Aerospace Engineering: Introduction and Fundamentals | Lluís Foreman | Skillshare

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Aerospace Engineering: Introduction and Fundamentals

teacher avatar Lluís Foreman, Aerospace Engineer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 41m)
    • 1. Aerospace Engineering: An Introduction Workshop

    • 2. Presentation of the Course

    • 3. Introduction and Structure

    • 4. Basics of Aerospace Engineering

    • 5. Classification of Aircraft

    • 6. Aerodynamics: Airplane Forces

    • 7. Lift and Drag Description

    • 8. JET Engines Operation

    • 9. Control Surfaces of an Airplane

    • 10. Airline Description and Business Models

    • 11. Airline Strategies

    • 12. Airport Description and Elements

    • 13. Airport Types and Operation

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About This Class

The Aerospace Engineering: Introduction Workshop Course is a multidisciplinary course where you will study aerodynamics, mechanics and engineering of Airplanes, the Operation of Airlines and Airports and what Aerospace Engineering looks like Today. My intention is that you get a good overview to what Aerospace Engineering is Today, focusing on Aircraft Design and Dynamics but also getting a complete insight into Airlines and Airports.

The structure of the Course is the following:


Classification of Airplanes

Airplane Engineering

Airline Models


We will discuss topics such as Aircraft types, Flight Mechanics and Maneuvers, Aerodynamics concepts, TurboFan Engines, Airline Models and Businesses, Airport Operation as a function of the number of passengers per year and much more!

I want you to fully grasp and comprehend Aerospace Engineering and to break it down from Complex and Broad to Simple Key Ideas. I want you to feel confident when working with Aerospace Engineering projects in the future or when discussing topics with other people.

I deeply encourage you to begin this journey into Aerospace Engineering, you won't regret it! If you have any doubts during the course contact me and we will solve any questions that may arise!

Meet Your Teacher

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Lluís Foreman

Aerospace Engineer


My name is Lluís Foreman and I am a student of Aerospace Engineering. I want to share with you my knowledge regarding areas of Aerospace Engineering. I will create more courses in the future trying to provide the best content possible. 

If you have any doubts or suggestions let me know and I will always try to answer as quick as possible!

