All Experts Are Liars | Timothy Kenny | Skillshare
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17 Lessons (2h 17m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:24
    • 2. Lying and Facial Body Language

      10:29
    • 3. Lying With The Hands and Upper Body

      9:55
    • 4. Voice Features and Speech Disfluencies Related to Lying

      9:58
    • 5. Introduction

      1:10
    • 6. How Experts Use (and Get Used By) Powerful Marketing Machines

      10:39
    • 7. The Profit Motive

      9:10
    • 8. The Prestige (or Prophet) Motive

      7:38
    • 9. The Protection Motive

      8:02
    • 10. The Press (or Public Relations) Motive

      5:52
    • 11. The Pet Project Motive

      9:43
    • 12. Introduction

      1:13
    • 13. When The Experts Disagree

      7:47
    • 14. Experts Are Not Forever

      8:09
    • 15. Experts and The Ultimate Truth

      10:27
    • 16. Why Experience and Skills Don't Matter (Sometimes)

      12:09
    • 17. Why Top Experts Are Often The Worst Teachers For Novices FIXED

      13:00

About This Class

A lot of accelerated learners are focused on the wrong things.

Speed reading.

Note taking.

Memory.

I'm not saying these aren't worth learning about, but they are missing one of the biggest components:

Research.

How you source your information.

A Chef always makes sure they are use the best ingredients.

And you should have the same high standards when you are choosing who you are going to learn from.

The problem is, there are way too many options for most of us to filter through.

And even when we cull the herd, there are still many experts, all claiming to be the best in the world, and no objective way to measure or compare them.

In sports, it's easy to compare people. (or at least, easier).

But when it comes to expertise in the subjects that will help grow our businesses or further our careers, there is a big problem.

There is no one good way to figure out who is the best expert to learn from.

You can be the fastest reader, the best note taker, the most gifted memory champion, but if you are starting with low quality learning materials, you are going to spend a lot of time going very fast either in circles, or in the wrong direction.

Here's the UGLY TRUTH.

There is no one perfect way to measure expertise.

So if you are coming here for a silver bullet...sorry to disappoint.

Instead, this course is going to teach you the best heuristics out there to measure and evaluate experts in your chosen domain.

This course is about putting you in the drivers seat in your education so that you have a lot more control over who YOU deem the expert to be.

Based on your own careful analysis, you will be able to decide on your own which experts to invest your valuable time and money in.

At a certain point in your learning, you have to move beyond reading just the popular books that you see on the best sellers list or in a magazine.

You have to be able to find those diamonds in the rough who can take the to the next level of your learning journey.

Don't get me wrong, there a lots of great experts who are also commercially successful, but it's a thin line to walk and many domains are littered with fake experts who are very commercially successful.

This course will give you the tools to differentiate experts and help you find the experts who will take you to the top.

