Advanced Management Program | Don Munro | Skillshare
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30 Lessons (4h 15m)
    • 1. Introduction to Advanced Management Program

    • 2. 1.1 Advanced Management Process

    • 3. 1.2 Advanced Management Process

    • 4. 1.3 Advanced Management Process

    • 5. 2. Your Training Needs Analysis

    • 6. 3.1 Productivity

    • 7. 3.2 Productivity

    • 8. 3.3 The Performance Management Model

    • 9. 3.4 Performance Management cont

    • 10. 3.5 Performance Management cont

    • 11. 3.6 Project and Force Field Analysis

    • 12. 4.1 Delegation

    • 13. 4.2 Assigning, Delegating, Abdicating

    • 14. 4.3 You cannot delegate accountability, only responsibility!

    • 15. 4.4 Constraints

    • 16. 4.5 Potential Problems and Potential Effects

    • 17. 4.6 When your boss delegates work to you

    • 18. 4.7 Project and Action Steps

    • 19. 5.1 Time Utilisation

    • 20. 5.2 Time Utilisation

    • 21. 5.3 Time Utilisation

    • 22. 5.4 Time Utilisation

    • 23. 5.5 Time Utilisation

    • 24. 5.6 Time Utilisation

    • 25. 5.7 Time Utilisation

    • 26. 6. Setting Standards and Objectives

    • 27. 7. Organization Structures and Relationships

    • 28. 8. Performance Problem Analysis

    • 29. 9.1 Decision Making

    • 30. 9.2 Decision Making

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About This Class

After you have completed these top 9 essential management skills training courses, you will have completed the Advanced Management Training Skills Course, giving you the skills to successfully lead a productive, efficient and organized team.

What you get as part of your course:

  • All the leadership and management skills you need, available in one course.
  • An instructor with 30 years of business soft skills training experience.
  • VIP instructor access for questions and feedback.
  • An intensive training course to teach you all the skills you need to be a great manager and inspire people.
  • Comprehensive projects, with feedback, to practice the new skills you have learned.
  • The skills to launch your management career, achieve your goals and motivate your team.

This course has been developed, run, adapted and improved over a thirty-five year period and has been run live for the senior and middle management of over 60 major companies internationally. You have the opportunity to be part of that success today!

In detail, the skills you will develop in each management skill section of the Advanced Management Skills training course are:

1. The Process of Management

You will develop the skills to manage the resources you have available to you in order to achieve your desired results. This management skill section of the course includes all the activities and processes that are available to handle many different situations – not just one method! You will develop the management skills to get support from your boss, your staff and your peers, both internal and external - because nothings says they have to support you! The course also includes a variety of approaches to management (management styles) which have been developed over the years. It teaches you how relevant they are and how you can use these management skills on-the-job.

2. Delegation

As mentioned earlier, how to organize yourself. The management skill of delegation covered in this advanced management training course, along with the next one, Time Management Skills, will teach you how to take control of the Content of your job and the Timings of your job. What should a manager delegate, what should a manager not delegate? Why do some managers over-delegate and others under-delegate? What are the consequences of over-delegating or under-delegating? They can be serious, however the problems can be avoided. Your delegation skills will be developed in this advanced management skills training course.

3. Time Management

The second part of organizing yourself. Delegation skills without time management skills is like bread without butter, or mornings without coffee! You need delegation skills and time management skills in order to identify what you should be doing and how much time you should be spending on each task. Developing the skill to identify the causes of time management problems and, most importantly, how to solve time management problems, simply and with actionable steps, have vital benefits to you – and you can certainly coach others, both at work and in their personal lives. After completing these 3 sections of the advanced management skills course, you will be an organized manager!

4. Productivity

There are so many misconceptions about productivity; what is productivity and how do you measure productivity? In this advanced management skills course you will learn that there is a correct formula for blue-collar productivity and another for white-collar productivity. How do you increase productivity? There are four ways in which productivity can be increased. You will be given the formula and you will develop the management skills needed to increase productivity in your team/department or company. And again, as in all my management skills training courses, you will be given simple step-by-step guides to help you analyze an area in your job where you need to use your newly-developed management skills to increase productivity.

5. Setting Standards and Objectives

Now that you have completed the advanced management skills course up to this section and you are a successful, organized manager, you can now learn skills to organize your staff or your team! How do you motivate your staff? What does your team need to be successful too? Staff need standards. Adherence to standards leads to stability - lack of standards leads to anarchy! Standards and objectives are two different things. Again, you will learn actionable steps with this management skill about the setting of job standards for all your team – and then, of course based on each individual’s strengths and weaknesses, either set troubleshooting (problem solving) or training objectives for them. How do you organize your staff/team? Once you have completed this course, and developed your planning and control skills in the advanced management skills training course, they will be organized!

6. Organization Structures

There are organization structures and there are organization structures! What are the different types of organization structures? Some organization structures are structured around people and their individual strengths, some around family and friends and some, correctly, around organization goals and objectives. In this advanced management skills training course you will learn actionable steps and organization structure skills for either designing an organization structure and/or analyzing your present organization structure. When, if ever, do you reevaluate or update your present organization structure? Well, this advanced management skills training course will answer that question for you!

7. Performance Problem Analysis

Whether for a group or an individual, you will learn in this advanced management training course the analysis skills needed to identify the causes of performance problems. You will also develop the management skills in performance problem analysis needed to correct the problems in employee performance. Incorrect analysis and/or stopping at the obvious solution, can be expensive and counter-productive – and will lead to a waste of valuable and irreplaceable time (time management skills)! This management skills training course will help you with troubleshooting, analysis and evaluation at work and in your personal life.