Lluís Foreman

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1. Aerospace Engineering: An Introduction Workshop: 2. Presentation of the Course: Hi, everyone. And welcome to this course in aerospace engineering, An introduction of workshop today we will be discussing the course presentation. My name is loose Foreman and I will be your teacher for this course. I studied a bachelors degree in our space vehicle engineering. Then I studied a masters degree in. They're not gonna aerospace engineering. And currently, I'm doing my second master Sikri, specifically in space engineering. So in this course, you will actually learn several topics regarding ever space engineering on the aerospace engineering industry today. So, first of all, what we will see is a classifications off airplanes on. We'll go to vehicle engineering with airplane design, aerodynamic study on lift and drag. For instance, we will also see how turbojet turbofan engines operate. We will do an overview off airports. We will compare low cost to traditional airlines, for instance. And finally, we will get a bit of an inside off would in our space future. Looks like now the objectives off this course are actually to understand the basics off aerospace on specifically aeronautical engineering, identify the competence off aircraft on how airplanes work. You will also be able to understand how an aircraft is capable of generating lift on. Finally also studying a bit off jet engines, you will be able to identify different airlines and how they operate. Study how airports in general operate on, frankly, be able to work confidently in aerospace related projects. The course methodology used in this course is actually based on theoretical explanations. Practical applications on riel Case studies. We will discuss current situation off the aerospace industry on what it looks like in terms of real case studies. Additional personal benefits of these course could be actually understand aircraft how they operate in our sky, identify airplanes and their components whenever you are at an airport. Okay, which is kind of interesting to get to know distinguish airlines on their economic motile increase. Basically your no, it's regarding ever space engineering in many fields and finally gained confidence in your own skills by becoming an aerospace engineer. So again, welcome to the course. If you have any doubts, if you want clarifications throughout the course, let me know, and I will provide information on key topics for you to understand any additional topics that you are interested in. Aerospace engineer. So again, welcome to the course 3. Introduction and Structure: Hey, guys, welcome to the introduction off. This course in this case we will do is introduce the course structure. Now, first of all, what is our space engineering her space engineering. It's focused on too many different fields on many different topics. For this course we will do is actually focus onto ever space vehicle engineering and design airlines and economic optimization on airports and flight planning. Some of the topics like propulsion and engine design, avionics systems and design our space computation, engineering or lightweight materials on many other topics will not be, you know, thoroughly discussed in this course, but will be mentioned in order to understand and to have an overview of what aerospace engineering is today. Now the structure off the course is the following. You can see that we will start by a brief introduction off different topics related to aircraft engineering on their space engineering. In general, they will go to classifications off aircraft today, especially focusing to commercial aircraft. From there we will go to airplane engineering and some topics like aerodynamics, lived drag, you know, jet engines and how they operate on several, you know, considerations for the design and engineering off airplane himself. Then we will go toe airlines on how airlines work throughout the world. We will go to airports on. We will focus on different key topics on airports and how they are designed and what they imply today. And finally we will go to future off our space where we will see where aerospace engineering is going. Currently on what are the jobs off tomorrow? 4. Basics of Aerospace Engineering: Hi, everyone. And welcome to the first theoretical approach. First theoretical class regarding airplane An aircraft engineering. So, first of all, what we need to know what we to understand is the different elements main elements, Okay, that compose on aircraft. So, as you may know, we have a fuselage which its intention is actually works as a central body on golf course. It will accommodate crew and payload. So basically all the payload, all the cargo will go into the fuselage. Okay. The main structure actually attach is the different elements off the aircraft. So this is important in terms of the structure, OK? Because you will understand that severe lot's more structural demanding loads will actually appear on the boundaries off the fuselage with the wings with the tail, for instance. Also, it is kind of, you know, you have to choose between aerodynamic geometry. All right, which off course, a little fuselage would be better, because if we have a bigger fuse large, we have more drag. We have more impact on the winning to the aircraft, so a smaller geometry would be the best. However, we need also some volume. We need to call for some seats when you to cover some cargo. Okay, so it is kind of a balance between aerodynamic geometry and volume, all of the fuselage. Okay, The wings, as you know, basically would wait. What they do is provide leaved to the aircraft and provide, um, you know, some for some upward force, which is able to counteract the weight off the aircraft. No. The wings itself half on aerodynamic cross section, which is named Usually they're foil, which is kind of optimal in order to obtain as much lived responsible, considering the different velocities. Okay, different conditions at which these aircraft will operate. If you have, for instance ah, ship. If you have a boat and you need to produce some lift, this will be different than in the case on often aircraft. Because you would have well, different conditions here instead of air, you would have water okay instead off. That means that depending on the kind of flux, depending on the kind of material that you have in the surrounding, it may be completely different. Geometry gate. This is to optimize the lift. Um, as always, in terms off aircraft, okay, the most important element is to increase lived in order to get upwards, but also reduce as much as possible the drag because thes would a big drag would also be a problem to the aircraft on would be a structural problem. And not only that, but it actually means that we need more energy. We need more thrust. We need a bigger engine, okay to get the aircraft moving. So in the end, a lot off efforts is put into optimizing the airfoil and optimizing the you know, the geometry off the wing in order to optimize the radio between left and track. Some other elements which are important are that's a OK which is known, or sores and panache which in general provides stability to play. This is a key element to provide stability. Okay, you will have vertical and horizontal stabilizing surfaces by surfaces. I mean, not only the tail itself, but also the moving surfaces that we will have. Okay, like this one over here, As you can see, which provide a different stability depending on the demands off the pilot. Okay. In may provide also some changes. Some orientation changes to the aircraft, depending on what maneuver want changes we need for the aircraft. Of course. It stabilizes for your Andi. Also for roll. Okay, will stabilize all the aircraft Onda. We have, in fact, several tail configuration, which we will discuss late. The idea is that we don't only have this kind of an inverse t configuration, but there's a lot of other configurations with some limitations. Okay, No, in proportion engines would we have is actually an engine which kind of mixes air from the exterior. This is the air which is present on the surrounding off the aircraft at a certain velocity , of course, at the cruising velocity off the aircraft, Andi. Then actually, this air goes into the the engine on inside, it burns with a mixture. A mixture off different fuels. Okay, Now, the idea is that we transmit rotational motion into thrust. So this air entering the engine kind of converse all of these jet engine to actually start moving, rotating on therefore will generate some thrust. We have turbo fund turbo jets, turbo prop, depending under conditions that you are interested on. It operates with Newton's that law. So this means that because the air will be ejected at a higher velocity, the aircraft will actually move further. Okay, So this is the main elements and introduction that I wanted to do. Now we can focus more detail into each one off their stomachs. 5. Classification of Aircraft: Hey, guys on Welcome to the classifications section off this course we will start by the finding waters commercial aircraft general aircraft on finally military aircraft. So commercial aircraft are just operating aircraft which are used to transport passengers on or cargo. They have very tight, very specific share your airline services. Andi Airlines, in fact, are actually the ones to define the roots on operations off all the fleet off aircraft worldwide. Now we have national and international flights. Is, you know, on the most important topics in order to design a commercial aircraft are efficiency for low cost travel, low consumption or fueling General chi payload capacity on finally reliability by high payload capacity. I mean, maximizing the passenger seats or maximizing their cargo capacity off the aircraft on reliability is essential in order not to have any second ical failures throughout the flight. So all of these topics are very important for commercial aircraft. General aircraft. General aviation is all those civil aviation operations, except for commercial sherry old air purposes. So basically it would be any kind of aviation which is not commercial on, has some civil purpose, right? So as you can see, it's basically light aircraft. Andi all operations related to general aviation usually are comprised between business jets , flight training for pilots, for instance, recreational or flying clubs. There are some more topics in terms of a general aviation, but would you need to know Is that usually are little aircraft light aircraft okay on they operate for some civil purposes. In addition, we have military aircraft, which, as you can imagine, are oriented toe war right now. Traditionally, military aircraft happy usedto watch war. Currently, they could be used in some technical expeditions, for instance, or other, but usually on. Do you know what you need to know is that military aircraft are focused to war? No. The main topics or main targets for enemy also in the military aircraft are actually to destroy enemy equipment. And by this, I mean that we need fighter aircraft. In order to fight other aircraft bombed by aircraft, Andi attack aircraft, which attacked a grifter, would combine fighter and bomber aircraft. And finally, we also have military transport aircraft to transport any kind of means from one point to another on finally spy aircraft. Now, spy aircraft are quite interesting, and they are, you know, Mawr. Current currently developed Dan Fighter and Bomber aircraft on can serve also military and war poor business. Now let's compare some off the medium range commercial aircraft we have basically in the Airbus A 3 20 on the Buoying 77. There are also other models Learn from that I think some Chinese motile some different aircraft modeled throughout the world. But basically you convey basically distinguish between Airbus A 3 20 on buying 737 in terms of medium. Right. So Abbas, a 3 20 Is this one over here? It's both of this. Okay, Andi, you can see that this one of the most common aircraft today in, you know, in the world combined with the Boeing 737 this is because medium range is usually the most important range took over for aircraft some differentials. But, you know, differences between Airbus a 3 20 buying set for 7 37 could be that they the you know, some some differences are the how the how the windows look OK on the cockpit, for instance, you can see that the I always thought that the Boeing 737 looks a bit more aggressive the design itself off the off the, you know, off the weight screens. Okay, it's quite interesting to know the difference in between a Airbus A 3 20 can be based on that. But you can also see that engine itself that the jet engine is kind of flattened on the bottom compared to the A 3 20 And this is due to the fact that we don't want our engine to touch the That's the ground, right? So this is why they flatten it a bit up. You know, this is the maze IQ differences between one another. The important thing that you need to know is that probably if you have a medium range flight, you will be flying on one of thes two AM aircraft and also one other interesting topic to this car. Since that fact, airlines usually especially if they're low cost, they only use either airports a 30 20 or Boeing 737 It's quite interesting to note. For instance, Ryanair only uses Boeing 737 wiles. EasyJet, I believe, only uses Abas a fleet wind, what else we also have in terms of commercial aircraft loan range aircraft. So first of all one off. Most knew the newer versions of aircraft is boring. 