See you inside the course,

Timothy

Transcripts

1. Introduction: Welcome to this first section on delivery in this section, you're gonna learn how to look at an experts delivery of material and get a sense of how truthful they're being, how much of an expert they really are, how much they know what they're talking about and how to put all those patterns together into a constellation that could give you some really valuable insight. This is really important because you need to be able to tell which experts are the ones that are worth learning from and which ones are the Charlotte tens. And this is something that you need to do without a lot of information. Whether somebody is a real expert or a fake expert, they're still going to know a lot more than you do about the subject. So you have to be able to compare and contrast different experts and decide which one really knows what they're talking about. And then spend all your time learning from that one person because there's some industries where there's a lot of people talking about a lot of different philosophies about how to think about something or a lot of different ideas or systems or models and you have to be able to filter through all that stuff and find the real diamonds in the rough. So that's what this section is about. It's about looking at the delivery and making decisions about how much to trust a certain expert based on how they deliver information and also some of the mistakes you can make if you read the signals incorrectly, so let's get started. 2. Lying and Facial Body Language: this video was about body language of the face. And this is when I teach body language. I have another body language course out there. I always start with these three fundamentals because if you just start paying attention to these three things, it's gonna massively change how much awareness you have over other people's body language and really their emotions. Body language is a language of what people are feeling inside, and so a lot of times, body language is taught by people where they don't really understand the emotional component. They don't understand why people feel the way they do, how emotions work, what causes people to feel certain emotions so they focus just on the body language. And it's a big mistake because the information you're getting in terms of actual by language, signals of people doing things that's not nearly as meaningful as being able to put it into the bigger picture of being able to predict. What is this person probably thinking when you could do something like that or probably feeling, if you already know that, then you're coming in with a huge advantage because you just need a few very subtle signals to be able to figure out what that person is, probably thinking, what they're probably feeling, and most of the time it's feeling not what they're thinking, but we'll talk about that more. So the first thing you sell me touching various parts of my face. The first is the eyes. And a good way to think about these three patterns is if you've ever seen the picture with three monkeys. One monkeys like this one monkey is like this one monkey is like this. So the eyes, the mouth in the years and those are the three things you want to pay attention to. We'll also talk about the nose, which is related to the mouth so you can imagine it like that. Um, you have, like, a visual representation of how it works. So the 1st 1 will talk about is the eyes on and going back to what animals do. And what babies do is one of the best ways to learn body ling, which, because all body language originates from these very simple patterns. Body language is something that is a primary tool for animals to communicate with each other. So with the eyes, it's wanting to hide yourself. It's this idea of denying reality or wanting that reality to disappear one in yourself to disappear by hiding your eyes. So when somebody's covering their eyes, they're feeling some sort of shame or embarrassment. And as people get older, they become more refined in how they express that feeling of wanting to touch their eyes. Aurich their eyes. So if somebody wears glasses, for example, now adjust their glasses or they'll adjust it like that. Another one is three years. So how is the years different from the I? Well, the years also has a new element of embarrassment, but it also carries a tinge of social awkwardness. So if somebody feels awkward because they're doing something that puts them in an awkward situation, or if they see somebody else who's in an awkward situation or is handling ah problem in an awkward way, then they're gonna tend to do things like this. They may also brush their hair like that or play with their hair around this area. If they have glasses and they're adjusting their glasses, usually it's that's related to the eyes, not the years. And then the final thing is the mouth and the nose and those air connected, and a good way of thinking about the eyes and the nose are. When you think about a saber toothed tiger and you think about a bowl, they're both not necessary bullets and a predator. But when you notice um, a saber toothed tiger with its teeth, imagine it licking its teeth and kind of licking its lips. When it's getting ready to attack an animal and then eat it. That's an aggressive gesture, so it's getting itself ready. Teoh, eat something. Teoh devour something and kill it, using its jaws, and that same instinct carries over to human. So this is one of the body language signals that's harder to pick up when you're just getting started. Its more subtle. But whenever you see somebody go like that, especially when you see the tongue go side to side. Sometimes, though, their mouth will just be open, maybe 1/4 of an inch in. You'll just see some really quick tongue movement. That's something to pay attention to. That's an aggressive gesture. 1,000,000. That person is feeling some sort of aggression towards you or towards an idea or towards a person they're talking about on screen or something else. The other one is if somebody touches their nose, that's another sign of aggression, and sometimes they're not necessarily touching their nose, but they're breathing through their nose so they go away. It's usually breathing outwards, but may also see something like that. And what they're doing is with all of the's, is the experience of it. And this is something that you'll notice yourself is the experience of it is you're experiencing some sort of itch. You're experiencing some sort of, um, of weird feeling that you just want to kind of get rid of. So there's some sort of slight hitch and you just wanna You just want to do that. You just so the way people think about it uses Welsh just a natural thing. It's like a piece of dirt or it's a bug or it's some or just a random occurrence, and it doesn't mean anything. But what you're gonna learn once you study and pay attention to other people's body language but especially your own body language is that every single one of those itches every single one of those very slight feelings actually means something, and it's a signal related to your emotions, and it's actually very rare. Toe have a knack, actual bug or piece of dirt that's causing the problem. Usually it's something that's emotional, but it requires you to really pay attention to your own emotions until you get to the point where you associate each movement, each type of itch to on emotion that you feel. So next time you feel a little bit of aggression. Notice if your nose starts to get a cheer, you need toe, lick your lips or do something else like that. That's gonna be how you really learn this stuff and get to the point where you just see it happening all the time and you don't have to think about it anymore. You saw me do something like this earlier as a sauce, and my hair was getting out of position a little bit. But this is another thing somebody will do, and it's related to the eyes. So we're talking about embarrassment and somebody wanting Teoh, uh, Teoh cover their eyes in some way. Another thing you see, sometimes somebody will grow long hair because they want toe cover their eyes in some way either Long bang somebody who has an MMO look or wears sunglasses all the time. Shades. They want to hide their eyes. And a lot of times that could be a self esteem issue where they just don't, uh, they want to hide themselves because they don't. They're not proud of who they are, so that's another sort of thing that's more. It's not as much of a temporary feeling as much as in, ah, mood that they're constantly in or in most of the time. So anything that's related to the forehead around the eyes like that the hair appear. All of that is gonna be really related to that feeling of shame or that feeling of embarrassment or low self esteem, those sorts of feeling of inadequacy. So pay attention to those things when you're looking at an expert, because the more of those signals that you're getting, the more your antenna should be up for This person feels very uncomfortable communicating this material, so that could be because they're lying. That could be because they're not that comfortable with it. They just learned it. It could be because they get very nervous on stage. But when you're looking at experts that have written books that have been on stage for a long period of time that should be comfortable on television or on the radio or on a video on YouTube or whatever. Then those other reasons. I don't put as much stock, and I usually say, Well, this person's uncomfortable with their material and you're not going to see them using these movements or showing these body language signals throughout a video usually usually what you're going to see is there pretty normal. Most of the time. You don't see them fidgeting much with their hands, but you're gonna notice at certain points they become more uncomfortable. So they may be talking about something that may be really sure about the 1st 2 things, but not as sure about the 3rd 1 And so when you see some sort of like adjusting the glasses or whatever, or they and we'll talk about other things like speech, dis, fluency, ease where they just, they can't come up with the words to say, or they're filtering their words more. You're going to see that sort of stuff when somebody's moving their eyes around a lot when they're trying toe, find that information or sometimes see people going out like this trying to grab the ideas When you see stuff like that, then that's a signal to you that something's off. And what you can do to verify what you're seeing is look at other videos or listen to other audio recordings of them talking about the same subject. So if they tend to have those same sort of body language signals when you're seeing them talk about the same material across different videos in different places, and that's a really good sign that something's off, that something is amiss. So those are the things you want to pay attention to the eyes that years, and then the nose and the mouth together aggression here, shame here and then feelings of social awkwardness there. And we're gonna be getting Maurin toe other things that happened with the hands just watching the hands on their own with the upper body lower body in the next videos 3. Lying With The Hands and Upper Body: this video, you're gonna learn about what it means with the hands when people are using their hands and showing body language with their hands and also their upper body. So let's start with the hands, and I want to zoom out for a second and talk about something conceptual, which is what is movement in general. Me most body language movement, I'd say 80 90% of it is related to some feeling of anxiety. It's not clear always exactly what type of anxiety it means or what that person is making of the anxiety, but 80 90% of the time. That's why somebody is shifting around or not just being kind of in a neutral place in terms of their body language. So let's go back to the facial ones for a second. This is an anxiety related to the social awkwardness. This is an anxiety related to feeling of inadequacy or wanting to hide oneself. This is a feeling of anxiety, where it's the fight or flight response of when you feel aggression. You're not necessarily sure whether you can take on that opponent or whether you should flee should fly away, so that sort of feeling of anxiety can be turned into aggression where I'm gonna hurt that person or I want to hurt that person. Or can it can be turned into? I want to avoid that person. I want to flee, so either way it's going to come out. But the anxiety is what's underlying it all. So what you're really looking for most of the time is is this person person showing anxiety . And anytime somebody is showing anxiety or feeling anxiety when they're talking about something, what that's telling you is, for some reason, they don't feel confident. They don't feel sure of themselves when they're talking about this material. This subject some of the times it could be related to other factors. But most of the time it's a pretty accurate signal, and especially if you have enough video content where you can see them talking about the same things in multiple situations, you can get a really good read on whether an expert really knows what they're talking about , so let's get into the hands and upper body. One of the things I'm looking to most often is what are people doing with their hands? And if you've read any body language books. You see people like they're doing the steeple, which means they're planning, and it's kind of like a health, a move or people doing this. People are holding their fingers really tight. That's that's another thing, which is tension. So sometimes people are getting rid of anxiety by just moving around or doing some repetitive movement. Other times, they're just trying to keep everything bottled in by holding on really tight to something. So you may have noticed yourself doing this. Maybe you were angry or upset about something, and you put your hand in your pocket. You started grabbing on tow a pen or grabbing on to your phone or grabbing on toe something else and you noticed, or just a handlebar or whatever. You started holding on to something, and then you notice after a while you just kept on holding onto it really tight. Well, part of that is because it's giving you a feeling of safety. It's giving you a feeling of control that you have in some way. You can control the situation that you're in. So that's another thing toe look for People don't always handle their anxiety in the same way. So you want to be looking for these signals, but ultimately all links back to the same basic underlying emotion. So I'm looking for people doing this sort of stuff touching. Uh, this one right here is a special one. Any time somebody's itching this area right here, therefore arm would. That's telling you. Is there feeling aggression? And it's It's basically you can think of. It is equivalent to the nose stuff to the mouth stuff, stuff like this. One thing that you'll see sometimes with the mouth where somebody's thinking and they're going like this. Usually a guy was a beard that can be while they're they're thinking about something. They're pondering something so that isn't necessarily related to the aggression. But sometimes it is. Sometimes somebody's wants people to think they're thinking about something in terms of considering somebody else's idea. But in reality they've already decided what they're going to do. Um, but let's get back to the hands and arms. So any time you see something like this, that's aggression for you and people putting their hands into their pockets. What does that mean when they put their hands in their pockets? What it means is they're feeling uncomfortable, and maybe they don't want people to see that they're doing some fidgeting with their hands . So if they can fidget inside their pockets, nobody's going to see this. People to varying extents, tend to be somewhat aware of the fact that doing a lot of a lot of fidgeting doesn't make them look professional or doesn't make them look confident. But you'll see a wide spectrum of people. Some people are somewhat aware of it in the sense that they know that they shouldn't be showing their fidgeting. So they're going to do things to hide the fidgeting. So there's a certain group of people where they're totally unaware there fidgeting, and they don't care who sees that. They don't even realize they're doing it or they don't think it means anything. So those types of people, those are gonna be the easiest to read. The other type of people are the people that are aware that they should be improving their body language, having controlling their body language, hiding body language that doesn't make them look good, and so they're going to be doing other sorts of stuff. So somebody goes like this. They're blocking themselves off to an idea, but they also could be concerned about something. When I showed you this thing earlier where somebody's holding themselves to try to bottle something in. This could be another expression of this. Some body language experts will call. This is equivalent to somebody hugging themselves, and they're crossing their arms. So you can think of it. This is Aziz, your hands hugging each other in the same way that this is kind of hugging yourself tryingto block yourself off and kind of protect yourself, hold things in. But that sort of feeling of wanting to do this usually isn't gonna come up unless somebody's feeling anxiety. Some people will just naturally, this will be one of their standard positions that they go into. But for the most part, if somebody just is, has their hands hanging down for most of time and then suddenly crosses their arm, that should put your flag up. Teoh, think. OK, what's going on here? What did they just say? And usually it's gonna be pretty clear to you, based on the just the content of what the person is saying, what they're probably feeling anxiety about So when you're processing the information that the expert is giving you, what you should be doing is thinking okay, how how controversial is what they just said. How much is there any chance that it would make them look bad or look good to say what they're saying? So sometimes people will do. Some, um, expert will do what's called a humble brag. Well, there they'll say, something that is supposed to make them look humble. But it's actually talking about something that only very wealthy people, where people