8. Decision Making

In this management skills training course you will learn two practical methods of how to make the right decision, or how to make good decisions. The first decision making skill method can involve your staff and is aimed at the more immediate, short term decisions, while the second decision making skill method is for more expensive and costly decisions that are long term decisions. Both decision making skills you will develop are actionable and effective. The second decision making method or procedure includes a step not often found in this activity; how do you identify the possible problems in decision making, and what is the seriousness of the possible problems. You will develop the decision making skills to analyze what can happen after you have made your tentative decision. Only after you have done the calculations that you develop in this advanced management skills training course can you safely make your final decision.

9. YOUR Training Needs Analysis

Who is the best judge of your strengths and weaknesses? You are the best judge of your own strengths and weaknesses, and in this advanced management skills training course you will have access to a downloadable checklist of management activities, some important in your job and some not. You will decide this using the management skills you have learned on this advanced management training course. You will then analyze your own strengths and weaknesses and score them against the requirements of your job. What are the advantages of developing management practices analysis skills? Once you have completed this part of the advanced management training course, you will have developed the management skills needed to analyze your own training needs for self-development and career-development.

So simple, so powerful, so important!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Don Munro

International Training Consultant


Good day!  My name is Don. 

I offer this opportunity to work with you and to share my knowledge, international experience and skills with you.  Visit my website to learn more and read my blogs or like me on Facebook @Skills4Business.

I am from South Africa, however I have also trained in many southern African countries, including Swaziland and Namibia.  My international training experience includes a couple of years in the United Kingdom and time spent in America, training some of America’s top companies, including IBM, then Pan American Airlines, the New York Times newspaper, Cheseborough Ponds and the largest privately owned bank in the Southern States, The Atlanta Bank of Florida, where I trained their senior ex... See full profile