787 And this is kind of the competition to the Airbus A 3 50 which are basically further similar and cover long range aircraft. In fact, this aircraft themselves are specifically known to be very fuel efficient Onda kind of the newer versions off the Boeing 777 on the Abu's A 3 40 To distinguish between all of this aircraft, you can see that Boeing 787 has some features on the you know, the anthem. The windows on the cockpit looked like this and he actually has a very simplistic look. OK, compared to other aircraft, very, very renewed. Look on the Airbus A 3 50 It has a very black, um, windows on the front again, which are quite interesting to note. If you have, you know, on airport and you see one of these aircraft probably will have very darkened, um, windows screams okay, on also, the Boeing 77777 can be identified us, usually one of the longest aircraft that you can see at the airport. Right. So if you see a very long aircraft, it would probably be boring. 777 or either A 3 40 The difference between the 777 Andi a 30 40 is actually that the A 3 40 has four engines. Where else? The Boeing 77 has only two engines. Right. So this would be the main distinguish mint key elements between these two on seventh heaven , A three purity. I would look to the woods, the windscreen okay. Or what they look like, right? What else can capacity aircraft are basically the Boeing 747 a jumbo Boeing, which is up to 660 passengers. It is very identifiable because you can see that. You know, the front off the airplane itself has kind of a second floor on this is quite an interesting element. Which makes thes specific Boeing 747 very identify in any kind off airport. Right on. Also, you can notice that it has four engines, right, And you also have the Airbus A 3 80 which also has four engines. But you can easily distinguish it by being just enormous compared to any other aircraft. And you can see that he has to, you know, um, two floors right, One on the bottom and one under top on the total amount off. Passengers can be up to 853 for for low, for low cost fast purposes. Right. So if you if you use from the Airbus A 3 80 in order to get the maximum capacity, you can get up to 853 passengers on the's beast. Okay, often aircraft. Some other aircraft that you can consider. Basically, General Aircraft, you can see different things now. Motels like this one. I think this is 1172 It's in fact, one off the most common aircraft in general aircraft in general. So in very generic terms, it's one of the most sold aircraft in history. You also have pride of a jets, as we mentioned before, such as this one over him, Um, some recreational aircraft as this one over here. Okay, Andi, also, some come, you know, General aircraft from I think this is a Russian and general aircraft from the 19 forties, probably in 19 thirties. Something that that and you can see main features. Okay, Also, military aircraft, some off. These are quite interesting. First of all, you have this one over here. This is the A 400 which is a cargo aircraft. So on aircraft, which is oriented to supplying goods or supplying any kind of military equipment from one point to another, you have fighter jets on this specifically attacked it because it combines bombs and it combines fighting capacities. I have this one over here, which is kind of a new interesting one. This is in the United States, developed on this is actually a spy aircraft which was designed in order to minimize the capacity off A you know, any kind off spy devices used by the Russians, for instance. So that would be radiance to avoid Raiders to detecting this kind of aircraft. So it's quite interesting to note that some of these aircraft they also used as bombers even though they are spies okay on, Do you know there are a lot of variations into military aircraft, especially historically on. Basically, this is what you need to know that there are several designs, different designs. Okay, Andi. Yet So this would be military aircraft. So this would be all in terms off differentiation, off classifications or different aircraft. I wanted you to know that if you have any doubts throughout course, if you would like to precise some of the elements to get more detail into some of the topics, just let me know and I'll try to do a video of it or I'll try to answer okay to someone for your specific demands so we can continue to the next topic. 6. Aerodynamics: Airplane Forces: Hi, everyone. Andi, welcome to this first class in this section off aerodynamics. In this case, we will be studying forces which are acting on an airplane. Okay, so here you have basically this schematic forces the most basic forces. Okay, that you may encounter in an aircraft. You have, of course, are left. Okay, Which the lift is provided by the wings. You can imagine on allows the aircraft to actually go up in the sky. Right? You have the weight which is related to the whole spacecraft. You have the thrust which is based on the operation off the engines, and you have to track, which is kind of her condition. Just you have just some drag because you're going to a certain speed. Okay. So because of viscosity and because of the conditions off the flow around the wings Onda round the spacecraft itself, you just have some track. Okay, so let's see a bit of a description off these forces and how they relate to the conditions are flight off the aircraft. Okay, so the lift depends mainly on the velocity off the aircraft. Onda also the wing surface. Okay, So for those of you who know a bit more on this case. He will know that it also depends on some other factors. But I just want to point out different elements. The darky Okay to understanding each one off forces. So, as I said, lived depends on velocity, actually, a velocity squared, OK, on the wing surface. The drug also the same way as the lift depends on the velocity on the wing surface. Okay, so these to depend basically on the velocity and the fact that we have wings. Okay, so just some kind of wing surface, right? Also the drag. Um, there's, of course, a drag which is related to the whole geometry off the spacecraft itself. Okay, Andi is that's not what? This depends on the velocity. Also right? What else? The weight. Okay, which I mentioned. There's w is fixed. The idea is that the weight is just a valuable that you will have in any condition. Okay, of course, this converted over time due to the fuel consumption, and the wait may vary a bit. Okay, considering that the fuel is expelled from the aircraft but in generally can be assumed is fixed. Okay, Andi, thrust T, which is this over here will depend on the pilot's attention. Okay, so of course it depends on other conditions. It is quiet. Thrust is usually quiet. Them exhaustive toe analyze correctly. But the idea is that the pilot has control of the fast, as you can imagine. Okay, So one important thing to take into account is the down for the aircraft. We need an equilibrium. OK? So as you may know, Newton's second law states that if you have a difference in forces say that lived okay. This over here is actually bigger than wait. You can imagine that this basement, the aircraft will actually go upwards. OK, so the idea here is that if you want to Nick Librium, so say static flight normal flight at a certain height, you need all of these first forces to be equal, each doing its toe it one Okay, it's important. So the idea is lived. Must be equal toe weight so that we don't have an extra extra force over here, and for us has to be equal to drag on. This is a condition which is completely normal to concede that when doing any kind of operation with aircraft, okay, eso as I mentioned, Newton's second law states that a difference in force okay will imply an acceleration to a certain must. So, as I said, if the weight is bigger than the lift okay, then you would have ah difference in forces and therefore it would result in some kind of force, which is the weight miners left. Okay, which would be different to zero on because it is different. A zero. The aircraft would be pulled outwards. Okay, of course. For instance, when you're taking off, the leaved has to be bigger than the weight. Right? Because otherwise you just cannot take off the agrifood, just stabilize in the in the platform and that we're not where we want. So the idea is just It's okay. So, depending on the operation that you need, you need to kind of adjust the valuables one to China. Okay. Right. So one other thing to know One of the interesting things about is that as I mentioned before, lift depends on the velocity gate. And drag also depends on the velocity. So in take off, you basically have zero lived because the aircraft is still okay. Andi, when you increase thrust all right. You have a completely a very quiet force over here. I had absolutely no track because the velocity zero. So initially, you understand that the aircraft is just pushed, Okay? It has an increase in velocity because there's a thrust, which is a lot bigger than the drag off course. The drag starts to grow. Um, in a way, OK, because we're having higher velocity. But in the end, the idea is that the trust is very bigger or very, you know, increased respect to address, Of course. And in addition, when the thrust operates, you start to have a velocity off the aircraft on. Therefore, the lift starts to grow. Okay, Ondas you can imagine it is when we have a certain velocity that the lift is actually equal to the weight. And in that case, what happens is the aircraft is in my mentality in equilibrium. OK? But as you can imagine, if we increase a bit more thrust and if we increase if we can continue to increase the velocity, then the lift is bigger than the weight on before the aircraft starts to go upwards. OK, so this is what happens. Of course, the thrust is usually bigger than the drag for these conditions, but in general conditions, or when with in flight okay, the thrust will be considered to be equal to dry. 7. Lift and Drag Description: Hi, everyone. And welcome to this new class in aerodynamics and specifically the description off left in drag. So here we have What would be the schematic forces of gay off lift and drag and how they are related to velocity. So, listen, rag depend on the cruising velocity off the aircraft. Depending on the velocity, we