are very successful in a certain area, would know about where could talk about. So it's something that would make them feel anxiety if they realized that they were kind of communicating two things at the same time and not being completely truthful in some in some cultures or subcultures. A humble brag. It's not considered not being truthful. It's just considered a different form of communication. So it's It's not always clear you have to go person by person, how they're interpreting things because people aren't necessarily going to feel the same way, even if they're doing the same thing saying the same thing. So to an extent, it's a person by person thing, Uh, but when somebody's going for that humble bride, when they're going for something that is going to create some servings, I because maybe they're bragging about themselves or their inflating their numbers or they're giving you a vanity metric where something else like that, that's when you're years should be perked up for okay, I should be looking for any sort sort of anxiety. That is a blip where the graph kind of goes up where it jumps, where there's some increased level of anxiety, right at the same time that they said something that could be suspect in some way. So really, what you're doing is you're looking for those moments when they may be saying something, that suspect and then you're looking for any signals that are either right before that, right during that or right after that. And if you're paying attention to that, you're in a catch almost everything. So pay attention to what people are doing, especially with their hands. Their hands is the number one thing. If you just had to pay attention to one thing, it would be what are people doing with their hands anytime their hands air not in kind of a default position, just kind of lower right next to their pockets, but outside their pockets or in any other standard position like that. Then you should have your antenna up for okay. I should be looking for anything that's out of the ordinary. What a body language isn't so much a specific pattern or specifics thing. Somebody's doing as much as you're looking for a pattern where things were kind of going right, your weight and then either something goes like that or goes like that or goes like that, you're looking for anything that's out of the norm. That's not normal for that person. And then you're looking to connect it to what is the most suspect thing that person said in the five or 10 seconds before or after you saw that blip on the radar 4. Voice Features and Speech Disfluencies Related to Lying: in this video, you're gonna learn about speech. Dis fluency, ease speech. Dis fluency is dis fluency, dis meaning off or wrong and in fluency, meaning in a fluent stream like a river. So any time there's an interruption in what somebody's saying, any time there's could be a pause. Could be, uh, they swallow, so they need time to swallow. It could be so they need to clear their throat. For some reason, Uh, could be, ah, blink or could be, Ah, a slight twitch or something like that. If you've ever heard of micro expressions, is something that's kind of beyond the scope of this course, because it's more advanced area by language. But you'll see on video when somebody feels a tinge of anxiety, says a lie, says something that isn't true. Where that's there's something off with it. It makes them feel anxious, saying it. You may notice something that Onley last 1234 frames of video. Just a few milliseconds and you see it and it disappears like that. Most people don't notice it, but when you really slow down the video, you can see it and there's if you find somebody where you have enough video material of them talking, then you can find them using that same micro expression multiple times and start to learn what it means. S 01 thing that's kind of on the border line, but I'm gonna teach here is the swallowing so that you can see kind of Adam's apple go in and out there. What that means is it's a feeling of guilt, and that feeling of guilt is usually connected to when somebody is not telling the truth. Another thing related to the eyes will be somebody breaking eye contact or blinking more often. It was a really interesting study. Longitudinal study over decades. This guy at Boston College looked at the debates between the two contenders in every presidential American presidential debate over the last few decades. And what he found was whoever was blinking. Mawr lost the debate, and that was true. Almost every the only time wasn't true is with the Romney Obama debates. But every other debate going back decades. Whoever was blinking Mawr was the person who lost the debate. The reason why they're feeling more anxiety because they know they're losing the debate and so it's important to look at stuff like blink rate. Look at the stuff people are doing with biting their lip where they're feeling uncomfortable, what they want to distract themselves from pain somewhere else. Distract themselves from the anxiety, the aggressive stuff, stuff like that when somebody goes or they, uh, have a dis fluency like that where they're just kind of swallow or they that's them, trying to fill in a blank space. So sometimes that blank spaces they feel guilty cause they just told something that wasn't true. Other times they just need some time to catch back up with what they were going to say. So sometimes what'll happen? What say a great way, a great place to see this stuff happen is somebody who's selling something because there's a lot of tension when most people are selling where they feel like they have their own interests, they want to make the competitive the commission. And then there's the other person inch perfect person's interest, where they're talking about. Well, what is this person really one? What is this person? Is this person want to sell me something or is this person I want to help me? How much is person really on my side? Because the customer in the sales person have conflicting goals, And so the sales person is going to show a lot of these sorts of dis. Fluency is a lot of sorts of little things where their speech will be off. And the reason why is because they have toe keep in their head at the same time. Two different parallel tracks they have to keep track of. Okay, what am I How am I selling this person? And also, how do I make it look like I'm not selling this person? And so watching somebody is selling from the stage selling something in a webinar were a conference or speaking from the stage on YouTube video anything like that, where you can find an expert in a situation where they're selling something. That's when you can get a lot of these patterns concentrated in one place. You might have seen a dis fluency I did earlier where I was, I stuck on my tongue, I think, to make a fuss sound, which is inter dental sound, and I tripped over it because what was happening was I was trying to think about what I was going to say next as I was saying it. So I went into my head temporarily, and I lost track of what I was saying. I got out of the flow. So those sorts of dis fluency ease are gonna help you notice when somebody's not being honest when somebody's giving you information that is suspect in some way. So looking for stuff like swallowing stuff with the eyes blinking rate that's really important. And also people just tripping over their words, having a pause or making a mistake dramatically, where the words don't go in the proper order, where somebody uses a word that they don't normally use. Another thing you'll notice is that people will talk in different not necessarily a dialect , but in a more formal or less formal way and then maybe a normal way, just the normal everyday way that they talk a more casual tone. So when you see somebody switch into a different way of talking, that's another indication that they may feel uncomfortable speaking in that place for some reason, so you don't always know why they're making that switch, but when you see them do that and that's a sign that something may be off speech. Dis fluency ease can also relate to people's breathing. So people, when they're speaking comfortably, they tend tohave, even rhythm toe how they talk. And it's not too much rhythm. It's not overly rhythmic, but a natural. They're not trying to tough talk and say so much and draw out that breath so much that they're not taking a breath for longer and longer and longer. But when you see somebody do that, it tends to mean that they're really trying to make some point. And that point may be related to them covering their tracks of something they did earlier. So speech, dis, fluency ease. All it means is that any time you notice somebody saying things, and for some reason it's the fluency drops and their their bumbling over their words, it takes them longer to search for words. What's happening is that you're going into their head and they're trying to plan out. What am I going to say next, or how am I gonna respond, or what is the other person thinking? And so all that you're looking for is if you think about like an Internet connection, you know that as long as what say somebody's just checking their email, they're gonna be using a tiny amount of their Internet connection once they start streaming Netflix or streaming YouTube. That's going to take up a lot more bandwidth. So you can, in a sense, tell what somebody is doing on their computer. If all you can see is an Internet meter of how much Internet band with are they using right now, if somebody is going like this, they're just checking their email When watched a YouTube video. Now they're back to their email or something else that doesn't require, ah, lot of heavy data, uploading and downloading. So that's the same sort of thing you're doing when you're looking at these body language signals. And specifically when somebody's talking is that when there's any sort of dis fluency when they're tripping over their words or things just aren't coming out as well. What that's telling you is they've decided to take some of the resource is they usually reserved just for speaking and put them to some sort of planning task of what am I going to say next? Sometimes this is completely an innocent or innocuous words, just them trying to think of what they're going to say next because they didn't prepare enough or they're not comfortable with the material, not necessarily because they're not telling the truth, but because they just haven't taught it before. They have been taught in a while or they're uncomfortable in camera or they're uncomfortable on the stage or something else. But most of the time, these dis fluency ease are really good, really accurate indicators, and you can combine them with body language as well as a lot of the stuff we're gonna be talking about next. Really, what you're doing is combining all the physical signals that you can see with what you can guess about how experts think, how specific experts think about how they plan out their life, what their intentions are, what their motives are. We're gonna be getting that into that stuff next, and that gives you the ability to hone in on the Onley. The things that are are already somewhat suspect and then use thes body language in these verbal signals to confirm or deny what's already seems kind of suspicious. So it's two levels. There's two things going on first you're looking at. Okay? What are the general patterns of experts? How did they think about things? Whether motivations, How did they? What is the general patterns with experts? Number two is you're using these body language and these dis fluency patterns to analyze each one of those suspicious things that they say or do and see if they exhibit any of thes signals. And that's going to be kind of your way of verifying whether something is truthful or not, or suspicious or not. 5. Introduction: in this section, you're gonna learn about the motivations of experts. You're gonna learn how they connect their interest in teaching with their interest in solving actual problems, their interest in looking good in the media, their interest in selling books that they have are selling an idea that they have, that they want to be more widely adopted, their interest in academic prestige or prestige within their specific community as well as the business side of their organization. So making money, marketing, getting their brand out the various things they do to prepare for the media and get the press to do or communicate what they want to communicate. So there's a lot of motivations. There's a lot of interest that at times can be competing, and what I'm gonna do in this section is take you behind the curtain to see how experts think about all this stuff, how how their motivations can conflict at times and also conflict with your intentions in your motivations for learning as much as you can and making sure you pick out only the top experts to learn from 6. How Experts Use (and Get Used By) Powerful Marketing Machines: The first thing we're gonna look at is marketing. How do experts market themselves? And how should you judge experts? One of the things that I see most often is people judge an expert based on whoever has the most books sold, or whoever is that New York Times bestseller or who's got the most reviews on Amazon or other social signals like that. Followers on Facebook fans on our followers, on Twitter, fans on Facebook. Things like that and those can be good markers, but they're usually not the best markers. Usually, what those air going to give you is that people who are above average in a domain, but not necessarily the top people in that domain. And it really depends on what domain you're looking at in terms of expertise. There's some people where in that domain, spending any time doing any sort of marketing, any sort of writing anything besides that one activity that they're really focused on doing is going to give them a competitive disadvantage. And so you're going to see the only the people that have enough time or have some reason to not play that game and not compete in that ultra intense arena for the top spot in the world. For whatever thing that they do, whatever skill that they have, only those people who aren't after those top spots are the ones that have the time. Have the motivation to go out and become a non author or speak on at various conferences or do things online. Teach courses, etcetera. So one of the things just at the basic level is, Why is this person teaching? Why's this person making money through teaching instead of doing or putting into practice the skill that they have? And there's different reasons for that, sometimes because they're just not good enough. Sometimes they enjoy teaching. Maybe it's something that's in their family. It could be something where they have some sort of disability where they can't do it. It could be something where other people in their social group, that's what they dio. It could be something where they just don't like doing the thing itself, but they like teaching it. Um, I can't tell you how many experts that I've either met or that I know of and heard stories about where they don't actually enjoy teaching or even doing the things that they're very well known for eso. When you're looking at, experts don't make any assumptions. That's one of the biggest mistakes is people automatically make certain assumptions about somebody because they're being presented as an expert? And while most experts they don't fall into that category there, some that are and you can't really explain their behaviour any other way than toe, see that this is what's going on. They've completely lost interest where they never had interest in whatever subject they teach in the first place. There's some people that used to be really excited about it. Now they're not excited about as much anymore. Certain people that get famous, for one thing, but that's never what they really love to do. You see this oftentimes with actors, actresses, musicians, people that are thrust into the spotlight, for one thing, and that may not necessarily be the thing that really gets them going that they're really passionate about, and so sometimes those people can switch into a different career. But oftentimes they're stuck and it's so much harder to go do what they really want than to just stay doing what they're doing, that you have somebody who's an expert, but they really don't love what they're doing. It's a very dangerous person toe learn from because you're gonna pick up on those same emotional undercurrents, and it's going to infect how you feel about that subject. So sometimes it's not necessarily learning from the top expert in the world in terms of knowledge. But sometimes it's just about getting yourself excited and motivated enoughto learn something in the first place, and you also go through stages at some stages, being excited and really loving The topic is the most important thing. Just get yourself going kind of jump start, and then, at a certain point you can move on to other people that aren't as passionate but really know what they're talking about. Maybe have a higher level of knowledge or insight that those other experts don't have. So, looking at things like numbers, popularity, credibility, looking at what this is a big one is the blurbs that experts give other experts in their reviewing books or courses or really, anything within the community of experts is very common for people to just do each other favor of exchanging these sorts of blurbs. Often times they're not reading the whole book or they're just reading a part of the book, and you just shouldn't put a lot of stock in those things because a lot of that comes down to personal relationships or comes down to who's the book agent of various experts. And do they and those agents can put a lot of this stuff together because they're really most. The time is not a lot to lose by giving a sort of recommendation or endorsement like that. And if you don't give the endorsement as an expert, that can have but in negative consequences on you because it's seen as you're not really willing to play ball with all the other experts. Eso That's another thing that comes into play. So when you're looking at credibility, that's why these other signals air so important when you're looking at their body ling, which when you're looking at how they speak because those are things that are basically objective measurements, they have nothing to do with what other people