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1. Introduction to Advanced Management Program: Greetings again, it's dawn. And what we're looking at here is the first listen or the introductory lesson to the advanced management program. And it is the process of management. Before we go into the process of management that I would like to go through the contents of the Advanced Management program. The advanced management program consists of nine lessons or modules. All the research I've done working for many, many companies, well over a 103 different continents. I've identified that these are the critical ones that all managers need in order to manage effectively. The first one is to look at the process of management. What is management? What is the correct management way? If there is one? Number two, is to identify your own specific training needs. The third list and is on productivity. And we're going to link the process of management with my productivity. Listen. The fourth module is delegation, followed by Time Management. Number six is the setting of standards, job standards, and objectives, individual objectives for people in your department. Again, the process of management will impact quite dramatically on the setting of your standards and your objectives. Number seven is looking at an organization structure itself. Whether you are establishing one or your re-evaluating your own for very specific reasons. And then to look at the relationships within those organizations structures, we often call them the line and the staff reporting relationships. And number eight is a delightfully practical program of analyzing performance problems in your department. B there on an individual or a group basis. And the final one, number nine, is decision-making. Broken into two. Sublicense. The first one looking at decision-making and more immediate decision. And the second one, a decision that takes a lot of thought and possibly enrolls a lot of resources including money. Okay, so, well, first module is the process of management. At our objective is to determine what the job of managing actually does involve. Specifically, by the end of this module, you'll have learned that the various approaches and processes to management. Now I've called this the advanced management program, not because it is complex or only for advanced, so-called managers. It's advanced because we look at all the various approaches. My advanced management program does not dictate towards one trend. It gives you various options, a variety of approaches. And as you work through the program with us, you will find that you will need these various approaches and not just one approach or process to management, hence the name advanced management program. It covers a variety of areas. Within gonna look at the approach that is used in my advanced management program, the one that I'm recommending. And finally, we will have it look at what we call the management circle of influence. 2. 1.1 Advanced Management Process: The process of management starts off by looking or identify. What is the definition of management? Well, the most commonly used one is the process of obtaining organisational results with and through people and other resources. The process, things you do, things you say, the management activities or actions for doing what, for obtaining organisational results. And our stress that's organisational results. Because there are many people who are involved with obtaining their own departments results and even worst than that, personal results or personal objectives with and through people and other resources. What you'll find if you, as a manager, successfully achieve the organization's results, you will automatically achieved your department's results. And surprisingly, you will almost certainly achieve your personal objectives or result. If however you go to just focus on your personal objectives or your personal results, you might well find, and I've experienced it with the organization's results actually suffer and come second. Again, our stress here with and through people and other resources. Managers do not manage people. They manage many other resources a Well. So our first approach, our first approach to management, is to use the process and the results and the resources approach. The processes are the things that you as a manager do. The results of the result or the desired results that you wanted to achieve. And how are you going to do it? You're going to use the resources available to you. So we talked about resources or inputs. We're talking about outputs or results. And the croesus. What you as a manager do or say in order to achieve the required outputs. To what we do know is that a desired process will lead to a desired outcome or result. And an undesired process and incorrect process or management action or practice will lead to an undesirable or a drop in your productivity figures. Now, all managers across the spectrum and from top to bottom level, we all have similar inputs or resources. And let's look at some of them. We all have labor or staff. Some might only have one, some have 20. We have money or a budget. There are the materials that we need to do the job, the energy, all the equipment we need. When we talk of energy, we talking electricity or solar power or diesel. There are the tools to do the job. Different types of information that we need in order to achieve or order to process to achieve results. And of course, we have facilities, we have office space or factories, or warehouses or retail outlets. We all have some of us have more of some than others. Except, except one resource. All those others, we can have more or less except time. Time, you can only either use it or you can waste it or abuse it. So a critical part of your management is your time management, which is, as you have seen, a specific model on its own, how do I best manage MyTime? The second approach to management is the process. Again, the process or the actions which you as a manager take to achieve those required outputs with your resources. And they are sometimes classified, as we've seen here, as the functions of management. Functions, the four functions of management, namely planning, organizing, activating, and controlling. In that sequence, we cannot control something unless we've planned it. Planning, organizing, activating, activating, Many people will call it leading or motivating. I don't mind, as long as it is there and it is the third item in your function of management. And then there is the controlling function itself. 3. 1.2 Advanced Management Process: All right, this graph here, the graphic, the process of management, links first style of management or management action with our second. The first one was the input process and output, and the second one was the four functions of management. Here we can see the inputs or the resources that are available to all of us as managers and supervisors. We have manpower, money, materials, energy equipment tools, inflammation facilities at of course time. The processes that we can use. Linking action management one with action management to plan, organize, activate, or motivate, and control in order to achieve the desired outputs or results, such as profits. You could be manufacturing products. You could be supplying services like an insurance person or quality. Customer satisfaction for everybody. Market share. Your organization's objective can be growth, or you could be producing as an output. Data from information at you are perceived as a resource. You process it, and you achieve data. When would you use the functions of management? Strictly planning, organizing, activating, and controlling as a management style in a particular situation. Well, go into it now in more detail. But if you are faced with establishing a new company or as a consultant, you are asked to help set up a business for somebody. Or if your organization is establishing a new department altogether. If you are only in production and now you want to get involved with sales and marketing as well. A new department. You would use the four functions of management because it takes time. You need time in order to go through all the four functions and 23 activities of management. So let's have a look at them. And then, first of all, to analyze the situation. Step number one and the planning. When we analyze the situation, what we are doing here is we're establishing information or we are obtaining information which is relevant to the present situation. We are starting a new business or we are expanding our business by creating two new departments. So let's get all the information relevant to that situation. We look and determine what is our present situation. And we identify the key issues. So that is the way we analyze the situation, obtain information, determine the present situation, and identify key areas. Activity number two is to now forecast, estimate the future. In other words, you analyzing where the present course will lead by establishing a new arm. Or if we are going to establish a business, what do we have right now and where do we want to be forecasting? The third activity under the function of planning is to set the standards and objectives. And here we simply determined the outputs to be achieved, the organizational outputs to be achieved, the results. We then develop action plans. And here we are establishing the action steps and the timing followed. In reaching these objectives. This