will have more lift or less left. Okay. And more drag. Palast track drag has the same direction. Okay. The components asked the velocity, whereas lift is actually perpendicular to the velocity. Okay, this is quite interesting, because as you can see, the pending on the design off the airfoil, we will be able to inform this velocity into lift. Okay? Andi. Andi, Even if we don't want to, we will also have some drag. Okay, so you can see that this design off the air Ford will actually, um, enable us to optimize the relation between the lift on dreck. So f words which are this over here? Okay. On the aircraft is actually the the cross section off the wing, right? Depending on now, requirements our lift requirements on drag, and also we will be defining some kind off airfoil or another. There's, like actually a lot of work in the aerospace industry in designing on optimizing exactly the geometry off thes Voyles. Okay, so some air fold parameters, which are interesting. First of all, the court line, the court line is the distance okay in the line, which relates the leading edge. Okay, on the trailing edge off these. Wherefore Okay, so in this case, it would be something like this. This point over here, the leading edge. Okay, on the trading edge. So you just relate to two points on you. Draw a line on you have the court line. Okay. You also have the Campbell line, which is this over here. Okay. In blue. This Campbell line actually defines the center with respect to the lower surface on the upper surface. So this line is the distribution, OK, off, um, the same distance, perpendicular distance, respect to the lower surface on the episodes. Okay, so it's just the main line or the average nine off thickness. Right. So, as you can see, this is this Linus, just half way to the upper surface and lower surface in all points. Right? Then you have the thickness. Also the thickness just finds the thickness off the off the Air Force. Okay, by definition, that you can imagine, uh, this point for us, that is the maximum thickness. Okay. It's also interesting to note this there's length over here is actually the maximum camba, which is the maximum distance between the Campbell line on the court line. All right, on. Yeah. And also, we have the court. Okay, so this court line is is actually known as the distance on this distance is just the court . Okay. So you would have on interesting geometrical parameter, which is the court, which is this distance on all the other parameters are just defined in order to optimize the radio between lived on drag. Another interesting thing to note is the angle of attack. Okay, angle of attack is the relation the angle relation between the relative wind, which is which is experiencing the aircraft. Okay. On the line. The court line. Okay, so this core line will define a specific orientation right on the relative wind. With respect to that is just the angle off off attack. Okay, this angle of attack vote formula? No. And it's just really important to, you know, to design the airport in itself. So you can imagine that depending on the orientation off the off the aircraft, who will have a specific angle of attack or another one? Okay, no, let's see some more theoretical basis. Respect to the how how are we creating lived? Okay, because we have, um, a specific effort. So what is the computerization off the air Force? What is the geometry off the airfoil on? How is it related to creating left? Right. So most of the time, in aeronautical engineering classes on specifically and aerodynamics, there's a lot of mathematics involved on do what we do is actually can compute the difference in pressure. OK, between the lower part off the or the lower surface. Okay. On the upper surface off the effort. Onda, we usually get something like this. This means that because we have a certain angle of attack, OK? Usually as by the finish in then the wing toiling the wind will actually kind of collide with the with the lower part off the off the Air Force. Okay. And thus some wind will be pointed downwards like this. Ok, so you can imagine that there's a difference in in the direction off the wind. Okay, on this difference, right? Implies that because the wind is actually blown away downwards, it will imply that there's a force, a positive force. Okay. And upwards. Force lifting force. Okay. On the on the wing itself. Right. So this would be the best or the first definition released of what lived ISS. Now, as you can imagine, it's quite intuitive. OK, imagine that you have just plain some kind of plain surface, you know, any kind of plane surface, and you can imagine the depending on the angle of attack. Okay, so if we increase the angle of attack, we'll actually be able to increase the lift. Okay, this is the coefficient off lift. It's just related to the lift. Okay, I'll just explain this a bit later, but the idea is that if the coefficient off lived increases, the lift increases. Okay, so this would be, um, how you define lived because there's some angle of attack. Okay, so it's quite intuitive to understand that an angle of its like implies lived, right. What else are the other? A theoretical approach is actually the Bernoulli effect. OK, which relates basically relates pressure on velocity. Now, balloon Bernoulli effect is quite interesting on describes quite well. Why a specific geometry off the airfoil will actually imply more or less left. Okay, so imagine that you have a specific geometry which is able to change the velocity off the particles on top. Andi on the lower part. Right? So if you can see this, it's quite interesting toe. I will try to explain. This is as well as I can. Velocity on the top will actually be higher. Okay? Because we have thes configuration because we have this geometry. So it's kind off. There's a lot of mathematics on the background, but they kind of derived that. This is the best geometry, Okay, in general terms to create the difference in velocity from the top on the bottom. Okay, um, so if we have different in velocity on the top, off the air, force on on the bottom, velocity and pressure are related. Okay? And pressure is just the amount of force divided by the surface. So you can imagine that if the pressure is high, it implies a high force right high force acting on the Air Force. Andi, if it's off course. If the pressure is is lower, then it implies that the now that there will be probably a poor Okay, push off the air Force towards upwards. OK, so the idea is this In the top, we have high velocity on the bottom. We have low velocity, so low velocity on the bottom implies high pressure. Okay, because all of this parameter, which is the dynamic pressure on de static pressure, should actually be constant. Okay, so the idea is high velocity, low pressure, okay? They are inversely related. Quite pressure, low velocity. Right. So because this has to be constant if this all of this is very high than this has to be spot. Okay, I'm not gonna get into the mathematics, but that's the idea. High velocity, low pressure. So in this case, we have high velocity. So we have low pressure, and in this case, we have, you know, little velocity. So we have kind of pressure on this is just represented like this. Okay, now, the the idea here is that we still have some pressure. Okay? Acting feel. But because we have more pressure on the bottom, there will be a net force okay. Off the airfoil on upwards. OK, so the Bernoulli effect is just that the relation between velocity and pressure and how that implies a difference in pressure OK, on the airfoil. Because yet because the pressure on the other parts is lower than the lower part, and therefore you have a net force on this net forces to lift. Right? So this is kind of what you need to know. Angle of attack in Bannu. Detect. Okay, now let's just discuss a bit off the you know, the relation between left on different parameters. Okay, so for the description off left and for description of drag you need about this letter, which is the rule. Okay, this is density Union velocity, The surface Onda Kardashian off left. So first of all, you will need a wind tunnel, for instance. Andi, you would use you would define some kind of geometry. Okay. For the air Force on you would test it with different angle off attacks. If you do this, you will get this kind of cuff relating the coefficient off lived okay, on the angle of attack so you can see that the lived is a function off the angle of attack pickers. The coefficient of lived is actually a function off high angle of attack. Okay, However, the lived also depends on the on the density, the velocity on the surface. So velocity is just the relative wind with respect to the aircraft, the density is actually the amount of particles that there are in the air surrounding the aircraft. Right. So, of course, if you have ah, very, very. If there's a lot of particles, you would have more lift, right? Because there's more particles colliding with the with the F word. And if you have low amount of particles, then there's lift less left, right. So you can imagine that if you flying at very low altitudes, the density will be high and therefore the lift will be high. But if you're flying, say, at 35,000 feet, for instance, the density is really, really smaller on, Therefore, the amount of lived would be smaller on. Because you need this, you need always to maintain the same amount of lived more or less. Okay, it would imply either speeding up the aircraft or changing the angle of its Ike. Okay, to get more corruption of lift, for instance. So it's the idea is that you had You have to keep the lift equal to the weight on all operation on all of the cruising operation. Okay. On the drag equal to the thrust. Right. So it's just, um you have to you have to design the aircraft in such a way. That is easy to increase a bit, the angle of attack. And you have mawr left, okay? Or you play with the velocity or with a surface. You cannot play right. Because when their surface would be fixed initially, let me just explain this. Also, the surface is the amount off surface that we have with this airfoil, but also with due to the wing. Okay, So the surface would be the airfoil the court. Okay, the court line this distance multiplied by the wing span. Okay, the wing length. Right. So you multiply these two coefficients and you get a surface on equivalent surface. Okay, Right. So this is us how you define the left in the drag. Another interesting thing to know is that the coefficient of lift is just a coefficient. It just relates the geometry. Okay. With the equation basically Andi, you have these coefficient off lift, which usually que zero k minus five degrees is zero. Andi at some points, this 1.51 point six. Okay, but usually you will have coffee lived. Probably around zero. That five and 1.5. Okay, depending on the configuration. And you know the conditions off the hope the crew's flight. Okay, but just around there, which you can understand, is is related to 55 degrees is quite typical. Five degrees angle of attack for a normal cruising flight. Okay, um, what else? Uh, yeah. It's quite interesting to note that you may have seen that this curve is quiet. Kind of linear. Okay, Not exactly linear, but kind of, um, Rania from low degrees, five minus five degrees, for instance, that too high decrease 10 12 degrees. Okay, are kind of acceptable more degrees. You probably going to have problems. Okay, Because this part of the him this is known a store will explain this pattern. Other videos. But the idea is that if you continue to increase the angle of it, actually, then you would actually have stole, which implies that the aircraft, okay, because if you have a very high angle of attack. You would have high turbulence on this part of the off the air Force on. Therefore, you would not be able to transform the velocity into the difference impression. Andi, the following the newly right on. Therefore, you