say, or how powerful the marketing machine is of various experts bears consulting companies out there where their entire job is to turn somebody into an expert turn somebody into a New York Times Wall Street Journal bestseller. I talk about this in my speed reading course, where there's these companies where you can spend anywhere from 75 to $150,000 sometimes up to 1/4 of a $1,000,000 you can buy your way on to the best seller list for The Wall Street Journal, New York Times. And even if you don't do it that way by actually physically buying your own books, you can also do it by spending so much money that you can get other people to buy your book or get other people to recommend your book. And if you just go through the white channels and you show enough people, you market enough people, you get enough impressions, you're bound to get sales as long as the thing you're teaching isn't complete crap. So what you see a lot of times is that it's not necessarily that these people that are seen as experts are not teaching good stuff because most the time it is good. Usually it's above average, but as an accelerated learner, what you should be looking as for that top person in the world, those top few people in the world and those air often that people that live in the shadows in the sense that they're not well known publicly, they may be the mentor of somebody who is well known publicly they may not want the spotlight. They may not want the limelight and the use of the people that you really want to find. So I don't tell you all this to get you to think Well, I shouldn't trust any experts. And these people that are very popular or are best selling authors or whatever are incredible. Usually they are credible, but often times because their function is basically being a middleman. Uh, their function is to be between those top people who are really the innovators and spend all their time in the lab innovating. And those people who are just the laggards, the people that are always the last to catch up on new technology or new things, the stuff that's given away for free on blog's or talked about in low quality magazines or other low quality mediums. Well, there's a process where new information goes from those company laboratories. Those innovative lone wolf people the hackers, whoever they are to the general public. And usually those best selling people are people that are in this category but aren't necessarily the key innovator themselves. Sometimes they are. It really depends on the, uh, the domain and some academic domains. Really, the people who are the innovators, that's closest to whose the best selling authors in other areas where there's more, uh, that it matters more how much marketing savvy you have and how good of a public face you have and interacting with people speaking and that sort of stuff. That's where you get more people who are in that middle category where they're well above average. But they're really not the innovators. They're really not the top people. And you can waste a lot of time reading these books, learning from these experts who are going to give you a lot of fluff. They're gonna tell you a lot of stories. They're not gonna give you a lot of systems or frameworks. They're going to give you a list of principles. They're going to give you generalizations. They're not gonna give you specific actionable things. They're not gonna be able to go really in depth. They're not gonna be able to give you the systemic view of things that requires that really high level intellectual understanding. So that's what's important here. It's important to be able to peel back the layer of what's the marketing machine, and is this person polished? Does this person have a huge publishing house behind them? Do they have a marketing machine that they've built? Do they have a lot of other friendly experts who are helping them build this expert platform? And how much in my mind that takes away? In a sense, some of the credibility you have toe have something beyond that are beneath that. Sometimes you'll see that in the Amazon reviews. Sometimes you'll see it by the speech. Dis fluency is the body language. Other stuff like that. All these are patterns that, by themselves, are not enough to say for certain. This person is an expert or this person is an expert. But when you combine them together into a constellation, that's where you get what really matters 7. The Profit Motive: The next thing we're gonna talk about is the profit motive, and this is somewhat related to what we talked about before. But it has a different sort of angle to it. So the angle here is thinking about Well, why is somebody giving information away for free? Any time an expert is giving something for free or even at a low cost, you should be asking yourself, Is there something coming later down the pike that's gonna cost more money? Is there something that's being left out now that's gonna be given on Lee if I spend some money. So one thing you should be looking at and this is one of the primary indicators, is just look at what domain does this person exist in? Who are their contemporaries? Who does this person hang out with and what sort of business operation do those people have ? And by looking at the pattern of how they give away free information, what information they charge for, and the various levels of quality at those different tiers is going to give you a lot of information about Well, how good is this material that I'm getting? You can waste a lot of time reading through somebody's free material instead of getting in a concentrated form or concentrated dose. They're real golden nuggets in something that you have to spend money on. So you're not necessarily better off going through all the free stuff first, because it's gonna cost you a lot of time. So the question is never, well, how much money does this cost? But it's a combination of what's the monetary cost of this? And then what's the cost of the time and also any other sort of intangibles, like how? How long is this gonna take to implement or how much energy do I have right now? Opportunity costs. But primarily it's just how much time is this gonna take? And then how much does it cost? And then what is the eventual payoff? And once you know somebody's pretty good expert, it's worth spending a small amount of money to just get their intro level stuff. See how good it is, but also pay attention to what other sort of stuff are they selling and how are they selling that? What are the features of those things that they're selling because you can take those features? Compare them with lower cost version or the free version, and get a very good sense of what information is worth the most money. What information is worth charging for other people worth? Is it worth more to other people's enough that they're willing to pay for that. So you get a very good sense of what people are willing to pay for. That generally is a good signal for what's gonna be the worth the most to you. But not always. Another thing is, besides, just what is the product ladder? Also, look at those endorsements. Look of the collaborations. Who does this person worked with? If somebody's tends to be working with other people that are low quality experts or don't have a live integrity or just put out low quality stuff, then that's a pretty good signal that that person also doesn't put out high quality stuff. So looking at who somebody does collaborations with who's endorsing their products, that's gonna be a really good signal to tell you how good of an expert is this person and where can you slot them? And over time you're gonna be able to put experts in different buckets based on on those factors, and you can also look at people that tend to be more popular or a bigger voice in a certain arena. They'll have a lot of people, um, praising them. Where is that person at the top is going to be much more selective about what they endorse because their endorsement is worth a lot more money and carries a lot more weight. And while we're on the subject of the profit motive, another huge thing is understanding why somebody will give an endorsement or why somebody will do something for free. Sometimes people are giving free endorsements, but oftentimes they're paid for. And the thing people don't realize is just because it's not paid for with money doesn't mean it's not paid for. Uh, a lot of things happen based on a bartering economy where something has never paid for. But it's you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours or somebody else in the community will scratch your back stuff like that . So I never take endorsements or other sorts of compliments at face value because there's often some other sort of profit motive behind that, and sometimes it just has to do with well, these two people are friends, but part of what underlies their friendship is there in the same industry. They have the opportunity to trade notes back and forth to do things that are mutually beneficial, help each other, make more money or give introductions to people were just do favors back and forth. Usually, those favors are not just going in one direction out of sudden the kindness of somebody's heart. Usually there's a back and forth with these experts, so it's important toe. Just keep an eye out for that sort of stuff. Just because the endorsement of free is free or wasn't paid for doesn't mean there wasn't favors going back and forth or favors expected in the future or just within that community . That sort of behavior is expected, so don't take The basic lesson of all this stuff is don't take things at face value. Don't take the marketing pitch on the back of a book at face value. This is one of the biggest things I see is an author will write a book based on one thing, and then it will get sent to the marketing department, and the marketing department will realize nobody wants to read about that. What they actually want to read about is this other thing. But they can't go back to the author and say Rewrite the whole book. So instead, what they do is they just represent the book as something else. And what I often see is on the back of the book. The marketing will say, Get a systematic understanding, get actionable steps, get the how to do X, y or Z and then the book itself will be hear some stories about how I did this. Here's some stories about how this other person did that, Um, here's some general principles to follow. Here's some lessons that I learned so it's filled with a bunch of fluff. It's not systematic. It doesn't give you any sort of deep insights on the subject. But that's what you came to expect from the marketing on the back cover. So you got to be really careful with that sort of stuff because any time somebody's content is being plugged into a marketing machine meaning something that's already pre built that's designed to market stuff, then you have to be on the lookout for Maybe this is content that isn't necessarily the highest quality or is being represented in one way. But in actuality is this other way. So there's you gotta look at the incentives. You gotta look at the bigger picture. It's never It's not always one for one sort of thing, but sometimes it's a long term game. Sometimes it's a culture where there's expectations of experts doing favors for one another and stuff like that. So always be paying attention, that profit motive and be looking for Well, if I buy this thing or if I look at this for free and is there something else? Whether it's consulting package or done for you, service or, ah, higher end product or going to a live conference? Or if you go to the conference, are you gonna get pitched by every speaker? Always look for that. Um, always look for that profit motive. That profit incentive because that's gonna experts in general 10 To be motivated by by that and some domains is I mean, we'll be talking about the prestige, motive, the protection mode of public relations, motive, pet project motives. So it's definitely not the only one. But once you get into domains where there's a lot of money to be made by being an expert in that domain that's going to attract people that aren't necessarily the cream of the crop in terms of intellectually understanding, subject, doing their own independent research, being a unique voice as much as being somebody who can present information in a great way and has a very powerful marketing machine behind them and a platform underneath them that they can use to sell a lot of books. A lot of products teach on the seminar circuit. Whatever IT ISS endorse products have a TV show with ads or radio show. Whatever it ISS. So always be paying attention that profit motive and try to connect the dots because sometimes it's not very obvious sometimes is you get something free now, but you're gonna pay in some other way later on. So, uh, with that, let's get into the prestige motive, which is will be in the next video 8. The Prestige (or Prophet) Motive: Now let's talk about the prestige motive. This is something that you're gonna Seymour in academic circles. It's something that you're going to see when money is not the primary factor, or it's not the vast majority of what's motivating people in an industry. So these prestige factors have to do with winning awards being recognized as a thought leader publishing a book that changes an industry. So you have this idea of people who are industry transformers or people who create their own industry or create their own niche, were look at things in a new way. You see this in any area, especially technology, where things are changing very quickly. Three d printing, robotics, artificial intelligence programming, new programming languages, new programming paradigms, tablets phablets, which is 1/2 phone half tablet. You see all this new terminology and new thought leaders emerging whenever things are changing very quickly, and when you're in an industry or a domain that isn't changing as quickly, then you're gonna have a lot more competition for who's seen. It's the thought leader who's seen is the person coming up with the new systemic insights with the new huge ideas, but also in industry where there's a lot of money to be made as an expert, you're going to see people competing for these prestige factors. So people are looking at, well, how can I build followers around my idea? And it's not always gonna be. There's one leader who's figured out everything and everybody follows. But it's more like these little cults form these little personality cults where part of it's about the person's personality. Part of it is about their ideas and their overall philosophy of life, which is usually baked into somebody's ideas or framework anyways. But you're going to notice that you're gonna notice that these people will start having a following where they'll have other people that follow them. And it's a combination of their personality and their ideas where even affect their ideas, aren't really up to snuff. The magnetism of their personality keeps people following those ideas. Somebody like in psychology. Like Freud, you still have people that are Freudian analysis, even though the analysts, even though there's a bunch of other proven, more effective strategies, so in different areas you see people looking for prestige, and it's part of what's what motivates them to do what they do, and it's also part of the profit motive. So especially in domains, where there's a lot of money to be made in being an expert collecting these trophies, collecting these awards gives more credibility. Um, a lot of people think that being an author and writing books and selling millions of books will make you a millionaire. But ah, lot of authors, unless you're really the top 1% or the 1% of the 1% you're not making even a living off the books that you're writing. So what? People think that writing a book is a big money maker, but it's actually not. And it's good for an author to make a dollar to per book that they sell, even if it's selling for 20 bucks off the publishers of the ones that make quite a bit of money off a lot of these books. On the other hand, publishers are losing money on the majority of books that they publish. They make their money on the best sellers, the ones that really surprise everyone and do really well. But sometimes a person is a consultant, so they want to win an award for their books so that they are credible as a consultant or they can go after another business venture. So these prestige things are really important. Some people are also really motivated by attention and public praise. So there's certain experts where they really love the research. They really love being in the laboratory. They couldn't care less. They don't dress well. They don't care about how other people see them. They don't care what other people say about them. They're just in it because they're really curious. They love to learn about the subject, and maybe they like being involved in a small group of people that also really care about that sort of learning. There's some experts where they're an expert in making money, so their expertise is is making money and they just go in and they do that, and that's all they do. They don't They wouldn't make nearly as much money teaching about how they do what they do as actually doing it. So you have to also look at what domain they're teaching about. If it's a domain where you can make more money teaching something than doing it, then that's a recipe for a lot of fake experts. Perfect example. That is the life coaching industry that came up in the last few decades, where you can make more money teaching people how to become a life expert. I mean, a life coach been to actually be a life coach and have clients. It's much easier to teach people because, and the underlying reason for that is because basically, people that want to be life coaches or, in general people that want it be in anything related to psychology they usually have internal psychological issues that they have to deal, they they know they need to deal with. But they externalize it. So instead of working on themselves, they want to work on somebody else or help somebody else. So a lot of times when you see somebody helping other people in a certain area, they may have started with that is a deficit and then gone into that area. But especially in related to anything related to therapy. Psychology, um, life coaching you're gonna and also sometimes health domains. You'll find people that were initially weak in that area, and then they made it a strength of their's or they ignored it and their strength is just helping other people, but they don't want to go inside and focus on themselves. Um, you see that a lot in the personal development worlds are helping people with their relationships, world stuff like that. Self improvement. But these prestige factors are very important for the people that just love the attention. Those are gonna be motive. People are gonna be motivated by slightly different things than somebody else. A profit motive. But usually it's a combination of things. Usually it's gonna be somebody likes the attention, but they also like the money, but pay attention of both of those things. And for each expert, you look at try to get a read. For how much do they care about making money? How much do they care about their public credibility? How much do they care about having a lot of fans? Just a lot of attention being in the spotlight all the time, being in the thick of things, because people are a combination of things, they have different emotional needs, and for some people, their business of their expertise just fills one of their needs. For some people, it's their entire life. So try to get a read for each expert that you look at. What's their product? Profit? Motive? What's their prestige motive in terms of like are they seen as one of the most credible, important people than other people? Just spending a lot of time around other people, maybe somebody who loves just answering questions from from their students, who loves just being with their students, talking to people live. Other people might just like speaking on stage or just on video or something else. So look for those sorts of patterns and try to figure out what's really motivating this expert. 