is an action SNP. This is by whether it needs to be done in order to achieve our objectives. Objectives which are in number three. Once we've done that, only then do we move to number five. And we then allocate the resources or the inputs necessary to reach our objectives. Not only financial, and it could be rental, energy, a number of people, et cetera. You can only do this once you have set what your objectives are. And you've said some action plans, you can then say, right, in order to achieve this, what resources or what budget am I going to need to achieve my organizational objectives or why departmental objectives? If you find that you do not have the correct or right budget, you then would have to go back to read, look your action plans or your standards, or go right back to the forecasting. But do not start with budget. It is constricting and it is going to see severely via handicap in establishing a new department or new business. Used the budget where it is on your activities. Number five, once you've done that, then you develop your policies. You make important decisions on important recurring matters. Ok. So you develop your some of your policies and your procedures. Right from the We now move in to The organizing we have planned. Now we organize those plans. In other words, what we're going to do with organizing is we are going to arrange the work. And we could really relate that work to be done for the effect of accomplishment of the organizational objectives. So to arrange and relate the work to be done and how do we do this? The first thing is to establish the organization structure. In other words, we identify and group the work to be performed, manufacturing, distribution, receiving, whatever it might be. So we need to establish the key functions. And only then would we create position descriptions, your job descriptions. Once you've got your job description or your job specification, then you can move to the people specifications. The job specification says, this is the work that needs to be done. The people specification tells you these are the qualifications or experiences I need the individual to have in order to achieve that job specifications, fitting into the organization to achieve the organization's goals. Now, you might say, well, drawing up job specs for every job, people specs for a one-off? No, not for a one-off. The job specs and the people speaks become critical tools for when you get involved with interviewing. Whether you're interviewing to promote somebody or with your interviewing an applicant who has applied for a job. You cannot interview effectively without evaluating beforehand that job spec and the people speak. You have to do it. Once you've done that. You then sit your procedures. There are standard methods of performing certain work and that is what you do now. You set the procedures for the standard jobs that are going to be done in that organization. And then finally, while this is happening, you create conditions which will make it easier, which will facilitate and coordinate the achievement of the plan. In other words, you facilitate the relationships that are required in order to achieve your plan. Moving to the third function is to activate, as I've said, to lead or maybe motivate either quad which word is, as long as it is there to activate. And while activating, we're now select the staff. We do not select the staff and organizing. You cannot select staff until your structure is in place. You have your job specs, you have your people specs, and you have your procedures. And only then do we now move in and select our staff and we choose competent people. For each position in the organization, how do we know they're competent? Because we came to interview them against the job and the person speaks. Once they are they we in duct and we train, we familiarize these new people with the situation. And we provide them with the necessary knowledge and the skills to perform their jobs. Induction is often overlooked because a detriment of an organisation. The 14th function or sorry, activity of management is of course, to delegate. Here we assign tasks or responsibility for tasks. We delegate the freedom to act or the authority. How much freedom you are going to give the person. If you're going to give them very little freedom, then tell them, look, before you do the task, I want you to come and tell me what you going to do. Or you can say to them, I'm going to give you a fair amount of freedom, go and do the job, go and do the interview that please report back to immediately. All you can give the person based on how competent they were in that interview. You can say to them, look, I want you to get on with this R1, the induction program. Just let me now on a weekly or monthly basis, how its guy, in other words, you're giving them a lot of freedom to act and you're giving yourself, but it'll insurance though, in case something goes wrong. That's an area we covered later in the advanced management program. We then motivate. In other words, we create conditions where people will want to take the desired action in order to achieve the organisation results. We want people to want to achieve, to feel motivated. And while this was going on number 16, we coordinate. In other words, we arrange the individual abilities in the most effective combination. In other words, what we are doing is we are developing a team. People will have certain roles to play with, coordinate our team in order to achieve a winning team in Hadoop and other ways to achieve our organizational goals. Very, very important is your going to have differences and you need, when you are activating to manage those differences, we must encourage independent thought, but we control conflict. Conflict is not bad. It must be controlled, but encourage individual thought. This is not a prisoner of war camp these people are in, they are working in a business and they need certain amount of freedom to work, so manage those differences. The fourth function in this management practice is the controlling. In other words, you're going to measure and you're going to regulate the work. Why? It's to ensure that the progress towards the objectives is going according to the plan that we originally set ourselves under the first function. How do we do it? Well, we need to establish a reporting system. During this week, first of all, determine what critical feedback is needed. What critical data do you need? How often do you need it? When do you need? And once you've done that, you can then measure and evaluate the performance according to those reports that you have. From that you were able to ascertain any extent or deviation from the original plan, you cannot identify if there is a problem or that they've achieving it unless you have some measures and a reporting system. So analyze problems and then you move on and you take the corrective action. Simply, you eliminate those deviations from plan and you improve the methods and results. And if necessary, if necessary, you might have to adjust the plan. A while this is going on. The final of the 23 activities is taking place on a continuous basis. These are continuous activities that is making decisions and communicating as you're working through planning and organizing you making decisions, whether you are consciously doing it or not, and you are communicating upwards, downwards, it's signers, et cetera. So those are your four functions and your 23 activities of management. And as I said, a very powerful too, if used correctly, where you have plenty of time and the task is a big ones such as starting a new business or advising somebody on how to start a new business, or if you are expanding your business. Okay? The third approach, too, management, is looking at what managers actually do. A lot of the stuff that we have been preaching for many years has been come from, has come from books written by people. Very few people have actually gone out and said, Let me look, What do managers actually do? What do they spend their time on? And how regal and slogan they did that they came out. That revealed that there were five basic characteristics to managerial work. Let's go through them. The first one, just to remember, is that managers spend most of their time in verbal communication with others. So we can talk planning, we can talk organization structures. We can talk process, activity, and outputs and resources. But remember, managers spend most of the time verbally communicate. A second characteristic of managerial work is that the frequency of this interaction, this communication, is different for the different managerial. Jobs. Very interesting here is that supervisors see the greatest number of people. They communicate more than anybody else in the organization. After supervisors comes your top level managers, they see the next most number of people. And you're middle managers or the fewest, the middle managers of their far more involved now with the planning, the leading, et cetera, and with the input process and output than are the other two devils. A third characteristic of management work is the question of hot, hot or grapevine inflammation, rumors, gossip, something you've read in a newspaper or heard somewhere. The importance of this hot or grapevine information, it increases as one moves up in management. So your top management will be very, very interested in rumors than will a supervisor. The fourth basic characteristic of managerial work is, I