would have ah, decreasing lived. Okay? And actually, it's If you are flying in these conditions, you will lose all stabilization, all control of your aircraft. So it's absolutely essential to fly in some range, which is linear, okay? Or some range which is easily controlled. What else? Yeah, I wanted to point out also that as I mentioned, lift is around zero. That 51.5 drag. The coefficient of drag I haven't drawn here will explain later is around 10 times less than the lived. Okay, so if left is around 0 to 5 to 1.5, drag would be 0.5 or zero dot won five games in front of that. So a magnitude off 10 is the difference between the lift on the track. Um not sure if I'm leaving anything. Otherwise, this is this is all for this video. Okay, I'll will upload more content on aerodynamics and also the other topics. A soon as I can. So see you next class 8. JET Engines Operation: Hi, everyone. And welcome to this new section in engine propulsion. In this case, we will be discussing jet engine properties. So definitions on over you. First of all, we should consider different variables such as temperature, which would be discussing dusty pressure p on the velocity off the fluid. OK, so the idea for jet engine is actually that you have some air from the surroundings off the aircraft which is in taken. OK, which is put inside off the off the engine. Andi. Then it is compressed. Okay, this is done by the compressor. We will discuss this in further detail in a bit. Okay, but the idea is that the air is in taken, then compressed. Then in the combustion chamber, we get a higher temperature. Okay? Because off the mix with a fuel. Andi, After that, we have the turbine where the mixed year, which will be air on some fuel, okay, is actually expanded. So this means that we the pressure is actually reduced in this case. Okay. Compressor increases The pressure on the turban decreases the pressure. Okay. And finally we have that the mixture is expanded again through the north, right? So the idea in this case is that we obtain actually higher velocities. All right, let's see the different competence. So we have the inlet, which is basically this part of a here in a tour. Projet, we have, ah, kind of a basic in lead. In a tool for fun, we would have more complex inlet. OK, which we will discuss in a bit. Then we have the compressor where we have an increase off the pressure as we mentioned the combustion chamber over here, which is this part of a here? Okay, the turbine on finally the nozzle. Right. In addition, we have a shaft in the middle. Okay, which actually relates the movement of the rotation over turbine to the rotation off the compressor. So the movement off the turbine because of the off the combustion chamber, we get a higher temperature off the fluid. All right, so this implies higher thermodynamic status, and therefore we actually gain some movement on the turbine. So, as a consequence, off the combustion chamber, we get a rotation in the turbine on the turbine. Therefore, because it is connected to the compressor, actually moves the compressor. Okay, So the idea initially would be that the compressor is stopped. It's completely still. Okay, then we have the combustion chamber in this combustion chamber. We get more or higher properties. Thurman, I'm incorrect properties. Therefore, the turbine starts to move on because it is connected to a compressor. Compressor starts to move again. OK, so this is the kind of cycle on one's. The compressor starts moving. As you can imagine. The the machine, The engine works optimally. Okay, Now, the idea off the thrust that is generated by this kind of engines is actually that exhaust velocity. Okay, So the velocity which is expelled, is related directly to the thrust on also the mass flow. Okay, which is propelled is also related to arrest. So another way of saying this is that the thrust is a direct consequence off the amount off flow propelled, which implies the air on the fuel. Okay, the mixed here that we had here. So the amount off mass, the amount of kilograms per second Ok, that we are expecting multiplied by the velocity off rejection. Here we have the velocity of rejection miners the velocity off the aircraft because this velocity will be relative to the velocity which we took in. Okay. In the inlet off our engine. So the idea is just this. Okay? The difference off velocities multiplied by the amount of flow, which is probably OK, This is the thrust. This is the basic definition of first. Okay, here. Just the Nova view over the different kind of jet engines. We will speak off each one. Okay, we will discuss several off the properties that each 1/2 okay? Yes. You can see the two budget is like the basic model. Then you have the two profile, which is kind of a combination. As as you can see, it's to budget. Okay. It has kind of a tube rigid structure. Andi Also, it has an additional fund which is common in all almost all commercial aircraft used to define okay, because it's more efficient. Ondas, you can see there's a fan. Okay, which acts also as kind of a compressor. Andi, this on air which goes on the outside and an air which goes in the inside. Okay, so we're distinguish between call there on. All right, this is kind of more complex machinery, as you can imagine compared to the two Bridgette and Finally, we have the turbo prop, which is kind of similar to the tour was yet. But the idea is that the amount of thrust is actually not as a consequence off the exhaust itself, Not as a consequence of the velocity off a section, but rather because we're moving the shaft. As we mentioned before, we are able to move a propellant. Okay, A propeller. So this is war generates the most amount of thrust. 9. Control Surfaces of an Airplane: Hi, everyone. And welcome to these new class in flight mechanics and specifically, control surfaces. So let's bidding by defining water control surfaces. So this are basically mo buying surface used on an aircraft in order to maneuver the aircraft itself. So, basically, we will be talking about three types of control surfaces. We have a clearance, which are these control surface is located on the wing tips. Okay. We also have elevators, which are located on the horizontal stabilizer off the tail, right on their located on the part off the back. So on the trailing edge off the horizontal stabilizer. Okay. And we also have ruedas, which are located on the vertical stabilizer over our aircraft. Right. So, again, a clearance on the wing tips. Okay. It's important that they are as far from the center as possible in order to produce maximum moment off the aircraft. Then we have elevators on the horizontal stabilizer on routers on the vertical stabilizer. Right. So what do we get with these control surfaces? So because we can move, the pilot can actually move these control surfaces. Okay. We will be able to produce some moments, some angles on the aircraft itself. Right? So the first thing we can do is actually roll the aircraft, so create an angle off role. This roll angle is oriented on the X axis. Now, this on this axis is actually the axis which relates, you know, the propeller off the aircraft, the first part of the group to the tail off the aircraft. Okay, So instead, our external of the aircraft itself, now rotating on the roll axis, can be done using the eyelid Rinse. Right. So if reproduce an extra lived in one part of the island Onda, we actually decreased the lived on the other part, we will be able to create on a rotation our role rotation okay to the left. In the same way, on a similar way, we use the elevator in order to create a pay channel. Now, this peach angle is related to the angle of attack with respect to the wind. Okay, so by pitching by creating a pitch which can be done by a pilot, as I mentioned before, what we do is control the aircraft by going upwards for going that words right. We also have the your angle, which is an angle which will be defined as as the angle on the vertical axis off the aircraft. Andi, In order to produce a your angle, what we will do is actually produced some extra lived additional lift toe one direction or the other direction off the aggregate in order to change the orientation off the Now here we have, um, another example. OK, we'll have to see this. Um, you can see that we have the roll angle on which will be produced because we actually used the Islay rinse in order to produce more lived in this part of the wing on less lived in this part of the wing on this will create a rotation on the X access to the aircraft. Right. So this is the role. The your, as we mentioned before, is the rotation with respect to the vertical angle off the aircraft. So by changing the direction off the router, we will be able to create additional left in one direction or the other direction on this will rotate in as your angle the aircraft with the respect of the vertical axis. In addition, you also have a pitch pitch will be related to changing the direction off the elevator. Okay, so the pilot will control the elevator on by this, you will be able to create additional lived in order to go downwards or to go ab words. Right? So the aircraft will be controlled by this different control surfaces, and therefore we will be able to produce any kind of maneuver by combining these rotations . Now, what is the physics? Why thus another Le'Ron produced more or less lift. So it's pretty similar to the case that we discussed before, which is the flaps and earlier in works very similar to a flap. In this case, as we discussed in the case of flaps, we actually increase the lived when we put an additional ah wing. Okay, so we put an additional part of the wing which will be the ill here in Ondo. It is facing downwards they so it is directed downwards. In this way, we will be able to do is actually two down wash the wind in the surrounding off the wing. Right? So, by doing this by actually down, washing their wind will be able to produce a net force to which is in the opposite direction to the down wash off the wind on the surrounding or the F graft gets so by 1/3 law, Andi, the third law off Newton We are well able to justify that. The fact that the wind is down worst will produce a positive net force on the positive Lived to the well, Okay, so in this case, we would be able to produce on increased lived Just because we are moving the Islay room in this direction, it actually makes sense, right? It is quite intuitive. So in this case, you can see that the island is down washing the wind, okay on, therefore will produce an additional left on this additional lived will actually make the aircraft rotate in the same way. But in the opposite way, I would say we are actually able to rotate the yet, um, the I live in this way in order to up wash the wind on the surrounding off the wing. So in this case, we will be able to produce a net lift decrease okay to these parts off the wind. So in this way, we'll actually be able to produce a positive lived here on the negative. Lived here on this will, you know, produce the balance on could use the rotation off the aircraft itself. So this is the main physical idea. Okay, on the on how I Le'Ron work now, Ruedas work in a very similar way. If we actually rotate the router in this direction, as you can see, as you can imagine, the wind will be Director will be washed in this direction to Okay, So because the wind is going over here, Andi, when it reaches the ruder will actually being washed on one specific direction. This wash will make the aircraft rotate in the opposite direction because off Newton's in the third law. So it's basic physics, Okay, It is applied in many different areas. As you can see, the Islay rinse are able to produce a net difference in lived. Also, the ruler will produce a difference in lived on the specific lift off the rueda. Okay, And this will actually rotate the aircraft on in the same way. The elevator will actually provide aversive Milam, um, forces