9. The Protection Motive: in this video, we're gonna talk about the protection motive, and this is usually one that's not a major motive. But it is something to pay attention to, and its at times it can depend on not just which expert are you looking at, but where are they in their career? So the protection motive is about protecting ideas. Protecting an idea can be a concept and idea can be a strategy. It can be a secret recipe for doing something, and sometimes they're protecting that because they have a profit motive. Maybe they want to sell you that later on. But other times they may feel like if they lose out on that one idea, that one thing that they're protecting or holding onto, they have nothing left to teach. They have nothing left to give. So sometimes you'll see somebody who's an expert who's stagnated, who isn't doing new research wasn't coming up with new ideas, so their only way to stay relevant is toe. Make sure that they keep something secret, keep something hidden, keep something that they're not revealing. They're not teaching. So when you have somebody like that, then you need to watch out for if they're kind of stringing you along or they're making you think that there's always more to come when really there isn't. And when you have somebody like this, one good thing that you can do is go look at who, where this person's role models, who are their mentors, who taught them. And sometimes that's how you're gonna make a breakthrough. Sometimes you have an expert, and you'll feel like at a certain point, there's just nothing mawr that they're going to teach you. And sometimes this manifest, where they have skills that they don't teach. So you have to figure out, Well, how am I gonna learn that skill? They have a skill. They haven't area of expertise, but they don't teach it for some reason. So one thing you can do is you can go to them. You can ask them to teach you, but often times that's just not gonna work. So you either have to find somebody else who taught them those skills and go to that person or you have to model the person you have to reverse engineer it, figure it out on your own, and if that's something you want to learn more about check out my modeling experts course where I go over that in depth. But the idea of protecting things, whether it's putting themselves out of business, this is a huge one. You see somebody selling an idea. It could be some sort of opportunity, especially in the business world. Here's this great strategy to do X Y Z Start this kind of business. Use this new marketing strategy. You have to ask yourself, Well, why were they teaching this or selling this idea to me for acts when they could be making 10 times that amount, or 100 times or 1000 times that amount? By just implementing the idea themselves? Because what could happen is they may be selling you a strategy that works in one domain, but not another in one market, but not another. Or they may be selling you something that used to work really well and now doesn't work as well. Or they may be selling you something where they use strategies X, y Z and A to make something work. And they're only selling you strategies X, Y and Z, and they're leaving out a and so you're not going to be able to get the same results is then, unless you're also have access to that secret strategy a which they may be protecting for their own purposes. So even though somebody is selling you a strategy, they're selling you information. You always have to be wary for. What are they leaving out? Is there something they could be leaving out? Did this usedto work? But now it's not gonna work as well. Does it work in one place, but not necessarily working another. So don't make any assumptions about or generalize that. Oh, it used to work. So now it will work in the future or it works there. So must work here as long as you don't make those assumptions and you're looking out for well, is this person have something to protect? There's different kinds of experts, and one distinction is between exceptional experts and people that just do a routine really well. They do the same thing over and over, and they're really, really good at doing that one thing over and over again. So somebody who's really good at doing one thing over and over again, they're incredibly consistent. So part of their expertise is being very consistent. When somebody has a great golf swing, they're swinging the exact same way every single time. And they have that consistency to do the same thing. Really, really well. You have somebody in quality control. You want them to look at the same thing to the same thing all day, every day and get the exact same result every single time. You have a chef, you want them to get the exact same result every time. There's other people where you're not interested in them getting the same results more than once. You want them coming up with new ideas. You want them being creative, coming up with new insights, new strategies, new ways of doing things, thinking about things. And that's a different type of expert. They may not specialize. They may not have the personality that where they want to do the same thing over and over and over again. So there's different types of experts when somebody has a routine way of doing something. Part of the expertise is they're really good at actually doing it. The other part is they have a strategy which they may or may not tell you us a recipe. The chef may have a recipe they may or may not tell you. If they give you the recipe, that doesn't mean you're necessarily going to be able to go out and implement it. You can take any golfer look at their swing. That doesn't mean you're gonna be able to replicate that swing. So especially and expertise, where it's motor activity. Or even if it's a psychological activity where it's a certain thinking process, they go through over and over again. Just because you know that process doesn't mean you're gonna be able to do it at the same speed with the same level of, uh, with the same amount of comprehensiveness. That takes a lot of repetition. That takes a lot of practice that takes a but, uh, exposing yourself to a bunch of different situations and then generalizing what you learn from that. So look out for that protectionist motive. Look out for somebody protecting ideas for a profit angle from a, uh, from a prestige angle. This fits into those other motives, but it's a unique thing in the sense that some experts are protecting things from ever being let out. They may part of their expertise. Maybe I only do this as a service. I'm not going to tell you how to do it yourself. I'm only going to do it if you let me do it for you. And so there. You either have to deconstruct how they do it and figure that out on your own. Or you just have to pay them. Have them do it themselves. Or you have to figure out who taught them their skills and then learn from that person or deconstruct that person or figure out who are the, uh, the combination of experts that they learn from our or their friends. And do their friends have similar skills? And will their friends teach you those skills? Do their friends have mentors so you can search laterally and then go up? So there's a lot of different ways you can find that information if somebody's protecting certain ideas. And it's actually pretty common for experts to teach only about 10% of what they actually know. Well, most experts teach and sometimes a lot less than that, so most of it is like an iceberg. It's underneath the water and you need to go laterally, search up or have them actually do the task and then deconstruct what they're doing as they're doing it and make sure you have the mental models in place so that you have labels for What are they doing? How are things happen? Otherwise, it's very difficult. She had an accurate representation of what somebody doing. 10. The Press (or Public Relations) Motive: in this video, you're gonna learn about the press motive, the public relations motive, and this has to do with any time. And expert is interacting with the press for some reason or another. Often times when an expert wants to interact with people or the general public. They're usually doing it through the press through a video through an article getting quoted. And they have to present things in a certain way so that the general public gets the impression of the expert that the expert wants. So one of the effects of this is experts will. Often they have a spectrum, and it's kind of a lose lose situation. Either they over simplify things so people can understand what they're saying. But then they don't really get an accurate idea of the details that the expert understands or the expert goes the other route where they use industry terminology, insider language, and they describe things super accurately in a lot of detail, and it goes way over everybody's head. So either way they're losing out. They can't. It's impossible to really represent things accurately to a general public that doesn't have at least a certain level of knowledge about that domain, and we're gonna talk about that more in the next section of this course. But there you have to look out for over simplification. You also have to look out for the fact that an expert has toe end be entertaining. Oftentimes the experts that make their way onto TV make their way onto radio. They're great storytellers. They're great entertainers. They know how to keep people interested in a hold people's attention. If you can't do that, then you're not going to succeed on a TV new show or a radio show where their ratings are based off of how many viewers are watching there. The amount of advertising dollars they can bring in, which is their profit motive, is based on how many people are watching. And if people don't wanna watch you as an expert, then you're not going to get on TV. You're not going to get on radio, you're not gonna be interviewed. You're not gonna be on podcast, etcetera, etcetera. So there's a huge incentive for experts to focus less on the details, and they're real expertise and more on entertaining people with stories or other things that air related in some way to their expertise. So you have to look out for that because a lot of the video that you're going to see a lot of the public, uh, facing stuff that you're going to see really isn't meant to teach people how to get to that same level of expertise. It's more for a General Markus marketing purpose of branding purpose, something like that. The other thing is that some experts are based. Their expertise of that credibility is based on the results that they show the stories that they show. And unlike in a scientific, I mean there's bias and scientific domains. There's people fudging their numbers and scientific domains. But when you get outside of the scientific academic domain, it's even more rife with people just cherry picking, fax, cherry picking certain students that they have that were successful. So it's hard to really know when somebody's results are based on success and the testimonials of other people. Well, almost any strategy is gonna work for somebody you can find somebody who's just gonna work anything that they find really hard innovate on their own, and they're eventually going to be successful, no matter what strategy no matter who is teaching them. So you have to be careful when somebody's presenting something publicly because they have the ability to cherry pick just the results they want you to see that are going to make them seem like they're strategies really work. And they're a legitimate expert. So that public relations motive has to do with them wanting to build their public brand them, wanting to show the results that make them look good. And they may have other things that they never teach better. What made that student successful? They may only choose students that are already, uh, ready to take that next step or are the most likely to be successful using their strategies . That doesn't mean that you using their strategies is gonna have the same effect. Sometimes an expert will get a certain group of people together, and then they'll have work hand in hand with those people until they're successful. Then they'll sell the same advice and strategy they gave in a book or a course, or speak about it at a seminar. The issue is there's that hand holding and that one on one communication that resulted in the success of that first group isn't necessarily going to transfer over once it goes out in a mass distribution through the print, through audio, through video, through live instruction to a large audience. So you have to be on the lookout for that sort of stuff and also just the luck factor. Certain people are going to be successful just because of luck, and so you have to be able to separate that from results that are consistent results that are gonna work for you. And that's why some of this other stuff is important. A lot of thes motives that, uh, experts used to control what the public thinks about them. The only way to get past that is to be able to look at their body language, their speech, dis, fluency, ease. Look at the things that either they're unaware of or very difficult to control and use, knows to filter through all this other stuff. The cloud of the marketing and everything there else they're doing. Teoh build their image 11. The Pet Project Motive: the final motive we're gonna cover is the pet project motive. And this happens often when an expert is not being funded by the general population. So oftentimes they are. They're selling books they're teaching, But other times they're getting grants from the government or they're getting grants from large companies. And so their motives are gonna be very different when they're interacting with students with the general population because they don't have as much to prove. On the other hand, there's certain things like their intellectual property, they may not own their own intellectual property. They may not own the ideas that they come up with. They may be under contract with a company, or they may be consulting for somebody where all the ideas they come up with are owned by the company instead of by them. And they may not be able to talk to you about those things were teach those things or talk to them, talk to anybody publicly or even privately about those ideas. So that's one aspect of it. Another aspect of it is who are they being funded by? If they're being funded by the government or they're being funded by some large foundation institution charity. Then they're gonna have different incentives in terms of what they need to be able to present in order to continue getting those sorts of grants continue to get that sort of money. So there's It's a whole different kind of ballgame, depending on who you're selling to when you're selling to an X as an expert, when you're selling Teoh business or a large institution, it's much different when you're selling to an individual. Because most experts, when they're selling something to the general population, they're selling to people that are significantly undereducated compared to them. They're selling to basically lay people people that have no, uh, sometimes not even basic knowledge about a subject. Whereas if somebody's on expert who's selling to a foundation or selling to a government selling Teoh, any sort of expert body or somebody who's pretty well qualified to decide how much of an expert they really are, that, um, sets them up at a much higher bar. They have to meet a much higher bar to be able to, um get that funding because there's people that are putting them under more scrutiny. There's more rules and regulations and people who are fake experts or just kind of that middle level of more of like a public facing experts, somebody who's more about teaching to the lay person. They're not going to be able to cut it in the in the big weeks where it's you have to have published results. And there's much higher expectations as well as strictness and peer review all these other things that come into play. So that's one, uh, that's one area toe look at when you're evaluating an expert is who are they selling to, where they making their money from? Also, Sometimes an expert will have a pet project where most of their motivation is coming from working on this project, not necessarily teaching people. And so one thing that you're going to notice when somebody has a pet project is they're teaching may have very little relevance to what they're doing day to day. And one of the most important things about studying experts isn't necessarily toe learn about what they teach but learn about what they don't teach because, as I said before, there are only teaching