think it's fairly common, but let's remind ourselves, Your first-line managers or your supervisory level. They deal with and they should be dealing with today's problems. Your middle-management. They deal with the short-term problems, the weekly, that monthly stuff. And your top managers should be dealing with long-term problems and not getting involved with a middle managers functions. And likewise, a middle management should not get involved with it. First-line managers job. Okay? The final characteristic of managerial work according to how recoil and slacker. And I don't think this will surprise you who it is that managerial work is hectic. It's fragmented. And it requires you to have the ability to shift continually from person to person and from one problem to another. And I'm sure that that is no surprise to you. The fourth approach to management is what we call the schools of managerial thought. So we've covered three approaches to management. Now we're going to look at a fourth, which are the schools of managerial thought. The traditional, the traditional viewpoint. What somebody is doing here in this system is, in this traditional viewpoint, is they are trying to improve the traditional, the planning that leading, the organizing or activating and the controlling. That is the traditional management style, which we've said, Well, certainly work for you in some situations. Then we have the system's viewpoint. The system viewpoint focuses on your input and your processes and your outputs with a view towards improving the operations. So the traditional is trying to improve the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the systems is looking at trying to improve the processes so that you can, with your resources achieve better results. And then you have what is called the Behavioral science viewpoint. And the behavioral science viewpoint emphasizes the people factor in organizations rather than other resources. Now, we ask ourselves of all of this, which is the best approach. 4. 1.3 Advanced Management Process: Now, which of these systems is the best? The contingency approach. You've got your traditional viewpoint, you've got your system's viewpoint, you've got your behavioral science viewpoint. You've got your planning, organizing, activating the four functions and 23 activities. That's another management approach. We had looking at. Approach number one, the input process and output in order to achieve organisational results with them through people, et cetera, et cetera. Which of all of these is the best? And this is where my advanced management program that differs from many others. Because it opens the door to all those approaches that you have. They are all can be useful in various situations. So the contingency approach says it all depends. The contingency approach draws upon the strengths and the contributions of the traditional systems behavioral science viewpoint, as I mentioned, as well as the four functions and so on. It also shows the contingency approach as how all of these can compliment one another. They do not and cannot only work in isolation. According to this contingency approach. The processes or the strategies and the techniques for dealing with management and its associated problems will always vary according to what? According to the situation. So the contingency approach says that there is no one best way of managing or situations. It also says that managers are not free to manage in any way that might fit their personal biases. You might be a big Louis Allen fan and go for the for functions and activities and say this has got to work all the time. I like it and are good at it. Given certain combinations or of situations, one can specify that they are general approaches and practices to management that are likely to be a lot more effective than others. In other words, the contingency approach requires that you, the manager, you diagnose the situation and you make a decision as to which approach will be more appropriate. Should you be teaching some of the first-line managers to communicate effectively? Because the majority of their time is spent communicating. As we saw. This contingency approach suggests that the effectiveness of the various managerial styles or guidelines, or techniques or approaches that we've covered will always vary according to the situation. So the theme of this contingency approach is It all depends. And management practice may well work in one situation and very badly in another. I've seen it. Essentially. The contingency approach is a situational one. Following the contingency approach, management training can provide managers with various skills, techniques, methods, and practices which user manager can apply. But only after you've diagnosed the situation correctly. Now following this approach, the technique skills and the practices which I offer in my management training, can be viewed very much as tools in a tool kit. And the two would be used for the appropriate situation. The more tools you have in your toolkit, the more flexible you can be. Common sense, if you only ever hammer, you cannot really undo a screw or a NAT. My management training therefore, is intended to add to the variety of tools you as a manager have in your tool kit. If you have these tools, then I would be delighted if they just give you a jolly good refresher. Okay. They are not here to replace what you already have. They are there to compliment and to build on it. Okay? The last objective that we set ourselves was to look at the management circle of influence. Now, your circle of influence are the people that you deal with in your job, your boss, your internal and your external peers. And you are, and your subordinates, you yourself, you're in the center of this circle and like fingerprints or DNA, no-one else as the circle, exactly like you have it. Go back to the beginning of the process of management. That definition of management was getting results through others and through resources, et cetera. Now, this is often mistake can be interpreted that you as a manager only need to get the support of your subordinates in order to be successful. They have to support you if it's a lawful reasonable of instruction, they have to support you. Many think that bosses and peers will automatically give the support when it's needed. However, it is clear that the support of everyone in the circle is vital to your success. Nothing in the organization says, however, that they have to support you. In fact, the internal, external peers and your boss, or in power-based physicians, that they can either make or break you if they decide to do it. Their support has to be actively cultivated and cultivating the support of the circle. How, by building good relationships in which support, first of all, is given or received. You are responsible for this. You must give support. First of all, earned the trust, and they will then reciprocate. Now, why are you responsible for this? Well, first of all, you are in the best position to know and get the support that you need. And your success and your job satisfaction depend on the support of your circle. And finally, to end on a bit of a negative note. Now, if your bus obviously has his own unique circle to manage, if he has to arrange for you to get the support of yours, then your boss doesn't need you. And scary, hey, now, thank you for bearing with me and good luck in applying my contingency approach to your management career. And goodbye. 5. 2. Your Training Needs Analysis: Greetings, this is Don again. The lesson today is on your training needs analysis. And I emphasize this. It is your own training needs analysis. And the purpose of this needs analysis is to give you the opportunity of analyzing your own managerial training needs. So please feel free to download the analysis in order to complete it. When completing this document, it is important to remember that it is intended to assist you to identify your own specific training needs. So it's imperative that you spend a lot of time or personally sufficient time on each item. Think carefully about it in terms of how important it is, or how good or how weak you are. Probably some of these areas. And you'd be totally honest with yourself when you complete this document, only you again to see it. So if you do cheat, at least you know that you've made yourself a little bit stronger or maybe giving yourself a lower mach than you should've, so you're aware of it. The document consists of two key steps initially, and it is important that you work according to the steps. Step number one is to forget about your own job now and identify what are the important areas of the practices that exist in your job. In terms of communication, management functions, or conceptual skills, how important is each one of these items in your job? Never mind how your present level of skill. The first step is to look at the importance of the practice to the job itself. So you think only of your job. The second step, once you have completed all of it, just thinking of the job itself. Once you have done that, you then look to step number two is looking at ignore your job now and look at your present level of skill for each one of the items or the practices. And in birth step one and step two, you will write them according to certain criteria. The importance in the job. The left-hand column, column number one. You add rated a five. For example. If you are, if you feel that it is extremely important in