Ah ah Try these word pairs. The first is a long A. The second is a short a baked act. I noticed that the second word has a much bigger mouth opening claim Clam flake flak rain ran Main man sale Ciao. Paid pad, rave ravage Let's try some sentences. It takes time to safely pack the containers Past delay Change the release state Beijing is the massive capital in mainland China. Notice that I do not say mainland China. It's mainland China that mail is spam. The paper has jammed in the printer. Are you aware of the backlog? Their plans have changed. We lack information. His strategy and Taipei failed. The laptop weighs 2.4 kilograms. 7. 5 C Short A and Short O : It's also important to distinguish between short a and short. Oh, short A is a front vowel that has a very low tongue. The back of the tongue is at the bottom of the mouth, but short oh is essential vow and the tongue is flat. The whole tongue will be at the bottom of the mouth. If I open my mouth very wide, you'll be able to see the difference between the short A and the short. Oh, and, uh, and uh, when my tongue went up, that was a short A. And when it went down, that was a short Oh, let's try these word pairs so you can distinguish between them. Remember, the British accent uses more of the short Oh, but the American accent uses more of the short A yep, up stack. Stock tax talks Left loft sad Saad. Remember, the short A is a very American sound, so it's important to get this right short. A will be in green and short. Oh will be in orange. Hackers can monitor your actions and send spam to your contacts. Asked what the advantages are of that format cashing stores assets so the website will work faster on the next visit. The enjoyed app won't work on the apple phone. The podcast lures traffic to Adams Channel. Employing hashtags is a strategy to help you expand your market on instagram. Use the site map to navigate back to the dashboard. The laptop has a built in camera and enough ram for fabulous graphics. We advertise that you can aggregate your photos in a high capacity album. My family has fast broadband Internet access. 8. 6 C Central Vowels : Now let's learn about the central valves. Remember, with the central valves, your tongue will be flat in your mouth. The tip of the tongue is not angled up. Nor is the back of the tongue angled up. There are three central vowels ranging from medium toe low error is medium meeting the tongue is in the middle of the mouth With respect to heights. Er has the same jaw height as the long A Watch this noticed that my chin doesn't move when I go back and forth between long and earth A, uh a ah so to do er what you want to dio is kind of pinch the corners of your lips. Ah, to make your mouth of various small, you'll also pull your tongue backward to make the r sound. Ah, next there's short you It's also medium and height, but it's a little bit lower than e er short you is actually the same height as Short e. Listen yeah, uh, yeah, uh, when I say short e and short, you I don't really do anything different except for change the angle of my tongue. I lift the tongue up for short E and I put the tip of the tongue down for the short You? Yeah. Uh, yeah. Finally. The last central valley is the short Oh, which is very low in the entire tongue is on the floor of the mouth Short Oh, has the same jaw height as short A Now for the central vowel Short Oh, you do not need to round your lips will learn that later when we study back bells. 9. 7 C ER : making the ER sound is tricky, and it often gets substituted for a variety of other sounds. So let's learn how to do it right. So for the ER, make sure you are making your mouth very small. Imagine you're pinching the corners of your lips together. Ah, pull your tongue backward. If you pinch the corners of your lips together, then you won't be tempted to round your lips. When you around your lips, you might get a sound like or and that would be incorrect. Also, don't be fooled by various spellings of the ER sound. It's spelled many different ways. It'll be underlined in the video. Listen to these word pairs. The first word in each pair contains the ER sound, and the second word contains an alternate sound that you don't want to confuse with the ER words. Ward, The second word Ward actually has a long O sound, which is a back vowel. First forced, we're war were where hurled Harold Lurk Lark. Now the second World lark actually has a short you plus in our sound, and that's different from the er sound. The short you is lower, listen again lurk lark murder, mortar Perk Park pork per pair turn tourney on tarnish. Tauron had a long Oh, and tarnish had a short Oh, listen again, turn tourney tarnish. Now let's try her in some I t sentences. Our future earnings depend on converting visitors to customers. The operating system has a graphical user interface list the factors and requirements to determine the algorithm and its properties. Your Internet service provider will set up a wireless router. This version of the firewall software uses a different structure. The search engine is user friendly. Google Earth is a virtual globe and a collaborative effort. Hurry, and each year curry before the supervisor comes, interrupts can be generated on a computer component or on an external peripheral device. A Web server delivers files to the End Users device. Notice that in words like different, collaborative and peripheral, the ER is often changed toe. Are we just eliminate that vowel to make it shorter so we don't say difference or collaborative. We say different collaborative peripheral. Drop a vowel if it comes after a stressed vowel, plus one or two constants and before in R or L and an unstrung vowel. So in the word favorites, the a is dressed. The V is one continent, so we dropped the O next to have in our and lastly the I is an unstrung vowel. Similar words with dropped syllables include camera. It is not camera, it is camera also average different liberal and favorite. 