about 10% of what they know and tap the most advantage as an accelerated learner. You want to be ahead of the curve. You want to be ahead in terms of your knowledge of where everyone else is, your competition, whatever domain, urine. And so that involves figuring out what this expert knows that they're not teaching. So pay attention to what sort of pet projects they have. What are they working on right now? Get interested in their personal life, not just what they talk about or what they teach, because sometimes you'll find that that experts personal life were their current interests of their pet project is seemingly in a totally different area from what they teach, what they write about in their books. And at first, especially when you're a novice, it may seem that there's no connection. But as you focus deeper on those that personal area of their life, or what their pet projects or projects are, you're gonna find that oftentimes there is some sort of connection at a deeper level between those things. And if you can figure out that deeper connection often that's going to give you some of the most valuable insights you can gain from that expert. So pay attention to their pet project. They may be secretive about their pet projects. They may not want open up about what their pet projects are, or even that they're pet project exists because they don't want people to know that most of their interest what they really care about isn't teaching. The public isn't being a public expert, but actually working on this other thing, and that may not. They may also not want people finding out about their project and then competing with them , just solve a similar sort of problem. Come up with a similar sort of product, etcetera. So pay attention to people's pet projects, pay attention to what they're doing else. Besides, if they're taking the money that they're earning from teaching there skills or expertise and then siphoning it off and spending it on something else, sometimes their pet project will be that they want to change public opinion about something . This also relates to what we just talked about with public relations. Somebody may teach about environmental issues that they may teach about yoga, or they may teach about how to eat more healthfully or solar panels, or how to make money in electric cars or batteries. But what they're really passionate about is changing the public perception about global warming. So part of what they may be doing when they're communicating is trying to convince you to go down a certain path or change your philosophy about things in certain ways. And it's almost impossible for experts to not do that. Eventually, when you spend enough time with an expert either reading them, learning from them in person, watching them on video, listening to their audio, you can't escape that they have a certain worldview, that they have a certain philosophy. And most world views and philosophies get into people's head at such a depth that it's impossible for them to communicate without also communicating that worldview. And so that's something to pay attention to. How much of what they're teaching you, how much of their, uh, they're teaching process involves transforming. You are converting you to a different way of thinking about something, and sometimes there's an ideology behind that that they never state publicly but is a big reason for why they're teaching. So they may be teaching one thing, but really trying to teach something else underneath the surface. So look out for that. Also, um, this is the last video in this section. So I encourage you to go back through, watch all of these again and start looking at the experts that you are. You like to follow and start thinking about for each of these motives. What? Which one of these apply most? Are there any experts that you're just starting to learn about right now? And you want to see whether you should invest a lot of time because to really study an expert in depth, uh, Teoh the depth of figuring out who their friends are, who their colleagues are their confidence are who are their mentors? Who do they learn from? Who they look up to were their role models? What sort of popular culture influence? What are all the different things that have influenced them and built helped build that expertise, stories from when they were younger, all these different things that influence them and help build up their expertise to who they are today? You can't do that level of research on everybody. You can only do it on a few select people. So it's very important that you're using these things to filter down from all the dozens, if not hundreds of experts in a domain to with one or two or three people that you should really go deep and study in depth. Because when you study them at that level of depth, that's where you get the real insights. That's where you really learn who the most where you learn the most effective strategies that deep levels of knowledge to structures, the systems, the frameworks that often times no matter what expert you go to, they're never going to teach you that. And you have to do all this other stuff in order to really figure those frameworks those systems out. Sometimes you have to deconstruct them yourself. So this kind of stuff is all about filtering things out, and you need toe practice. Doing this intentionally for your first few experts until it becomes automatic, Till becomes second nature, where you can very quickly within usually a few minutes, tell whether somebody really knows what they're talking about or not, and then make decisions based off of that 12. Introduction: this section is even deeper than the previous sections because we're going to get into philosophy. We're going to get into the nature of reality, the nature of scientific endeavour, scientific inquiry. And we're gonna look at why, no matter what expert you're looking at, none of them can really tell you the ultimate truth. They can't tell you they can't give you both the big picture and the ultimate level of magnification in detail on every single subject. It's just impossible, and we'll be getting into why in the videos. But this course is, if you've if you've got some experts and you're thinking, well, they passed all the tests you've talked about so far, I think, you know, maybe this title is a bit misleading. Well, that's what we're going to get into in this last section. If you've got somebody who's passed all the tests so far and you're thinking, well, they can't be a liar cause they passed all of these. This is we're going where we're gonna really get into the most in depth, um, detail. Look at what is really the nature of truth, the nature of a lie anyways. And what does it mean to be honest? And how does that factor into expertise 13. When The Experts Disagree: the first thing to look for when you're thinking about truth is internal consistency. That's what we looked at when we were time. My body language voice features voice, dis, fluency ease it is. Does this person believe what they're saying? Sometimes somebody can tell you a lie, but because they believe it's true, they're going to say it as if it's true. They're gonna have the body language signals and the voice signals as if it's true. Even if it's not there. Certain people that are just pathological liars or very practiced liars, they're very good at it. There's other people that are very, just very easily convinced of things. They don't have good, critical thinking skills. There's other times where just people grow up in a certain culture or a certain group where everybody believes something, so they just take it as an axiom as a given. So there's a lot of different reasons why somebody would say something that isn't true, besides them intentionally doing it for one of these motives we talked about in the previous section. But you can also look at how to various do various experts in the same domain agree. We're disagree on a certain subject, and what you'll find is almost no matter what domain you go into, there's going to be experts, people that have dozens of years of expertise that have written best selling books that have big audiences that will fill an arena anytime they speak, who disagree on fundamental issues. A lot of people think that well, those disagreements are just superficial level disagreements when in reality. And that's something I talked about in the previous videos. Often times experts have. Well, everybody has some sort of philosophy or worldview of how they think about the world. And so sometimes these superficial issues are actually a symptom of people having fundamentally different worldviews or philosophies about how world works, how people work, how people think, what's right and what's wrong. And those things inform the things that they say. And so it seems like they're disagreeing at a superficial level when really the disagreement as a very fundamental level, something that maybe neither of those experts are even aware that they disagree about, or that they even think or believe. So you have to look for that internal consistency both within an individual, but also within a community of people, because if there's no consensus within a community about what's true, then you're gonna have a much harder time figuring out what the truth really is. The other thing is that things are always changing. We're gonna talk about that in the next video about how, over time, throughout history, ideas and almost every domain have changed. But that's consistency in terms of a range of time. Has something remained true over time? We talked about that in the previous section about how a business strategy may have worked last year or even last month. That doesn't mean it's gonna work today, tomorrow or next year. So you're you always have to be looking for that consistency and consistency within somebody within a group and look for why people disagree about things. One of the first people I ever interviewed, Rob May, who's the CEO of backup. If I what he told me, and he also I originally met him at a conference, was never just read people who agree with you. One of his habits is he always reads people who disagree with him about whatever he believes, so he's always looking for people who disagree with him. And ever since I heard that piece of advice, I've always looked for people who, on the opposite side of the spectrum, who just believed the exact opposite. And I wanted to find the person who on that side of the field, if there's two opposite perspectives, sometimes there's three or four or 10 different perspectives. Just look at the different religions and how they all come at things from a different perspective. But when you have people from two different perspectives where you should look for us, who's the strongest promote proponent, who's the strongest voice from that sub domain from that camp? If you will find the strongest voice and then listen to both of them and decide for yourself who is right? But don't just go for the person who initially appeals to you and then listen to them. Look for the person who's hates that person who disagrees with that person most prominently and then compare those viewpoints. And usually it's not just gonna be to its there's gonna be more than two, but when you're starting out, find the two biggest camps, see where they clash and then go from there. But when you look at politics, for example, a lot of politics is about, well, what is the optimal way to run a country to run a family For an individual to be successful for a country to be successful, how do you define success? What is success mean? You may have two different experts where their definition of success is different. One person is focused on winning. Another person is focused on not getting concussions that will cause you to lose your brain function in 10 or 20 years. So what is the focus of this expert? What are their values and how are those values going to determine what they recommend, what they think is right and wrong? What they think is important information and non important information. And another good example. This is medicine. So you have a doctor who gives you advice on what kind of diet you should, uh, eat. But at the same time, that person was never trained in medical school on all the details of how nutrition works. So just because somebody is thought by society to be an expert in a certain domain doesn't mean they necessarily are, and there's people that are nutritionist, people that are trained in various schools of nutrition who all disagree about things. And so when you get into a field like that, you have to figure out who are the biggest voices in these various camps and then listen to all of them and really listen with a critical year because each of them is gonna have their own way of thinking about things and their own ideas of, uh, how much information data is necessary to establish something is true. I went to my doctor a few months ago and he was giving me advice on what to eat, and he said, Well, he was telling me, You know, a lot of patients read stuff on the Internet, and I tell them, Don't believe what you read on the Internet. Well, it's hard toe. Take somebody like that seriously when basically every opinion that exists is on the Internet. What he's telling me is probably something that I could have found on the Internet. So you can't throw out the whole source of knowledge like that and somebody who speaks that way, who obviously isn't thinking critically themselves or is giving you a reason to not think critically you should have. That's reason enough to question whether they've bear a critical thinker themselves, whether they're taking all the education, they've gotten really applying it in a sound way. So look for how experts disagree. Assume that experts are going to disagree and then get multiple perspectives from different experts who exists in different subcultures. Different domains come from different perspectives. That's the only way you're going to get a really deep, solid understanding of what you want to learn. 14. Experts Are Not Forever: now we're gonna talk about consistency over time. So how does time in history play into expertise? First of all, we all know that times are always changing. The world is always changing. The scientific fax are always changing. The scientific consensus is always changing. And so something that was thought by everyone to be true five years ago isn't necessarily true. Today you look at trends in fashion trends in art, trends in movies, TV shows, music, genres. They all connect at some point with a culture with a certain history. They have a certain significance that can't be taken away from that culture from that history. And so an expert has to be somebody who understands that they have to be somebody who was part of that time period or who really understands all the context there they offer also have to be somebody who can pull away from that. So you have certain experts will say, Well, I'm an expert because I lived through that experience where I was in that war. I fought in that war. Somebody else will say, Well, yeah, you fought in that war, but you only have a single perspective from being on the ground in this one country. The war exists was happening in 20 different countries. So another person who's totally disconnected emotionally doesn't have that sort of in person. Experience thinks that bear an expert because they're seeing the big picture so different. People have different definitions of what it means to be an expert. Some people will say, Well, you haven't been through this, so you can't talk about it and then another person will walk in and say, Well, I'm a doctor and I went to medical school and I have training for how to solve this disease . Somebody else will say, Well, Western medicine doesn't apply to this or hasn't figured this out or doesn't have all the answers or whatever. So just in terms of periods of time, if your education is in current, then you have a big issue. Somebody who went toe medical school 30 or four years ago has not been educated about all the most recent advances. It's why a lot of industries require that to maintain your license, you have to have continuing education. But there's a lot of experts that are stuck in a way of thinking or a philosophy that's decades old and they haven't updated it. They haven't needed to update it. One of the things we'll talk about later is the overconfidence that's so common with experts. Scientific studies have shown that over a broad rage of domains, experts are overconfident. And usually the more experience they have, the more over confident they are, the more years of experience they have, So what happens is they build up an identity where everybody gives them praise. Everybody thinks that they're an expert and they only hear success stories. And they ignore the failures that they have because it's just that's a natural bias that humans have, so they become more more confident in themselves. At the same time, their knowledge is getting more and more outdated. They may not be keeping up with new things, or they may not respect younger experts who are coming up with these new ideas. They may be very comfortable in their current lifestyle. Maybe they're taking more time off, for they're not working as intensely, but they have this this huge platform, this huge public image to maintain, and so that can lead to things like overconfidence not staying at the cutting edge things 500 years ago in medicine, compared to their completely different, there's so many things differently at every single level of pharmaceuticals, of just the things like the four humors. And the belief of how things happen in the blood and in the lymph and all these different things is just a completely different framework for thinking about medicine. And you have to understand that when you're looking at experts, you have to understand what time period are they coming from? Who were they looking up to? Who are their role models? What sort of philosophy or religion or just worldview influence them when they were young? And how did that influence the ideas that they developed? Having people that come from different cultural backgrounds is another example of this. Different cultures exist in different times in history, and somebody who comes from a First World country versus 1/3 World country will tend tohave a different culture as well as different values. And those values will change as that culture