okay, but applied to the tail. So if the elevator is in this case, washed like this washes the wind to the top right up bushes, the wind as in this case, So you can imagine that the lived will decrease. And if the lift decreases in this point, you can see that the aircraft will rotate towards upwards. OK, so there will be a change in direction off the aircraft. Right? So I wanted to see um um example of this. Okay, So first of all, would you want you see, Here is the appearance which you can see are very similar to the flaps flaps out here on the flaps in these gays are not extended. Okay, on also, the island is not extended, but this would be the control service. Right on. I wanted to show you this video, which I like, because you can see them. How the Isla rinse are actually used by the pilot to control the aircraft when landing. Okay, so he actually uses the Isla rinse in order to stabilize the direction. The role rotation Okay, off the aircraft when landing. You can see that in this case, we had cross winds which are winds that come at a certain direction with respect to the vertical plane off the aircraft. So coming from this direction on, he has to stabilize it in some way. Another using the Islanders. Okay, you can see here how the allowance change, right? Andi, how he tries to stabilize it. Andi aircraft won't stabilize because there's a lot of cross weight. In this case. What else elevates earned ruler are quite easy to see to some to determine in various spacecraft. In this case, you can see in this aircraft. You see, the This is the rueda, right? Okay. It can be seen a bit. This is a control surface which can be directed by the pilot as we mentioned before on we also have the elevators located on the horizontal tail. Right. Okay, so these are quite easy to see. You can also see. Um it's not as easy to see in this case, but in this case, which this is a fighter, this a Russian fighter. And as you can see, we have two routers. Okay, because the airplane is designed in a way that it has kind of two tails or two vertical stabilizers. So two routers to control the direction Your access direction. Onda. We also have elevators which are not very clear to see, but they are over here, okay? And are used for ph controls. In addition, you also have this image, which is from on old aircraft. You can also see the elevator over here on the ruder, which is thes geometry of here. Okay, so with this, we can move to the next class. 10. Airline Description and Business Models: Hey, guys, in this class, we will be discussing airlines a description on finally business models. So, first of all, what is an airline? An airline is a company which will provide air transport services for traveling passengers or cargo at a national or international level. Now, airlines, what they do is buy commercial aircraft such as Airbus A craft Buoying aircraft, for instance, to provide services between airports. They will also partner with other airlines for global flight strategies. Now the economic model of an airline is actually focused toe fulfilling a demand off passengers or cargo between given airports. So airline businesses are based on the profits due to passenger cargo travel. This is important because in order to succeed in creating an airline, for instance, what you need to assess is very carefully, you need to assess the demand off passengers between two given airports. This is essential in order to great profit for the airline. If you were to, I don't know, create a route between two airports, which the demand between these two airports is relatively low. You won't be able to fulfill or, you know, have full capacity off your airplane because they're the man's will be relatively low. So it's important is essential for an airline on the economic model to cover or list to focus your airplane to be completely full all off the time. This is essential in terms off graze in a successful economic model for in L. A. Now the costs, often airline, is actually related to the purchase off airplanes. Off course, the airport costs due to landing or stationing. You know that, for instance, you have some airport costs related to the fact that you are landing on one specific airport. So this means that the airline will have to pay a feat Toothy airport, in order just to be able to fly to that airport on Finally also have stationing, which implies that the amounts off hours that a net so that an airplane will be parked on one specific airport each one off this hour will have a very quite expensive cost to your own airline. So basically, what you need is airplanes to be flying almost all the time, right. In addition, you also have crew costs, meaning you have cost for the pilots. You have costs for the cabin crew and their training on. Finally, you also have maintenance off all the aircraft that you have to maintain. Okay? Our maintenance. I don't know if you know this, but maintenance is one off the key topics in specifically in Europe and the United States. It's essential to have a very, very high maintained aircraft system. Right? So this means that the costs off maintenance are actually very high. And this is why the costs off airline have to be very well assessed on compared to airline profits regarding passenger and cargo travel, right? So on economic model of an airline is quite complex and has to be assessed very carefully. Airlines are based on routes, so all airlines are based on a specific location. So where the business war set, you can say, for instance, British Airways will be based on an airport or city in Britain, right? You have no region will be based on no way on, you know, so on. So for instance, in this, in this map of the hair, I have a map off the different operations different cities where welling, which is based on Barcelona, actually operates too. So you can see it's quite centric. Lee Home from Barcelona. However, you also have flights from, you know from instant from Germany to Italy without going through Barcelona. So airlines usually expand centric Lee from one initial condition. So I wanna nation location, which is what mentioned before. But however, depending on the economic model, airlines may be interested in other strategies, such as going, you know, kind of radio Lee, but covering different demands. Different flight routes, which are not covered okay from different airports throughout Europe, for instance, in this case, so it's interesting to note that different airlines will have different strategies on. Therefore, you might be interested as an airline toe optimize the profits so anything that is related to optimizing profits will be OK in terms off connecting flights. What else? Um, one of the main distinguishes this too much men's between traditional and low cost motels. Airlines has arised, especially towards final 19 nineties 19 nineties on it's the idea that we have traditional airlines, which has just common airlines thumb traditional airlines used from the 19 forties upwards . Andi operate, you know, operation off low cost airlines, especially throughout the 21st century, which expanded dramatic. Now what is the difference between traditional airlines and low cost Allen's so traditional airlines are looking for best passenger service. This isn't in general terms, full service experience, no additional fees for passengers, right? So they will probably have absolutely full service, depending on the costs. It sit room. But the you know that the focus on traditional airlines is actually to provide full service experienced with the passenger itself. It has excellent long hole, which means long distance global international connections. This is an important topic because you will probably only be able to fly with a traditional airline if you covering very long distance. This is what this means, right? He also have for his kind of Elland. You have several airplane tape types, so this means you may have long distance aircraft, long range aircraft and also, you know, medium range aircraft, depending on the requirements and depending on all operations on optimization off your economic model. In general, though, you will have chi affairs which are related to the full service experience that we were mentioning. In addition, we also have low cost airlines, which their goal is actually just minimising operational cost. On. This is in order to get Lok cost tickets low fast in order to maximize the demand off flights. Okay, The demand off passengers for given roots. Right? So this low cost airline to usually can be usually defined by only having one kind off airplane motor. This means that they may have, for instance, the Airbus A 3 20 or the Boeing 737 All crew are trains for one airplane. So all pilots are really know how to fly a specific A 3 20 for instance. Okay, So usually we have very specific trained crew, right? In general, low cost airlines, um, you know, known to have short hole okay or short distances travelled compared to the excellent long coal from the traditional airlines Ondas. We mentioned the short range airplanes or medium range airplanes such as the A 3 20 in the 737 and in general, they just have reduced maintenance costs. So, as I mentioned, the goal for low cost airlines is just minimising operational cost. Where traditional airlines is actually for the experience off the passenger on having a very, you know, the best passenger service themselves. So some traditional and low cost models you can see we have Emirates. You have contests. Turkish Airlines. All of these are traditional airlines. Okay, Bridges, Airways, Air France, Iberia. There's absolutely a lot off traditional airlines throughout the world on also low cost airlines. There are a lot of locals alliance to, but, you know, one of the most important, most iconic, low cost airlines probably rally in there. EasyJet no region welling Germanwings. Okay, they are absolutely a lot off low cost airlines also So this would be all in terms off the airlines. Let's go now in airline alliances on the differences between the different alliances today . 11. Airline Strategies: Hi, everyone. And welcome to this new class in airlines, specifically airline alliances. So let's start by the finding water on airline Alliance is Airline Alliance is a Novation company arrangement between two or more airlines. The purpose off Airline Alliance is to actually cooperate between airlines on a global scale to provide Internet airline travel for passengers. This will imply optimized operational costs on, you know, just more departures on more availability for all the passengers. Now, there are several Star Alliance. So, um, airline alliances on one of the most iconic. The most important is the star Alliance, which actually covers 23% off all traffic today. So star lions piece formed. I'm not sure. I would say like something like 20 companies. 