10. 8 C Short O and Short U : distinguish between short Oh, and short. You don't make short Oh, too small. The entire tongue should be all the way down at the bottom of the mouth for short. Oh, you'll have to open your mouth a lots. Ah, imagine you are saying, Ah, as the doctor looks into your mouth. This is the short Oh, let's look at these word pairs. The first word in each pair is a short Oh, the 2nd 1 is a short You notice how I open my mouth much more for the short o than the short you open your mouth much more for the first word in each pair. Sonic son sock suck box Bucks otter Utter Cobb Cub Lava lover crossed crust. Try these sentences. I found three bucks in the box. The cop bought a cup of coffee. I would love a lava cake. Now let's distinguish between short you and other oh sounds and old spellings short, you is relaxed. The tongue is relaxed and flat in the middle of the mouth. Short you is the most common American vow. The first word in each pair contains a short U sound, but the second word has an alternate sound. Don't be tricked by similar spellings. Glove globe love has a short you, but globe has a long Oh, you just need to memorize this comfort. Common common has a short Oh, but comfort has a short you above abode above has a short you, but a boat has a long oh, cover Rover cover has a short you. But Rover has a long oh country pound country has a short you, but pound has a long Oh, you Enough doh enough has a short you, but dough has a long Oh, Now let's distinguish between short you and unstrung s syllables and an alternate sound in stressed syllables. This is very important to achieve good rhythm in English where we don't stress every single syllable Noun zehr often stressed on the first syllable of a two syllable noun Verbs are often stressed on the second syllable. The unstrung s syllable and either announced or verbs often uses a short U sound in multi syllable words. It's very common for every other syllable to have a short U sound. The rule of alternating stress tells us how to stress of four syllable words such as elevator. We stress the first and third syllable, but not the second or fourth elevator. The first word in each pair will contain a short U sound, while the second word contains an alternate sound in the same position. Produce product. The P R O in produce has a short you, but the P R O. In product has a short oh, produce is a verb. Product is a noun. Imagine that produce is spelled p r apostrophe D. You see? Don't spend any time or effort on the O prepare preview. The P R E and Prepare has a short you, but the P R E, in preview has a long E prepare is a verb. Preview is a noun control concept so noticed that in the word concept, the O is a short Oh, not a short you complain compound obtain object. I agree. Access Notice that access uses a short A. But agree used to short you realization realize noticed that realization has a short you in the middle. Not so long I, as an realize visualization, visualize demand, detail, detail could be a noun or ever when it's a noun. The first syllable is a long e detail, but when It's a verb. The first syllable is a short you detail short you in sentences short, you will be an orange bold print. Does your brother make a ton of money as a salesman every month? Notice that salesman ends with a short you. Not a short A sales is the stressed syllable man is unstrung est. We had tough luck obtaining control so nothing was done by Monday. Control is an exception. It is a noun with second syllable stress, so the first syllable has a short you. A common error is to pronounce obtained with a short O instead of a short you it should be obtained, not obtain. None of the above are good enough for the customer. Choose another color on the touch screen your ideas air rough, but come Monday, once you've studied, they'll be wonderful. He won a double protection cover for his monitor. We agreed to observe the arrangement, describe the structure and make a projection. A common error is to pronounce, observe and projection with a short O instead of a short you imagine. Projection is spelled P r. Apostrophe objection. Spend no time or effort on the over. My position is that consumers will complain if they can't afford what we produce. Compare your observations and confirm your discovery. Observations follows the rule of alternating stress. Stress the first and third syllables. The first syllable has a short Oh, now let's talk about A are sometimes a are uses short. Oh, and sometimes it uses short you in standard common American English. Make a short O plus our sound before a voiced continent or, at the end of a word, make a short U Plus R before voiceless continent. You won't find the short U Plus R in the dictionary, but I find that most Americans use it when speaking. Let's look at these word pairs. The