your job, then right at five. Ok, if it is above average importance, you would write it a fall. Just average importance. Three, below average importance. It's not critical in my job. You would rate it a two. And the least important would be a one. Often a one Is it actually doesn't exist in my job, this particular practice, for example, at my level, I don't do interviewing. So I would write that u1, I don't do it. Ok. Now, it is very important to prevent people from writing themselves all threes. I'm above average or average. That's how important it is in the job. You are restricted when you complete this document. You may only have between 36 items that are scored five. You were only have between five and up to a maximum of ten practices or items that are rated AA for the items that you write as a three average, you may only have no less than five and no more than 15 items rated to. There. You have between 37 allowance items that are not important or East important items that you'd write. Number one, you can identify either two or three, no less and no more. So the ideal way to do this is to work in pencil. And after you've worked through what is important in your job, count at the 5s, the fours and threes, et cetera, and see that they tie in with between 364, 5's between 510 for falls, between 515 is for the 3s, between 37 for the twos, and between 23 for the ones. Ok. Now, once we've done our step number one, within Now look at ourself. What is our present level of skill? And again, exactly as the same. Forget about what you've put down on the left-hand column. Forget about how important those items are in your job. Just focus on the second column from the left, which is your prison skill level. And again, to give yourself a nice profile, you again restricted to the number of fives or falls or threes. And as you can see on the graphic, they are the same. And the fires between 36 et cetera, right down to number one, where you are only allowed no less than two at no more than three. And now you are looking, as I say, at your own strengths and weaknesses. Once you've done that, I'd obviously, you have a column there which is requiring any additional skills no or some or yes. If, for example, you've rated something when you've gone through the column, left column, and the second column. And you go through, and you identify that there's a gap of two or more. In other words, how important it is in the job is a five. You've rated yourself a three or a two in yes, you have a skills need. The right-hand column is just for you to think about any comments or ideas you might have as you're working through this program. So you don't forget it. You can come back to that. Okay. Now, of importance here is that the document itself, as you work through it will focus only on the managerial practices themselves. It doesn't include practices relating to the various functional areas, such as finance or marketing or personnel, et cetera. It focuses strictly on the managerial practices which are generic to management. Now, you might ask yourself, why don't I get my boss to do it? He surely knows where my strengths and weaknesses are. Well, let me remind you that the best judge of a person's strengths and limitations is the person himself. So you be the judge. Go ahead. Enjoy completing your training, needs analysis until the next lesson. Goodbye and enjoy yourself. 6. 3.1 Productivity: Greetings again from Don. Lesson is on productivity. Productivity often confused by some work as a, particularly trade unionists as being just another word for retrenchment. Maybe some companies in the old days did simply use retrenchment in order to so-called improve productivity. Well, this lace and moves far away from that. Thinking. Our productivity here focuses on actually improving our outputs rather than retrenching our workers our objectives for this lesson. First of all, let us clearly understand what is meant by productivity. What is meant by productivity improvements? How do we measure these improvements? Then we're going to look at what I call the performance management model. A series of questions and headings which identify areas which might be inhibiting productivity in a work area which you are responsible. And later on, using a tool developed by chap called Kurt Lewin's force field analysis. We will analyze an area in your work area where you feel you could actually improve productivity. Now, productivity in its simplest form, is often defined as the output, the end result, divided by the input, your resources. For example, that if you produce 400 units and it costs you a 100 labor hours, that will give you a productivity of a four-point naught. Now, this is only a partial productivity measure. For two reasons. Number one, only one input is being considered here, and that is your labor hours. And we know there are many more inputs or resources that have to be taken into account. A second problem here is that the quality of those 400 units is not taken into account. Remember, not all output or wanted or of the required standard. We have reworks, we sometimes have scrap and rejects, et cetera. And this often leads to incorrect reporting of your productivity statistics. Where you do not take into account the inputs and all the quality of the output. So from what we look at now, productivity has to do with the output, the quality of that output, and then the resources that have been used up, in other words, the input. So if we were to define now productivity, and here I'm going to focus on what are called blue collar productivity. People who are directly involved online with production, with actual manufacturing, even the selling of particular products, et cetera. And, and even buying products. That when we buy ten units, not one of them is actually reaching. So it is your total outputs. Those that meet your quality standards. And other words, lists the reject. But now it is divided by not just one input, but your turtle inputs. K, In other words, your labor, your money that budget or, or labor costs your, your materials or energies, the electricity, et cetera, all the costs of your equipment, the tools, the facilities, your rental, et cetera. And of course, as we know from our previous lesson on time management, time also is taken into account. So well-founded definition of productivity is the attainment of your output requirements, which are meet your quality standards with the efficient use of all inputs, including time. People ask, that's how we measure white, blue collar productivity. How do we measure Management and supervisory levels? Well, it is also much the same. It is the attainment though, of their objectives which have been set for them individually. And all. The attainment of their standards. Remember, standards are for all managers in a similar position or all supervised in a similar position. Standards apply to the job that's being done. Objectives applied to the individual doing the job. And then that is divided by the total inputs. So if that's productivity, where can the productivity losses actually occur in the order parchment? Well, let's look at the inputs. The loss can occur where you have poor inputs. The machinery is not of the desired standard. The information you're getting is incorrect. Or the people who you have hired or had been employed for you in your department, do not come up to scratch. The process itself. Yes. We lose productivity if the inputs are wasted. If we have a good quality product or raw material, raw material and we miss manage it in the process. We will end up with a wasted output. Outputs. We can also have productivity losses in our result, in the quality. We can have the unwanted outputs with a rejects. Now, an interesting look at we mentioned an objectives, productivity improvement. We're going to take place. What does it mean? Well, if we look at the prison situation on this graph, we have 400 units. It costs a 100 in total resource or inputs. So our productivity figure in this instance is 4 naught. Now, if we increase the output to 420 back, we maintain our input. In other words, we say more output for the same input. 420 is now the output. The input remains the same. More for the same, our productivity improves to 4.2. Or we can maintain our output of 400, but we can decrease our input. And this is where the unions and the workers escaped that. When we say decrease input, it means retrenching staff. But it doesn't. As we'll see as we go through the programs. For example, we can save on our material costs by not wasting it. Just as an example. But here, the same 404 less 96 will give us that productivity figure of 4.2. Midi adventurous at I found very successful managers, particularly during economic downturns where people are trying to cut back on expenses. I know of a couple have worked with who have been very successful by saying, I am actually going to spend more during this bad period. And they do, they go out and they spend more from night from a 100 to a 104. But they output has increased to 440. They've spent a lot more on advertising, for example, okay. Possibly bringing in better equipment, cost money. But it has produced a better product, less reject, et cetera. So we have more for more. We increase output and we increase our input for 40 divided by your 104 gives you that increased productivity figure of 4.2. We have another one here. I'm very wary of it and I pointed out is less, for less. We loose our market share. So we decrease our, our inputs to 90 and we take the knock on our volume, and we only produce 380 units, that it costs us less. So our productive figure is 4.2. Be wary of this, particularly if you've might have lost market share. It costs as much as four times more to regain the market share as it did in where you were in the initial stages. 