moves into prosperity and even as they attain prosperity and Children inherent inherit things from their parents. All of that is gonna have an effect on how that expert thinks about things, what sort of values that they have, what sort of world view they have. So pay attention to those things. Science is always changing somebody who was right about things 10 20 years ago. They may still be missing a piece of the puzzle. And if you look at, no matter what, uh, scientific endeavor you look into, there's always new things coming. There's always new innovations. So no matter what area you look at, there's always going to be things that are different. Is somebody who was an expert 40 years ago who doesn't know any of the new techniques. Are they still in expert? Today? We have to realize is that expert is just about expert right now. Are you an expert in this context? And oftentimes that just means, you know more than other people know right now. But somebody 50 years from now may not look at you as an expert if your opinions or your ideas who are transformational at the time. But now they're, uh, they're laughed at or they're thought of as overly simplistic or flawed in basic ways than that doesn't invalidate those innovations. That doesn't mean that those innovations were an important. That doesn't mean that the person wasn't an expert at the time. You have to realize that expert is a relative term. It just means that there's nobody else that you know about or that society knows about, or the community knows about, who has a higher level of understanding or a high level of skill. That doesn't mean that person doesn't exist. There may be somebody who just chooses not to contribute their ideas to the scientific public, to the public, to the scientific community inside a specific comment company or R and D lab. Think about these. Oil companies that buy up nuclear companies or wind in solar companies just to prevent those innovations from getting to the market so that they can continue to sell oil until they run out of oil a few decades from now, bears people that have incentives to stop innovation from happening. That person who invented that transformational solar device, they may have sold their technology to Shell or Mobil or whatever and then signed a contract where they're not allowed to talk about those ideas with anybody. So what that means is there may be an expert in solar that nobody knows about who basically has their mouth zipped shut because of a contract that they signed. So just because somebody is seen by the public or by the scientific community is the ultimate expert doesn't mean there aren't other people who are just multiple, you know, years, if not decades ahead of those people. But as long as they're not known publicly, they're not gonna be considered an expert. You're not going to know about them. And so to you, it's a Ziff. Those people don't exist, but don't assume that they don't exist and always have your years always be ready. Teoh, discover somebody like that because that can be a huge benefit that could give you a huge competitive advantage. 15. Experts and The Ultimate Truth: this video. We're gonna talk about the nature of truth. And this goes to a philosophical question of what is truth, what is a lie and what it comes down to. I mean, there's a lot of philosophers say different things, but the way I interpreted all is truth comes down to whether you're giving an accurate representation of reality or not. So is what you're saying riel at some fundamental level. And the problem with telling the truth is that, uh, the ultimate truth is kind of like imagining the ultimate version of reality. What is t communicate the ultimate truth on whatever subject you're speaking, You need it really communicate the state of reality in that situation because a subatomic level, everything is connected to everything else. It's impossible to in the sense of physics, to really separate just a specific thing from everything else. And that problem is calm. Pounded by the fact that language is ambiguous, language is vague. Language doesn't give us the ability to accurately represent reality. We try to do that with numbers. We try to do that with sensors. We use machines that can take a picture of reality or capture it in three dimensional view , but that's still nothing compared to the actual experience of reality. The other thing is that each of us come to the world with a certain worldview, a certain philosophy, and that puts when you go away, think about it. It's like glasses with different colored shades on them. So people see reality through different shades through different classes, and that distorts how they see reality that distorts their ability to tell the truth. They also have the issue of awareness of what's going on inside them and awareness of what's going on inside other people. All these things make it very difficult to accurately communicate the truth. The truth tow us is just what we interpret the truth to be inside our reality, what we believe to be true. So ultimately everything is based on top of these beliefs. Even in signed to mathematics, there's certain things we take to be true that we call axioms, and there's no way approved them to be true. They're just things we have to accept as true and the recent y and science. Everything is called a theory, and it's based on the hypothesis is that it's at the end of the day, it's impossible to prove that a theory is true. All you can do is establish with more and more certainty that it's true, but it's it's an Assam took. You're never gonna really get there because there's always the unknown until everything in science is known and people stopped becoming scientists because everything's been figured out, then that means we don't have accurate models of reality. We still can't even predict whether it's going to rain or it's gonna be sunny or it's going to snow or thunderstorm on any specific day of the week. So we still have models of reality that are pretty flawed. And it's impossible to tell the truth about something until you have an accurate model of reality, somebody who has a totally inaccurate model of reality. For example, somebody has gone crazy. Their ability to tell the truth is skewed when we look at it from the perspective of well, they don't have access to the reality that we live in their living in their own reality inside their head. But it turns out everybody's doing that. It's just that same people have a lot more similarities, and so when we're talking to it each other, it seems as though we're communicating and talking about the exact same things. In reality, each of us has our own idee elect or version of our language that we speak that's unique to us. And words have certain meaning. The number 9 11 means a certain thing to people that have certain experiences based on that number for other people, at different times in history, that doesn't mean anything. So meaning is based on the experiences that we've had the people that we've lived it with, and that's what language is based on. Also, language is inherently social. And so this idea of telling the truth is actually very complicated, especially because you have to take into the factor of time. So even if you say well, you should be able to get close enough to, uh, good version of reality. The other problem is you only have a certain amount of time to say or to write whatever you want to say or write or communicate in general. And so if you have a minute to say something, or six or 30 seconds or 10 minutes or an hour or a day, you still have to pare things down and decide what you're going to include and what you're gonna leave out based on the time constraints. Everything that you're leaving out is a part of reality that you're not transmitting, that you're not communicating to your audience. So experts have. This problem, which we talked about in the press relations and public relations section, is you only have a very short amount of time to communicate your ideas, so you have to decide to leave certain things out. You have to decide to generalize toe oversimplify so that you can get any sort of understanding into the heads of other people. That's where experts are coming from. And no matter whether you're taking a week or month or four year long training toe, learn something. There's always gonna be things that are left out. You're never gonna get a perfect copy of what's in another person's head. And so experts have the same problem where they may do experiments. They may do research. They can't give you all that experience. They have toe boil it down to maybe 10% or 1% of those hundreds or thousands of hours that they have spent and give it to you in that of air give you what they think is the most important stuff in the shortest amount of time. But they're gonna leave out a lot of the exceptions to the rule. Lot of things that don't make sense yet within their reality, things that don't fit within their model or their system. There's a lot of stuff that's going to be left out. So the lesson that I want you to get from this is that it's impossible to first of all, have access to the ultimate truth. Because our brains are limited, our senses are limited and our brains automatically delete most of what's coming into our heads. Second of all, our brains just aren't powerful enough. Teoh, uh, interpret an infinite amount of data that comes in, and even if they could, we don't have enough time, and we can't communicate fast enough to transmit that information. So by the very nature of language of experience, we can't give a perfect, perfect representation of what's going on inside her head of what we're experiencing. And so we need to add distortions to we need to simplify. It's like when you're compressing a video file, it's going to get pixellated so you can never have an infinite number of pixels. You can never have the ultimate truth in a carbon copy, you're always gonna have some interpretation of it, and that's what you're dealing with with experts. So that's why I say all experts are liars, because none of them can give you their 10,000 or 20,000 hours of experience and transferred into your head. They have to give you some very small snapshot of it, and we're taking a snapshot of an object or a person. You have to decide on a certain angle. You have to decide on depth of focus. You have to side on the colors, the lighting, all these different things, and you're leaving out a ton of information. And that's the same thing. When an expert is communicating with you, they're leaving out a lot. And it's impossible to get past that cause there's just certain hard limitations that you can't get around. So that's where at a philosophical level of what is the objective truth? What does it mean to tell the truth versus what does it mean? Toe lie. Those are questions that really are more social questions and anthropological questions than they are questions that you can really answer in a meaningful way with philosophy or with physics, because it ultimately comes down to what I just said. Too much data coming in. Can't process it, don't have enough time to transmit it. And even if you did languages, too, they to be able to do that. So that's why we have poetry. That's why we have music. That's why we are, because there's so many things that we experience. But we can't communicate which its words on a piece of paper or spoken aloud. So that's how I think about the nature of objective truth. That's how I think about a truth versus ally. And ultimately it's this gray area, and it's determined by what society thinks how people communicate, the culture that you live in and how, uh, how people interact with each other. So things are always gonna be boiled down. Things air. You're always going to get a partial version of truth, and the best you can do is take a bunch of different partial truths and try to connect them together until you get a full picture reminds me of the special effects that they use in the Matrix where they took t. Just freeze time and have the camera move around. You know what they did is they set up dozens of cameras, a few, each one a few feet from each other around in a ring like this. Then they all snapped pictures of the exact same time. And then they just stitched those pictures together, frame by frame by frame so you could get a single view as if time had stopped. The only way that you can do that with your learning is to get a lot of different partial perspectives and then stitch them together as best you can so you can come up with as close . You can get to an accurate three dimensional model, speaking metaphorically of the subject that you want to understand. 16. Why Experience and Skills Don't Matter (Sometimes): next, we're going to talk about the difference between having experience and having skills. Ah, good way to start thinking about this is to look at what a scientist does. They spend hours in the lab and they try different experiments, and sometimes they get meaningful results. Sometimes their experience, their experiment failed. So think about how much time Thomas Edison and his assistants spent looking for the fill the proper medal for the filament of their light bulb. They spend thousands and thousands of hours now before I think about the moment. What say? The day before here, one of his assistants found the tungsten filament that finally worked properly. They had already invested thousands of hours so that person could have said to you, Well, I have thousands of hours working with potential lightbulb medals. But until they ban made that discovery, none of that experience meant anything. And it hadn't achieved any real world results that mattered except finding another thing that didn't work. You can go spend ads on a billboard on TV, on radio, on Google, on YouTube, on Spotify wherever, and you can waste a ton of money and nobody will buy your thing you have to run ads that that are targeting the right people and saying the right things to them. Eso that they see that whatever you're selling is something that they want, and it's at the right price, so you can spend a lot of money waste a lot of money. What a time. A lot of energy on experiments that don't work. And you could say, Well, that's experience. But the question is, did you learn anything valuable from that experience? You can learn from experience, but that learning can be worth nothing. You can try an infinite number of things that you know won't work. And you could learn for certainty that now you that you've tried it, you know it doesn't work, But that's not at the end of the day, that's not gonna help. Um, you could just spend your whole life doing things that have a very low likelihood of working and have tons of experience, but not have that experience work worth anything. So the problem with defining expertise is that it's again, it's something that social. It's something that we used heuristics. We don't have for most skills a new, objective way of measuring those skills. Even the things that are the most objective things like the s A T or we like to think of are the most subjective, like the S a T or the L sat or the M cat. These standardized tests that tons of people are taking. There's still studies that are coming out every few years saying they're biased in one way or another, and they discriminate against certain groups or certain populations, or they don't have validity or whatever. So it's a huge problem in and of itself, just figuring out whether people actually have skills or not. That's one of the big problems that exist in higher education today, and even K through 12 is We have people taking tests for getting everything they learn, and then all they have left is a credential, and then they have to be retrained for whatever they skill they need once they get hired for a job. So you have this whole system that's very inefficient and part of the reason why it's inefficient. It is. There's a real lack of understanding for what skills are necessary and how to represent those ideas and then how to test those ideas, so it test that knowledge. So without all of those systems in place is very difficult to get a sense of. Does somebody's experience equal somebody? Skills? If somebody studies something for four years and then forgets everything, is that four years of experience worth anything? So that's why my memory course is so important, because we go over how you're gonna lose so much of what you learn so quickly and without space repetition. It's almost as though it wasn't worth reading, anything consuming any information in the first place. But the point I'm driving out here is that experience doesn't equal skills. There's a lot of people with a lot of experience that don't have a lot of skill, so you have to move beyond that. And so the next question is, Well, okay, I want to move beyond it. But how do I move beyond it? One thing you can look at, how much trial and error have they done? How much research have they done? How much are they an explorer and how much of of them is just not doing routines? We touched on this briefly earlier. One expert is going out exploring do doing new things all the time trying to find new ideas . Another person is just doing the same swing over and over again and trying to get more and more accurate or better and better at doing the same thing over and over and over again. There different types of expertise and they're both valid, and they're both extremely useful in certain situations. But the question is, how do you measure that skill? And how do you know if somebody is good at doing something? How do you measure whether there really an expert? Well, something that's routine skill tends to be bet easier to measure because they're doing the same thing. You can measure the difference between each time they're doing something. Somebody who's a explorer, a researcher coming up with new ideas, a creative person. It's much harder to determine how good they are at being created. There's some people that are creative, but the things they create are useless to anybody with themselves. There's people that create music, and they think it's great music. But nobody else in the world thinks it's great music. So the question is, Is that music? Great music? Are they an expert, or is there music terrible? And are they not an expert or his expertise relative? Are they an expert just to themselves? But to nobody else? Are they an expert at creating bad music? It's hard to answer that