first word in each pair uses a short Oh, so you have to open your mouth a lot. The second word in each parent uses a short you don't open your mouth as much. Carb cup large larch Target tart scarves, scarf hard heart barn marsh margin market. Let's look at the A R. And some sentences Push the shopping cart to the car by sweethearts at Target. Two scarves will keep you warmer than one scarf. Now let's just try short. Oh, and short you in some advanced sentences from some professional fields. Occupy the office until one o'clock. Notice that in oclock I don't say o clock. It's just a with a short you a clock. But clock is a short oh, uh, clock. Occupy the office until one o'clock. Be honest with the customer. The hardware is offered at a bargain. Buying on margin is borrowing money to purchase stock e commerce software. Mix online shopping carts for online marketing. The company offers the option to convert money in your wallet. The market is large enough for another company. The conditions are the complicated part of the contract. The word are is a short O plus are standing alone, but in a sentence, we reduce it to E. R. Uh, instead of our. The conditions are the complicated part of the contract. You can play console games on your computer. Ponzi schemes are common scams 11. 9 C Back Vowels : Now let's learn about the back vowels and all of the back vowels. The back of the tongue is angled upward toward the back of the mouth. Also, all of the back of owls will have a rounded lips. The tense back of owls like long you and long oh, will have tightly rounded lips with the lips protruding Oh, oh noticed that my lips push forward when I make those sounds Oh, oh, the short back You is slightly lower than the long you and it will have gently rounded lips Oh, the short back You is on the same jaw Height as the short I watch me go back and forth between the short I and the short back You my jaw height doesn't change Yeah, yeah Oh, Both of them have very relaxed lips, but the short back you does have slightly rounded lips The long oh has a mid heights and it will be on the same chin level as a long A Watch how I go back and forth without my chin moving Ah, oh ah oh! Make sure for this long Oh, that your lips are protruding forward and tightly rounded and that the sound is resonating in the back of your mouth with lots of space in the back of your mouth as though an apple could fit there. Oh, finally, the short back Oh is very low. It's as low as the short over the short A Now, only about 50% of Americans use the short back. Oh, and those who don't simply use the central vow short. Oh, in its place, let me show you the difference between the short back Oh, and the central valve short Oh, the short back Oh, will have an oval shape to the lips. Oh, and here's the central vow. Uh, ah uh uh uh! 12. 10 C Short Back U and Long U: Now let's distinguish between the long you and the short back You often what happens? It's students substitute the long you when they should be using the more gentle and relaxed short back You so remember to be relaxed on the short vacuum in each word parent, the first word will be a short back You and the second will be along you long You is the opposite of long E Short back you is the opposite of short I try going back and forth between long e and long You e u e u Now try going back and forth between short I and short back you which both have relaxed lips Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah Try some word pairs The first word has a short back You The second word has a long year. Look, look. Book rebuke Note that rebuke has a y sound after the B and before the long You this why insertion often happens after B and before long you as in abuse, rebuke, not reboot and abuse, not a boost. Sit suit Cook Cool nook nuke would would let's look at the short back. You in sentences. Notice the difference in spellings so that you can learn which spellings usually create, Which sound a cookie is a small piece of data from a website and stored in a users computer . The computer mouse comes with a comfortable wrist question. The APP will sends the user a push alert. Poll Media pulls the customer who took the initiative into a business. Brooks Law states that adding another person would also add delay. The surveillance system uses a bullet camera. The bulletin board system was popular before the World Wide Web. Popular Sounds like popular with Why insert of Why sound after API and before along you popular, not popular. Ah, bulletproof piece of technology is resistant to failure equipment. Footprints have been decreasing to take advantage of small spaces. We like the look and feel of your website. 13. 