7. 3.2 Productivity: This graphic gives an actual example of what we spoke about. More for more, investing more in your materials or investing more in a bitter that piece of equipment in order to achieve more volume. So let's take the standard on the lift. The current situation is your sales or a 100. The material costs 55, your labor costs ten, the fixed costs 25. Your profit then is ten, and you'll return on sales is ten. Now, how do we improve those bottom two figures? Well, more for more, as we can see, the sales increases to 110. By having spent more money on materials from 55 to 65. The labor costs have moved from ten to 11. Your fixed costs remain the same. Obviously, your profit, our river moves from ten to 13.5 and you'll return on. Sales is considerable. It moves from ten to 12. If we look at the less, for less. And I warned about the potential problems of less for less. Here, the standard remains the same as per the previous graph. But now our sales decrease from a 100 to 90. Still deliberately, it's part of our strategy. We've saved on our material costs to 49.5. Our labor costs are reduced from ten to nine. Your fixed costs remain the same, but the profit dropped from ten to 6.5 and your return on your Sales drops down from ten to seven. If we look at a very, very manageable way of improving productivity in a department, is to look at the same for lists. How can we work smarter? The sales of a 100, they remain the same. But we're deliberately have saved on our materials from 55 to 52.25. It doesn't sound a lot. Let's see, the affected Hess and labor remains the same. Your fixed costs remain the same. The profit routes from ten to 12 comma 75, and your return on sales from ten to 13%. That is considerable. When we talk productivity, it is generally accepted that productivity is influenced by two key factors, namely technology, that is your equipment, your machinery, et cetera. And by the employee performance. A company that only invests in technology and equipment and upgrading of that type of area and does not spend any money on employee performance is going to suffer. On the other hand, to spend lots of money on employee performance. And they are not spending money on improving the technology and their equipment, etcetera is equally going to suffer. The successful companies have a very healthy balance of technology and employee performance. And the employee performance comes from two main areas. The motivation. Do they actually want to do the job? Do they want to put effort in? And we'll talk more about that. And the other one that scores is the ability of the skills and the knowledge through training, et cetera, that gives them the ability to do the job. The performance management model that I'm going to look at now attempts to highlight some of the major factors which affect the employee performance. In other words, the motivation and the ability. 8. 3.3 The Performance Management Model: A performance management model. Factors affecting employee performance. Okay. Number one, are the individual abilities of the individual. This is the extent to which the employee possesses and is provided by the company with the necessary know-how to perform the job. And the component parts of your individual abilities of the knowledge and the skills. The knowledge is the necessary organizational and technical knowledge to perform the job. In other words, the reason for and the importance of their jobs. Why are they here? Is their job important? And how do they relate to other jobs in the organization? I was with a major motor manufacturing company a few years ago. And outside this huge factory, there was equally big sign and it said that your job in this factory is the most important job. I thought about that and heart true. So your and then of course we have off to your knowledge, your skills areas, both the mental and the physical ability to perform their duties. Some tasks require a lot of physical effort. Okay. And so that is your individual abilities. The second area on the performance management factors which affect your employee's performance is the performance expectations. In other words, the extent to which an employee knows what is expected of him in his job. And these expectations consist of two areas, the performance standards and the goals and objectives. And as I've mentioned earlier, your performance standards apply to the job. The goals and objectives apply to the individual. So your performance standard is the extent to which the performance standards which they define your job competency, that they are established. And not only that they're understood, but are they accepted by the employees? For me to say to somebody, You're not really bright while he says, I understand that, but I do not accept it. So understanding and accepting a critical here with standards. Likewise with the goals and objectives, as I say, they apply to the individual himself or herself. This is the extent to which improved levels of performance have been defined. And they are both understood. And as I mentioned before, accepted by the employees either to raise this the performance up to standard or to take them from the standard they are currently achieving and to grow and develop them by setting a growth objective for the individual. 9. 3.4 Performance Management cont: The third subsection and other performance management model is the performance opportunity. In other words, the extent to which the employee is given the opportunity to perform the job or is prevented from doing so. And some of these factors affecting performance opportunity are, for example, the workflow itself, the systems and procedures. And it says the extent to which these exist. Do we do you have proper workflow? Are this systems and procedures in place which facilitate which makes it easier for the person, the individual to do his or her job or do they block effective performance? Then there is the organization structure itself. This is a critical module that I've included in the advanced management program which I am putting together. And this is the extent to which that organization structure either facilitate or prevents effective performance. Does the subordinate have more than one bus, for example? Then there is the design of the job itself. And this is the extent to which the job allows for or prevents effective performance. And also, does it allow for development and growth of the individual? The provision of resources? You have the tools to do the job. The extent to which the necessary resources, including time, the correct information, et cetera, are they sufficient to do the job? And then we have the freedom to act. As in our lesson on delegation. Also part of the advanced management program. The extent to which the employees are able to make the necessary decisions that affect their work. Remember, insurance versus the freedom to do the job. 10. 3.5 Performance Management cont: The fourth area is the feedback. The extent to which an employee receives information or feedback about his or her performance, and that this employee is able to act appropriately on that information. Does he know exactly what he has to do more of or less of? And the key factors which affect this are, first of all, the quality of the feedback. The degree to which the feedback is specific enough to the employee that he can either change or continue with his behavior to achieve those performance expectations. To say to a guy You're doing a great job, keep it up. Sounds good. What? He walks away puzzled. What must I keep doing? Or to say to him, Look, you're really not part of the team anymore. Does he know or does he realized that you actually say that your sales report on Friday was two hours late. So equality is important. And then we talk about the frequency and the immediacy. How often the feedback has given it to an employee, and how soon after the event he receives it. The sooner the feedback, the more powerful. I am going to include in terms of feedback, the performance appraisal system. And this is the extent to which a formal performance system exists in your company. And again, the extent to which it is both excepted, understood as being valid by customers and employees. Your major, your top 500 companies in the USA, for example, they do a performance progress review once every three or four months, and then they do the full performance appraisal at the end of the year. This maintains standards. It maintains high performance. Performance starts to deteriorate. It is picked up within three or four months and correct it. So the final performance appraisal that you're in is a very, very positive interaction between two people who know exactly how the year has gone. The first area in the performance management system is the support. In other words, the extent to which an employee receives the necessary support in getting his job Dad. And some factors that we must consider are, first of all, the maintenance of the esteem of the employee. Self-esteem is the thread that runs through art or productivity based communication. Your communication in all other areas can be good. But if the self-esteem of the individual, the employee