20 airlines, which are all off this on day, actually combine different flights in order to, you know, get a passenger from Canada, for instance, to Singapore. Right. So, you know, you can see that you can have a combination off defend airlines in order to establish connections between very long distances on in order to have almost a global coverage off all the different zones on the world. Right? So you were when you basically buying a ticket for Air Canada? You actually buying also a ticket for Star Lions? So this means that you'll probably get with any off this company's from one point to another on This means that you have a lot of options on a lot of the patches in order to cover any kind off route that you are interesting in covered. Right. So this is the 1st 1 This is the Star Alliance, which covers 23% of traffickers. I mentioned some of the most important our Air China. Bluth answer. You know, Singapore Airlines, Turkish Airlines. Okay, United States. Always. It's quite interesting to know that there are a lot of thumb on that they can cover globally, or this nation's another one, which is, you know, one of the most important is SkyTeam, which covers 20.4% off all traffic. SkyTeam is far is based on air friends. For instance, Dell tell you have KLM. You have different kinds off Alitalia. Okay, Different airlines, which will cover different global parts off the world right, can finally have one world, which is 17.8% awful traffic. Andi is based on Iberia Qantas, Qatar. You have Malaysia Airlines, British Airways, American Airlines ago. You can see that. You probably covering. I'm not sure if all the globe, but probably most off the globe. So wherever you want to go, you can decide by going with one world, SkyTeam or star lines. In addition to that, you can see that this is 17.8%. You have 20.4% on a 23% of traffic. So this means that some traffic is not covered by these airline alliance. And this is just your to national flights on the other international flights from airlines which are not connected in these big blocks off airline alliances. Okay, so this is basically all you need to know. In terms off airline lines, we can now go to the not to the next topic. 12. Airport Description and Elements: Hey, guys, welcome to this new class in airports. In this case will be discussing a bit of a brief description of what an airport is on. Finally, the different elements that compose on airport. So an airport is simply, as you know, on aerodrome designed to fulfill commercial air transport. So the Mission Oven Airport is to store and maintain aircraft. In addition, it must be able to control all aircraft movements on the airport itself. It is composed basically by large landing areas known as runways. It must be designed in order, you know, to have terminals for passenger flexes. And in addition, he has to combine with different services for passengers and for, you know, pilots and cabin crew, for instance, on emergency facilities for normal operation off the whole airport. No one interesting topic in airports is actually the design of runaways. I'm sure you all know water runways, but one interesting job, because I mentioned, is actually how to design a runaway. So if you're trying to design airport, the first thing you notice is that designing runway is something which is completely fixed by regulations in each country. So most of the time, even if you want to, you know, improvise some kind of dimensions for a given. You know, a given airport runway. You'll probably find out that the F A a in the United States or ASA in Europe is probably given very strict normative regulations in terms of culture design the airport itself for the runway, at least so as I mentioned, airport runways must always be designed following the regulations. Image country Right on. This implies very votes to explore a vapor size defined, um, runways depending on the aircraft. Okay, which will be landing on the runway. So, um, runways must satisfy a given length and with following the standards on depending on the aircraft, which will be landing on the runway, this is quite interesting. Topic gotten very important topic. Okay, so if you haven't a 3 80 voice since one of the biggest aircraft, you're probably need, and you can intuitively imagine that the runway must be bigger. Must be large. Must have bigger width. Right. But the idea is that you probably if on a 3 80 is landing there, you'll just have defined very precisely the minimum length off a runway on the minimum with off the runway. I believe you can also consider doing them bigger than what the regulation is. But in general terms, you will be very, very close to the regulations themselves. So are most of the time. As I mentioned, runways are clearly defined by regulations. In addition, runways are usually sketched following just regulations. Okay, this is idea. So here we have. You know, I'm up. Three idea. Wouldn't runway looks like. And as you can see, there are some different areas. Some, you know, notations, lines defined on the runway, which are completely defined by regulations. As I mentioned before. So he had the threshold. For instance. You can see over here Touchstones own fixed distance marks. Center line. Okay. They may be the point of different ways, but usually it is very, very fixed how to find them. And this is different parts off the run. Waived for normal operations off aircraft. Now, one interesting topic that I wanted to discuss is that usually runways have a little number . Well, not specifically little. OK, but they have one number appearing right just on the on the initial part of the runway. And this number he's actually related to the degrees respect to the geographical north, which the runway is oriented. So right, So in this case, you could see the this is 0909 simply implies by a factor of 10 90 degrees respect to north counterclockwise. This means that in this case, North would be looking would be like the vertical plane here. Okay, on, if this is north, you would actually rotate 90 degrees counterclockwise on you would define this runway. So, as you can see by this number, we are defining the orientation off this Pacific runway. It's also interesting. Do not is 09 is equal to 90 degrees by a fact, often so a 14 would be 100 and 40 degrees. Respect to know. Right On the maximum that we would be able theoretically to have is 36 or 35. List 35 would be equal to 350 degrees. Now, another interesting topic is to mention that you can usually see, you know, little marks like R and l. Okay, on this are referring to just relative positions from one runway to another. In this case, you can see a very late, relatively little runway on. This is bigger, so you can see that this one has been designed for small aircraft, and this is for bigger aircraft. Andi. It's interesting to know that, for instance, in this case, the orientation is the same for both runways, which is quite typical when designing runaways. Right when you're designing a specific airport you need, you probably need all the runways to be protected in the same direction so that there's no intersection between the lines okay off the paths between aircraft, for instance. And it's interesting to note that I was mentioning that in this case you have 14 are, whereas in this case it's not very visible, but you have 14 and this refers to simply the runway on the right, on runway to the left, right, so we have the distinction between having landing on 14 off or 14 l on. This is how you can locate or, if you are a pilot can see which is the you know, the runway where you have to lend. Okay, this is the idea. You have two different runways, depending on the number, because of the orientation on also relative position. So what else in airport's terminal design is one of the most important topics. Also, when developing a specific airport, Andi generally designing at an airport so airport terminals must fulfill the passenger flux demand both for departures and arrivals on. One interesting thing to note is that terminals are commonly designed to separate the flux off passengers arriving on those departing. You've probably experienced this some point on your life, where you see that by the parting from a specific airport you are actually using or going through a specific path on the airport, which is different to that path that you used when you are arriving to that airport. So the idea is simply that usually passengers are separated by different parts on the airport. If there are arriving or either they are the party, it is quite an interesting topic on it is usually one off the main parameters when designing the you know the strategy off the paths used for different passengers in specific airport. It's also interesting to note that in other airports such as cup, these are in airports. Sometimes the flux is mixed, okay, and we will this gotta be later. What this implies. Finally, in terms obstruction and construction. Usually airport design and terminal. Designed specifically are big structures with lots of light on the glass. Warts on specifically, they usually have glass walls looking towards the runways, and this is important because glass walls are recommended so that passengers feel safe. Seeing normal operations on this is actually a very important topic. When designing determined, you need to ensure that passengers are able to see normal operation flight, so this means takeoffs on landing in this way. Usually, passengers feel safe feel that they're just another one in the full immensity off a terminal on full immensity, often airport on. That usually makes them feel like their operation there. You know flight will be okay, Andi. Everything would be fine. That's the main idea. By designing blast walls. This may seem like I wouldn't say a stupid idea, but a basic idea. But it's actually like that. So you need to ensure when there's owning a terminal design that passengers are able to feel safe by seeing normal operations. So here we have some time terminal design examples throughout the world. The 1st 1 I believe it is in China. I'm not sure which airport that was. But you can see a different you know, different elements, different stages which are important for daily use. Okay, on on the on the airport themselves. It's just what you know. I'm sure you probably know what an airport looks like. So this would be an example. This is an example in London, I believe he has some. Depending on the position, you can see a different elements, different ticket points where you get the different tickets for your for your flight. For instance, Editor, the terminal design must comply with many different expectations. At many different requirements on the design is simply how to satisfy the passenger and maximize their experience. Usually it's something like that terminal design. Here you have the airport in Riyadh. Think in Saudi Arabia, you know you can you I'm sure you understand that. So the Arabi have some cultural diversity really respect to the United States, for instance. So this you know, this kind of sand looking terminal design which is actually designed to satisfy the demands and expectations from any kind off passenger. And this one is another interesting looking airport where you can see that the structure is actually made Teoh satisfy visually the passenger. OK, so as you can see most of the time, there is a new intention off actually designing some kind off airport terminal, which is satisfactory to the passenger themselves. Right? So I wanted to make a little case study on just, you know, to see to visualize the different elements that we've mentioned. So in this case, you can see the different runways. This is the case study off Prada Barcelona, which is an airport with around 50 million passengers a year. Ondas You can see most of the runways. Most of the take of runways are directed in the same direction. Except for this one, which is only used. I believe in very extreme conditions that there is absolutely a lot off aircraft and need to take off on by controlling this with a very, very much precision. You could actually operate more aircraft. Okay, So what I mean I wanted to mention is that you have two terminals this terminal of a ham on this terminal. You can actually distinguish between determined also due to, you know, just design on. You can see that the terminal actually connected connects to the you know to um, roads connects to the train on this span or this side over here on on the other side is simply attached right. The airplanes are simply attached to the different elements off the terminal. So you can see the terminal is just the connection between the roads and trade to the apple , the airplanes, and this is water. Terminally, it's basically and I want you to mention this Pacific terminal over here, which is known as Terminal One Andi, for you to see the different parking slots that aircraft half outside off the terminal. So you consider the terminal is has this geometry and you can be over here on from here. You'll just