11 C Long O and Short Back O: Now let's talk about the long Oh, the long oh is very deep in American English. It needs to occur deep back in your mouth, even in your throat. Imagine that apple can fit in the back of your mouth. It's the opposite of long A. So that means that the A and the oh are on the same chin height. So if I say a Oh a oh, my chin shouldn't move now when you say, Oh, make sure you feel that sound deep back in your mouth. There's a lot of space so that Okun resonate and ring in the air. Make sure to distinguish the long oh, from the short you try these word pairs. The first has a long oh, the second has a short you cope cup bone bun. Notice that long oh, can be spelled o plus Constant plus final E as in cope and bone comb Come goal go boats. But notice that long? Oh, can be spelled o A. As in goal and boat. Let's look at the short back. Oh, you need to lower your mouth all the way. Don't let it sound like a long Oh, it's a very common mistake toe. Let the short back. Oh, sounds like a long oh, it's better to have it sound like a short o than a long Oh, try these word pairs. The first is a short back. Oh, well, I will show oval lips with a very low chin and tongue. Ah, the second word in each pair will be along. Oh, don't confuse them, Bond boned. They should sound very different. Cots quote a U or a U G H is a common spelling for the short back. Oh, as in caught Bost boast Notice that short Bac O can be spelled o plus two constants, as in Bond and Bost. Ball ball call. Cool cost. Khost lawn loan. Odd. Oh, dude, Walk woke. Let's try these sentences. He bought a boat. Bonds are types of loans. He caught a cold. I noticed that when I say caught, my mouth has an oval shape. It's very long, but when I say cold, it's a circle. Look at the difference in the shape of my lips. He caught a cold. He owes his boss for the loan. Now let's distinguish between the long oh plus R and the short Bac O plus R. Make sure the lips around and protruding when saying The long Oh, now, when you add the R to the lung Oh, you need to pull your tongue backward for the are as though you're going to swallow your tongue. Really pull it backward after the long oh added w plus e r sound or sounds like oh, plus were or or or remember to let the o sound resonate in the back of your mouth. Or a common mistake is to substitute the short bac o plus ar for the long oh, plus R So a short back Oh, has the very low tongue like a short oh ah ah Short back. Oh, plus our has a very low tongue at the bottom of your mouth and oval lips Long Oh, plus R has the tongue in the middle of the mouth with a round or circular lips in the following word pairs. The first word will be a long oh, plus R, and the second word in each pair will be a short back. Oh, or maybe a short you plus are some alternative sand horse hearse More tomorrow more has a long oh, plus R tomorrow has a short back. Oh plus R soar Sorrow Soar has a long oh, plus R Sorrow has a short back, Oh plus R board Borrowed board has a long oh, plus R borrowed has a short back. Oh, plus r adore Darling of Door has a long oh, plus R Darling has a short O plus R. Let's try the long oh plus are in sentences. Pull the power cord toward you. I noticed that when I say the long oh plus R or toward cord. I separate the O. R sound into two syllables with a W in the middle. The W help. Smoothly connect the two vowels Long O and E R or Or Or Cord toward. We sell affordable dual core processors. I noticed that when I said Core, which ends in a long oh plus our it was very easy to hear the two syllables core. I went up on coal and down on where core the word processors ends and an o. R. Spelling. But it is an e r sound, not an O. R. Sound. They're modern. E course platform won an award. We can afford more storage storage, go up on store and down on edge storage. We don't separate the O. R into two syllables or at a w sound when another syllable comes after the O. R. In the word we can afford more storage we visited more than a corridor of the Fortune 500 four, trend has morphed into a more powerful language. We need to restore lost data again with the word restore which ends, and the long Oh, plus our sound. You can really hear the two syllables or restore the daughter boards offer four ports in the word ports. You don't hear the two syllables as much because we quicken the vowel. Since the T S is there, which are voiceless continents, which make the vowel length less long ports, the recorder can record more sounds in the word record, which ends in an o r d d being a voiced continent. We really feel the two syllables in the O. R record. I noticed that the W in between also has rounded lips record. The floor model should be the last products out the door door is dough plus W plus E. R. This is most obvious at the end of a sentence door is the most important word in the sentence. So we stress it by going up Ondo and down on were the floor model should be the last product out the door. 14. 12 C Moving Vowels : Now we're going to study the moving vowels or dip thongs. The first moving Val is the long I. Now there's two types of long I. There's the long I, as in lime, where it ends in a voiced continent. And there's the long I, as in lights, which ends in a voiceless continent. Now for lime, I open my mouth very wide, starting with a short O position. Ah, lime. And for the second part of the vowel, I moved to a long E lime lime. I make sure you are moving from a short oh to a long eat position, however, when the word is like lights and there's a voiceless constant after the I don't open your mouth as much. In fact, you'll start from a short you position but still end in the long E I I light. The next moving Val is oy for oy. You need to start with a true long O with O happening in the back of your mouth and ringing and your lips rounded and protruding Oy, and then you'll end in a smiling long E boy added W between the long oh and the long E for a smooth connection. Oy equals o plus we oy. It's a lot of movement for your lips. The third and final moving Val is the long aus sound. How like the long I there's two