question because part of expertise is related to as a society. What skills do we value? And if you're good at doing something that nobody values, does that mean that you're an expert? If you're failing at something, does that mean you're an expert at failing? Who is to determine what success and what failure is? Some people will say something success. Other people define that as failure. So the question is, who decides what success and failure is? Who decides, who's really an expert and who isn't So again we're getting into, um, on example, would be looking all the competing religions looking all the different religions. Somebody from one religion may believe that somebody else's religion is just a pack of lies , so they'll believe that they might not consider somebody who's an expert in those those false ideas of those false gods. They may not think of that person as an expert because they don't believe that their knowledge has any value. That's even true. You may look at somebody who reads poems or somebody who does, um, acupuncture or somebody who uses, uh, homey apathy. And you may say, Well, I don't believe in what you do or a fortune teller. Is there such a thing as an expert fortune teller? Well, some people say this person is an expert. Other people say that person is a Charlotte in, and they won't think of them as an expert. So it's very hard to really say objectively, somebody is an expert, not some of it. A fair amount of it actually is dependent on again. What is your worldview? What is your philosophy? How do you see the world? What is your way of interpreting reality? What comes into your head? What do you believe at a fundamental level? So getting back to experts in their skills, even if somebody has the skills who gets to measure it, how do you measure it? Who's yardstick do you use so that whole problem of experience and skills gets magnified when you look at people who have never done something but are great at teaching it So, One example the first time I really thought about it when I was watching the summer diving on. There were all these old, usually bald, short fat guys who were the coaches of these usually teenage girls doing diving from five meters, 10 meters. And you know, those guys have never done diving themselves or not in decades, and they could never do it today. And so the question is, well, what makes them qualified to teach that if they've never done it themselves? So another thing you have to look out is, well, if somebody conduce something, does that mean they can teach it? We're gonna be talking more about this in the next video, but there's a lot of people that are top in the world at what they do, and they're teaching something. But they've never actually done what they've taught. They've done it totally through observing as 1/3 person from that outsider perspective. So you shouldn't necessarily assume that somebody toe learn a skill. You have to learn it from somebody who's actually done it. But that's another big myth that most people believe about Expertise is the person has to have done it themselves with trial and error and building skills you have to look at. Did they improve as they practised? Did they improve as they practice those skills? If they didn't improve in that experience probably isn't worth a lot. When you're looking at the results, as we said before, are they cherry picking their results? Are you getting an objective view of what their results? Really our. And you also have to look at their incentives. So when somebody says I have 20 years of experience, what were their incentives during those 20 years? What were they moat probably motivated to do in terms of spending those 20 years? Were they in academia where they wanted to get published, where they teaching on the speaker circuit, were writing books or creating video courses and making money that way? What were their incentives? Were they out there trying to get a lot of attention for themselves? Were they working on research projects the entire time and didn't care what anyone else thought about them? What were they doing and how are they spending that time? Because those incentives are gonna give you usually very accurate information for the quality of the person's experience. Is this somebody who's getting rewarded, whether they improve or not. If they're getting rewarded, whether they improve or not, then there's probably a low likelihood that their skills are gonna increase in proportion to the time they spent did. Were they able to just plateau and then continue from there without having to continually improve their skills? Did they get comfortable at a certain point? Because they have reached a milestone Or they reach a skill level and income level an achievement level. Did something happen in their family? Did they get married? They have kids. Do they switch their priorities of their values? Did they change to a different religion? Did they change to a different philosophy or worldview? Did they have any sort of tragedy happen in their life? Look at these sorts of things to figure out their motivations, their incentives and how those incentives changed. Over time. Those incentives, they're going to give you a really good idea for how valuable that experience they've had. And once you figure out how valuable experiences, you're gonna have a much clearer view of how much of an expert that person really is, And if that the kind of expert that you're looking for 17. Why Top Experts Are Often The Worst Teachers For Novices FIXED: Now we're going to talk about something that I've referred to a few times in the past, which is tacit knowledge. And what tacit knowledge is is it's knowledge that you have in your head and you can use, but it's not information that you can just access. Think about tying your shoes when you were a kid or if you have kids Now you probably learned in a Monica little singsong toe help you remember how to tie the knot. But at this point, you can look down at your shoe or even not close your eyes and you'll still be able to tie that knot on the flip side of somebody asked you. OK, give me step by step instructions for how to tie a knot. You might have a really tough time telling them how to do it verbally, and the reason why is because it's tacit knowledge you've got in muscle memory. But you couldn't just tell people exactly what you're doing. It's at a level where you just no longer have access to that information. You no longer have access to the pneumonic you used to remember it. This is a really interesting aspect of memory. A lot of people think Well, I'm gonna go learned a Monix. I'm gonna create these palaces in my head. And then whenever I need information, I'll just go into the memory palace and I'll access that information. Well, it turns out that at a certain point, the information is so embedded in your brain that you don't need that scaffolding anymore. It's kind of like building a when you're seeing renovations done on a building or a new skyscrapers going up. They'll have scaffolding all around that building. You see it in New York City all the time, but eventually that comes down. And the same thing is true with your memories. So when you started to learn how to tie shoe lace than you had some scaffolding there, but now you don't have it anymore. And so you don't have that transfer to somebody else and one of the interesting things about experts and in this video specifically. But it's got its been a common thread throughout all these videos is that these air things that have all been established by scientists who study expertise. So this is not stuff that I'm just saying came from my personal experience and analyzing modeling, deconstructing a lot of experts. These are things that have actually been established by the scientific community that studies expertise. So this is not just an issue with tying our shoe laces experts as they gain more knowledge and they get to higher and higher levels of knowledge. More of that lower level knowledge becomes tacit knowledge claims very hard for them to access that information, and they often become over confident in their ability toe access. That information, if you talk to a professor at a university or somebody who teaches the same course year after year, even though they have taught that course and they've got a PhD or Masters degree based still have to remind themselves the content every single year. They forget a lot every single year, even though they have that diploma. They have that credential, and they've taught him multiple times, and they know the information. We just forget so much. And yet, because our culture is such a belief in the credentialing system, we assume that we remember a lot more than we actually do. And this is something that's hidden for most of us because the only people that really need to worry about this are teachers and business owners, and neither of those groups have any incentive toe Teoh. Let the general public know that our education system is really failing on a lot of levels . Uh, another thing besides the tache tacit knowledge is that teachers and experts in general are bad at predicting as they get more and more skilled, they're bad at predicting whether a student will succeed or not. They're about it at reading whether a student really understands a subject or not, and how long it will take them to get to a point of understanding. And the common thread that ties all these things together is, as an expert gets higher and higher up the Mount Everest of whatever domain they're an expert in, it becomes harder and harder for them to take the perspective of somebody who is at the bottom of the mountain. So when they're at the bottom of the mountain and they're just up a little bit, it's very easy for them to relate to that person at the bottom of the mountain. That's why often and I talked about this, my mentorship course, you're better off getting a mentor who's just six months to a year ahead of you rather than somebody who's 10 20 years ahead of you. Because that information is fresh, they can take your perspective, understand where you're at and then connect the dots perfect. We see you get exactly the right information that makes sense to you and builds on top. What you already understand that's the expert gets higher and higher, further further away from the novice, becomes harder for them to shift into that perspective. You can't shift into that at perspective. As an expert, it's very difficult to communicate and teach because teaching is all about first figuring out where your student is and figuring out what do they understand right now, this is the foundation, what they already understand, and then, based on the shape of their understanding, you have to take the new information and connect it toe what's already in there. If you don't do that, then that information is just gonna drop away minutes or days after its originally learned , because it's not connected to what the student already understands. And this is a major issue in education, but it relates to expertise you can teach somebody something if you have no idea what they understand. Can you teach somebody speaking when you're speaking English and they don't speak English? You have to have that basic knowledge of okay. At least they understand English. They understand the same words. But there's some people who speak dialects of English that you may not understand that they may not understand your dialect of English. Or it could be a five year old who doesn't understand basic math, basic algebra, facts about the world, facts about business facts, about computers, fax about anything. So you have to start out with where's my student at right now, and then connect into where they're at. You don't know where they at. Then there's a high likelihood that's gonna go in one year and come out the other. And experts are really bad at getting back to that beginner's mind really bad at taking the perspective of a novice, And so because they're so far out, it can be very difficult for them to teach things. And so you should be wary about getting all your information from somebody who's up at the top of the mountain because somebody who's lower down on the mountain might be a better fit for you. So don't just assume that OK, there at the top of the mountain, that means that they're the best person for me to learn from. Another example is a quarterback coach. So these quarterbacks in the NFL prototypical quarterback, six foot 46 foot 5 £225 has a rifle oven arm. Then you look at the quarterback coach, and they're usually a guy who's under six feet tall. There, a small bill, not a lot of muscles, not necessarily a strong arm. But what they're good at doing is capturing that quarterback on camera, knowing what the ideal throwing motion and release is supposed to look like and then helping that quarterback get there and also think about the strategy and all the decision making all the plays that go into being that decision maker on the field. So even though that quarterback has a coach that coach has never thrown at the same level that coaches not a better thrower of the football than the quarterback is. So it just goes to show that if you're if the expert that ultimate expert is up here and then you're down here at the bottom of the mountain. Well, there's thes people that air the top in the world in terms of performance and their coaches down here relative to them. They don't have the same level of skills. So with expertise you have to do you have to discern the difference between does this person have knowledge that's useful for me to learn and can lead to my own skills? Versus Does this person have the skill themselves? Because here's the thing. There's a lot of people that have skills, but they can teach the skills. Maybe it's because they don't know how to do this thing. They don't know how to understand where you're at and then connect the ideas. But here's an even bigger problem. Some people who have skills literally don't know what they're doing. They don't know what they're thinking as they're doing it. You can record them, but you still can't record their thoughts. One thing that expert researchers like to do people who research experts is they have people speak out loud. They just have people. Verbal experts verbalize their thoughts, and that's how they capture some of the thinking, but there's a lot of thinking that doesn't happen verbally with our internal monologue. There's a lot of thinking that uses other parts of our brain that just aren't verbal, and so, uh, it's a big problem. There's a lot of people that are experts that don't know what they're doing and getting back to tacit knowledge because people because they're an expert, because they're overconfident because they feel like they're supposed to know what they're doing now. Oftentimes, tell these researchers the wrong thing, though oftentimes tell the researcher things that they think they're thinking. But they're not actually thinking. You may be wondering, Well, how did they know that? Well, uh, they have captured these people on film. They've gone back and looked at the tapes later on. They've done psychological studies, and they found that often times experts not just aren't aware, but they don't realize that they're not aware. So they're basically lying to themselves. They believe the lie, and then they're communicating that as though it's true and they believe it's true. So when they believe it's true, you're not going to see the touching of the face. The biting of the whip the any sort of anxiety related toe lying to somebody because they believe their own B s. They believe that they're telling the truth because they're not aware of what's going on here. And it's actually very difficult to be, if not impossible, to be totally aware of what's going on your head. There's just too much so there's a lot of issues. There's a lot of ambiguity and expertise between people that can give you the knowledge you need to build skills and the people that have the skills but can teach it. Sure, there's There are a fair amount of experts that both have the skills, have the knowledge and can teach it. But as I said before, the person at the top of the mountain is gonna have the hardest time coming down and getting your perspective well enough so that they can teach it to you so they may have the skills. They may have the knowledge, but can they teach it to you as a beginner? Oftentimes the answer is no. And so part of climbing the mountain of expertise for yourself is oftentimes starting out with people that are close to your level. So these are the New York Times best sellers, thes air. The bloggers thes air the people on YouTube selling low end courses or speaking They are necessarily at the top of the mountain, but they're close enough to you that they can teach you the basics. They can teach you. Ah, lot of good ideas. The problem is, as you go up the mountain, you should not stay attached to these people. You need to eventually set your sights on those people there at the top of the mountain. And that's part of what researchers about that's part of what accelerated learning is about is realizing. At a certain point you can take off those training wheels and you need to go to the next level you need. Teoh seek out those true experts, those people who, oftentimes their books are not gonna have a single review on Amazon on Google books on good reads. But those are the best books to learn what you wanna learn. Uh, that's the level that you ultimately get to. You have to know that that level is there, and a lot of people don't realize that that level is there and So, um, they're stuck learning a lot of from a lot of sources that really just are never gonna take them past a certain level when you're looking for that systematic, systematic knowledge, those frameworks, those people that really see what's going on underneath the surface and are just giving you lets the principles, stories, fluff. That's when you have to go to those people at the top of the mountain. And as long as you know that those people are there and you have these tools that you've learned in this course to filter out everybody else until you find those diamonds in the rough, you have a much better chance of getting to the expertise level you want quicker than you ever thought possible. So thanks for taking this course. If you have any questions, you can send me a message. You can post a question discussion form, and I'll get to a soon as I can