go to one specific airplane which is parked just on the outside off the terminal. This is what I want, I want to mention so as in geometries given airport may depend May value from one to another, but what you need to know is that most commonly, you'll have separate terminals on DSI. You know, different kind of geometries for on airport view to the strategy off the whole airport. Finally, I wanted to discuss Abate what a control tower is on what it does. So our control towers must have supervision off all craft aircraft movements from landing on taking, you know, taking off to taxiing and parking. So this means that any aircraft in movement or with intention to move in, you know, following minutes, it's must be satisfied that the control tower is completely aware off its movements. So communication between pilots on the control tower is a must is absolutely essential in order to ensure that there's no accidents, that there's no problems in regards to the normal operation off aircraft now, control towers are the brain off the airport on must have a direct view off all the parts off the airport. This is absolutely essential on as I mentioned communication between control towers on pilots, is it? So we hear you have, for instance, on on example of what a control tower looks like. I'm sure you've seen many control towers. The idea is that they must have a complete view off all the airport in order not to fail in order not to make any mistake in terms of identification off aircraft. So this is all in this part of airport design. We can now go to the next part in airport 13. Airport Types and Operation: Hey, guys, what's up? Welcome to the new class in airports and specifically the types off airports. So let's begin by making a bit of ah discussion in terms of passengers per year. As we mentioned before the number off runways, the dimensions of the runways will depend on the aircraft operating on. Usually, the aircraft that are operating will depend on the amount off passengers per year that we have. So as you can imagine, the just by definition the amount of passengers per year will give us a sense off the dimension ing off the whole egg airport. So to begin, we begin with the Atlanta International Airport, which actually in 2018 had 107 million passengers. This is just a very big number. 107 million passengers. Okay, one year on, you can see the definition off. The airport is just very complex, very sophisticated, and it has a lot off different elements, which would be interesting to discuss. Now. You also have the Beijing International Airport with 101 million passengers in 2018. Um, it is that you can imagine that the terminal design is just different because it depends on , you know, in the sophistication level that would you want to give on the purpose that you want to give to the to the terminal itself. But usually you can see that the terminal is just enormous, as in the same case in the Atlanta International Airport. But the configuration off the runways may be different. This is, you know, this dependent of design off the whole egg airport. But the idea is that both airports are very big on mass satisfy a very high demand off passengers. Now, I also introduced a couple more at airports so that you can imagine the differences. Okay, so this would be jade or international airport near Barcelona. You see two million passengers in 2018. So as you can see, this is just one runway on a very little terminal. This is the idea off little international airport, right? So even if it is international, you can immediately see that this airport will probably not satisfy the demands. Often a 3 80 for instance, over 747 So it is mainly used for meat range aircraft. In addition to that, you also have the stood Gert Airport, and this is actually quite common in Germany. You have relatively small airports which are, you know, designed to fulfill different purposes. But usually the idea is that them you can have more airports throughout Germany, but each one will be relatively small, and this is actually quite effective. To be honest, this is actually a method which is also used in the United States, and it differentiates from very big airports just in one point and then having to move by train or having to move by bus, for instance. So in this case you have stood guard airport with 10 million passengers. And as you can see, the dimensions are also relatively small compared to those that we saw in the beginning. OK with Atlanta International Airport, with more than 100 million passengers. So as I mentioned, it just depends on the amount of passengers usually on you can see a small, relatively small terminal and just one. I believe this is just one runway. Okay, what else? So as I mentioned, passengers per year is an important factor. Airports must be designed following the number of passengers expected per year, so this means that went designing the airport, he must take into account the demand off that specific year, but also demands in 10 years. In 20 years, in 30 years and in general, number of passengers will determine number off runways required the takeoff landing combination strategies. Okay, this is an interesting topic. Also, how to combine taking off and landing from different aircraft. You do you use only one runway for takeoff. Only one landing. Try only one runway for landing. So this kind of different strategies to actually operate the airport also terminal dimensions and services on. Do you know some other topics, like number of parking places for aircraft, for instance. Okay, so I wanted to discuss a couple of airports times in terms of connections. So there is a definition off carb airports on point support. Apple's so first of all, carp airports are designed to be used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic at one specific airport. That this airport is known as a cop airport. Right. So, for instance, in Europe, you have, um, in terms off. I'm not sure if this is Star Alliance, but the idea is that one alliance will probably use only one up airport you know, for flights coming from Johannesburg from South Africa from flights coming from a keen from San Francisco. There you'll go to France. So France Frankfurt. Okay, on If they go to Frankfurt, then they will move other passengers to London Heathrow, for instance. So they serve as a transfer airport to go from the party airport to the station airport. So the Carp airport is like on airport, which is a transfer airport used between flights on. The idea is that it is useful for long distance combination of flights, but usually designing a hub airport implies beak busy and complex airports. So imagine that you're traveling from San Francisco and you want to go to Madrid, for instance. So instead of going directly from San Francisco to Madrid, which would be one specific direction, one specific flight path, you actually go from San Francisco to Frankfurt on from Frankfurt, you go to Madrid, and this implies that some people who are traveling from San Francisco may also be interesting in going to Stockholm or whatever, or London on the idea is that by going to Frankfurt, you just making sure that basically, in basic terms, you are transporting people from San Francisco to Europe. Basically, this is the idea on to Europe means to Frankfurt on. Then from Frankfurt they would go to Madrid, right? So this is the idea of a harp airport. Then we have also points a point. Airports which are designed to fulfill direct flight non transfer between departure on destination airports when we usually this type of airports are known as pointed points. Airports common for a short whole flight destinations. This means short flight generally of short distance destinations, Okay, essential for low cost companies on usually relatively small airports. So as I mentioned, the difference between points a point airport and carb airports is the strategy used to go from A to B. For instance, In the case of Ahab, if you want to go from San Francisco to Madrid, you have to go through Frankfurt, right? In the case off just the point of buoyant. I wouldn't recommend going from San Francisco San Francisco to Madrid directly because they're maybe not enough demand on this would imply, you know, relatively empty aircraft. And it has a serious off disadvantages. So a point to point airports are very useful for small commuting distances so mean, for instance, from Madrid to Frankfurt, could be just a point to point. If you go to you. If you want to go to migrate from, you know, from Medici Foot, that would be an example from Madrid to Rome. I don't know. This would be a point to point examples relatively low. Raines's okay on a carb. Airports are more important on the long range configuration off airplane, so advantages and differences points a point. Strategy will eliminate the need for connections reduces a total trial travel time, As you can imagine. Also, some of them important factors are baggage loss. Risk is actually reduced by using point to point strategy because there's no complexity in moving baggage from one aircraft to another. Also, it implies lower pollution in general terms for passenger lower frequency off trips. This is true if you're going to go from one specific points or another point. The most possible outcome off that is that you'll have relatively low frequency off trips because the points a point flight is actually very specific, so from Madrid to stock up because it is so specific, you probably only have one flight today, for instance, connections or transfers are usually not time efficient for passengers. So if a passenger is actually looking to go from moderate to begin, for instance, on uses a 0.2 boys strategy, it would probably not be the best option because it simply implies that the passenger will have to make sure that he is in charge of all the movements or baggage. Onda. Different transfers between flights, it usually using a point a point strategy went flying long distances is usually complex and difficult. It doesn't mean that you can't do it. It just means that is small, complex. You need toe very specifically detail the amount of time that you need to be at its airport , for instance. And you know hope that no, no airplane is actually out of time, which could happen. OK, Thea other airport type or at least strategy that we discussed is the hub strategy, which requires, as you know, a cop connection. So if up airport connection, the total tight primal is clearly higher than that. In the case of point to point strategy on baggage, incidences can cure and probably will occur. Okay, it may depend, but there's some incidences, and it's off course. The probability of that happening is actually higher than in the case of point to point strategy. You have a least two flights, right? Because if you use Hub study, Jean means that you are actually transferring in one airport from one flight to another flight. So not optimal for passenger overall experience. In general terms, connections or transfers are usually time efficient for passengers, though. So this is it by you know, the main difference, I would say, between point of buoyant strategy, cab strategic is that actually the connections that transfers are automatic, or at least more efficient? That in the case for point of boring strategy, right? So with this, I think this is all in terms off airports, as always, if you have any doubts if you want to, you know, I get more information in one of the topics that were discussed during the course. Just contact me and our current try to provide any information that you may be interested in. Also, if you'll find the course interesting if you find well explained, whatever, I would appreciate it if you could give a good review. In general terms Andi, you know this is all so, as always don't you know? Don't be scared to us. Contact with me. Feel free to contact with me if you have any doubts or warned further clarifications.