types of hours. The 1st 1 occurs before a voice continent as an bound bound. Here you'll start with the short A a front vowel and move all the way to the long you a back vowel again. A lot of movements, Oh, bound. Make sure you make those tightly rounded lips in the end to finish off your vowel. Now, when the ou comes before a constant, which is voiceless, such as the word about, then you won't open your mouth as much. You won't start with a short A. Instead, you'll start with the short E but still end in the long you out out. About the first word in each pair will have the long I before a voiceless continent, and the second word in each pair will have the long I, either at the end of the word or before a voice continent. Now, when the long eyes at the end of a word, it is the biggest of all, even bigger and more stretched out them before a voice continent. The I, before a voiceless constant will be in italics. The I before a voice, continent or vowel, will be in bold print bite by notice, the difference in my mouth size. I'll do that one again. Bite by type time pipe pie microphone, T M I Heights hierarchy, the I in hierarchy. It's stretched out because it comes before a vowel and all vows air voiced The er sound is voiced. Hierarchy Heights, hierarchy device Devise. Now let's distinguish between the American and British pronunciation of a Suffolk's called ization. Americans pronounce the first I as a Schwab or short you, not a long I, as the British do visual ization, not visual ization. There's no I in the middle visualization realization hospitalization long I in sentences long I before a voiced continent, Val or at the end of the word, will be in bold print. Long I, before a voiceless continent will be in italics. You I stands for user interface. I noticed that when I said you I, which is an abbreviation, I made my eye very clear, starting from a big short Oh, because that eyes at the end of the abbreviation type hierarchies help organize a website. Find the I movie icon on your phone. We digitized books into an e book device. Quantify the numbers. Face Time has live streaming video. The enterprise advertises a variety of spyware enterprise and advertise. Have a stretched out I before the Z sound in Variety. The iess stretched out before the voice develop e and in Spy, where the eye has stretched out because of the voice. W. The enterprise advertises a variety of spyware. Satellites could be the next cybersecurity battleground. We can verify the existence of high tech companies online. The two terabyte hard drive will hold a lot of files. Online subscribers sometimes have their credit cards hijacked. Now let's distinguish between oy and long. Oh, so the boy is a moving vow that starts with a long Oh, but ends with a long E. It's travels between Oh and E boy boy, so you'll start with rounded lips and then you'll ends with a smile. Boy, the first word in each parent contains the toys sound. The second word contains the long O Sound. Join Joan, Destroy Astro Employ flow, Groin Grown Roy Row Now Let's distinguish between the Oy sound and the long I Sound Toy Ty Boy by loyal Lyle Toil, Tile point, pint, oy and sentences. The team members started to fights, and the meeting boiled over. Roy is a loyal employee. Sawyer made an appointment with a lawyer. Toil supports checkpoint jobs. The whole point is to give the user a choice. It is annoying that the post contains minor spoilers. Avoid the transaction. The computer's fan is making a noise. Now let's talk about the long Oh, you sound the long ou sounds different before a voiceless continent than it does before a voice continent. You need to quicken the vowel before a voiceless continent and stretch out the vowel before a voice constant When we quicken. The vow before a voiceless continent will start with the short ease sounds, as in about when we lengthen the vowel before a voice continent will start with the short A sound Yeah, as in bound. The first word in each pair will start with the short ease sound because it precedes a voiceless continent, and the second word will start with a short a sound because it precedes a voice continent. Notice how I opened my mouth. Mawr on the second word than on the first word Mouse mound Doubt Download Be in doubt is silent, so the voiceless T keeps the Val quick and small doubt. Doubt. Download about browser account clown. The T and account keeps the vowel quicken small despite V in account clown clout. Cloud tout Founder Long ou in sentences our you can download content from your cloud storage. He found out that they had rounded the numbers down to achieve a lower amount. The user empowers the browser to use the account. The accounting department misplaced several $1000. The S in 1000 has a V sound, which is voiced. 1000. The accounting department misplaced several $1000 Howard wrote about the company's founder . The wireless mouse requires no power cord output exceeded expectations. Beyond a doubt. The products Wow factor has aroused a big customer base. The S and aroused sounds like a Z, so the vowel is slow and big or stretched out. Aroused the products. Wow! Factor has aroused a big customer base. Crowdsourcing like outsourcing finds workers in the undefined public mount the monitor on the wall, the ends of moving vowels among I Oy and long ou, This is the end of vowels. Please contact your instructor for private Skype lessons.