has been eroded. The performance is going to suffer. So the extent to which an employee is feeling of competency and self-worth or maintained and developed at all times. It is never, ever necessary to erode and individual self-esteem to make them feel that they are incompetent and inferior. Then there is the coaching and the help and facilitating which the company gives, the extent to which the employee can obtain help and guidance when required. This is the day to day coaching, very, very important. And then we have listening. Sounds easy. But it is the extent to which you listen to the views and the ideas and even the feelings of an employee and that you actively listen to them and act upon them. And then we have the group support. And this is the extent to which the team itself and peers support the employees efforts at his or her performance. The sixth and final part of the performance management model is the reward or the consequences. What happens after a person has displayed a certain behavior? It can be summed up by using your reinforcement techniques called reward, ignore, or punish. Let's have a look at some more detail. Yeah, let's look at the systems and the procedures in your organization and the extent to which your formal consequence systems and procedures, for example, your pay systems, your disciplinary procedures, do they exist? And again, are there excepted as well as understood by your employees. A very important part of your induction program, which again, should be done at least twice a year. Then we have the informal practices as opposed to these formal practices like the disciplinary procedure. And this is the extent to which your informal consequences of applied your, your counseling, your coaching, for example. Very important in your reinforcement techniques, is the frequency. The frequency which both the formal and the formal systems and practices are applied. So there are perceived as praise or discipline. So it must be done immediately. It must be done frequently. And when it happens, they should see it straight away as a positive reinforcement, as a craze for a desirable behavior. Or they see it as a punishment or a discipline for an undesirable behavior, which must then be changed from a productivity point of view. And then we have the appropriateness. The extent to which the consequences are appropriately applied will both behavior and performance. I'll use an example here. I see you haven't been absent from work for three months. You know what would happen if you were absent? Now, that's not appropriate. I see you haven't been absent from work for three months. Keep up the good work. It is a good example for the team and it makes my job a lot easier. 11. 3.6 Project and Force Field Analysis: Right, we've covered a lot of the theory and the practical aspects of performance management model, et cetera. We're now going to look at a project which I would like you to carry out. Try it out. If it doesn't succeed. At least you've tried. I'm confident there that it will work for you. I'd like you to select one area in your work environment. Keep it simple. We're productivity could be improved. First of all, on a piece of paper accurately described the present situation. Then describe the desired results. You could be talking labour turnover, you could be caught talking rejects. You could be talking machine breakdowns. You could be talking sales or the profitability of those sales. Could be called focussing on the number of cold calls which should or could be made per month. And then I'd like you to identify the stopping forces. I'll explain it in more detail just now. In other words, those forces which you feel preventing your achieving the desired result. Then we identify the pushing forces and we do it in this order because people always think about what the negative first, but it can't be done. So let's get those out of the way except them. And then we'll look at the pushing force is, let's look at what is helping us. What are the forces that are in favor of helping us to move from the prison situation to the desired situation. And then those forces over which we have no control, we delete them, don't waste time on it. And we then draw up an action step to increase our pushing forces and to reduce or eliminate the stopping forces. A useful too here is what we call the force field analysis developed by a gentleman called Kurt Lewin. I have used it many times in all sorts of forms. Particularly where I want the employees or the workforce to be directly involved with the end result, with the action steps that are involved, the more they are committed. And this is part of a vital part of productivity. So there we have it. We start in the middle with the prison situation or the presence state. For example, we're running with 10% labour turnover. The desired state. What are we looking for? We are looking at 2% as good average labour turnover. So let's first of all ask the workforce what is causing the labour turnover, the stopping forces, why can we not achieve 2%? And so they come out with all their grumbles. There's no transport. And one of the managers is rude to them when they go for the supplies, et cetera. Some of the machinery keeps breaking down and we go on and on and we say, Are there anymore or they're anymore. And collect ran out of them. If they add one later, we will add it. And then we said, Okay, let's focus on the positives now. What are the forces, the pushing force to that can help us to move from that present state of 10% to the desired state. And one of them of course, is my involvement in it, how I want it to work, and I'm involving u, those are to pushing forces. Ok, then there is budget for buying a new piece of machinery, for example. So I could start with them to list the pushing forces. Okay, once that has been done, then we identify those forces over which we have no control. And I'm not talking about the ones where we can refer it to the maintenance department or the buying section or the plant engineer or my boss. If that is in my control, I can do that. But if something is totally out of control in terms of law or in terms of major company policies. Then we just delete them and we draw up the action steps so that we can reduce those stopping forces, ideally trying to eliminate some of them, but increase the pushing forces, which would enable us to move from the present state of 10% through 7, 8% down to say 4%, and eventually to the desired state of 2%. I now would like to thank you for working with me on this. And I hope you've enjoyed it as much as I've enjoyed putting it together, brings back good memories. School very, very practical in today's environment. And it does form a vital part of the advanced management program, which we will be putting on the market in the very near future. So goodbye, thanks again and good luck. 12. 4.1 Delegation: Greetings again from Don. The listen we're going to look at now is the listen on a delegation. The key objectives as we work through this listen together. First of all, we're going to look at how do we delegate effectively the steps for delegating. And we're going to have a look at a project to how we can apply it in a work situation. Going back to objective number one, to delegate effectively, what we are going to look at is, what do we delegate? In other words, what do we not delegate? Why should we delegate? What are the benefits, in other words, and the benefits to you as a manager. The benefits to your company or your organization. And if there are any benefits to your subordinate or your subordinates. We're also going to spend quite a bit of time looking at the reasons or the causes, why some managers either over delegate or under delegate. And then we will take those reasons and look at the consequences. The consequences to the manager himself who either over or under delegates. The consequences to the company and particularly the consequences to the subordinates or the team working for you. In encouraging the best out of employees at work. An important practice is always to give them the freedom to decide how the job is to be done. In other words, the process. You as the manager will decide what you would like to delegate. You would like how well it would be done and by when for example, in other words, the standards. But the process allow the subordinate the freedom to actually decide on how he or she would like to go about achieving your standards and your task. The decisions which employees are most committed to are those which they've made themselves. We know that and even if an employee makes a wrong decision, he will most likely work hard at it to turn it into the rightward. Now, the foregoing that we've discussed here involves delegation, which is a critical aspect of any manager's job. It is also the area where you, the manager have the greatest amount of discretion. In other words, you can decide what and what not to delegate. 13. 4.2 Assigning, Delegating, Abdicating: As we can see on the graphic, we're talking about three concepts. Assigning and delegating and abdicating. Delegation is not the same as assigning work or task. There are certain duties which fall logically or naturally into a subordinates lap. And the only actual required by you, the manager, will be to decide which subordinate is assigned the work to be done. A receptionist should actually receive guests, answer telephones, etcetera. Okay. That is not your job. That is simply at her job and you would assign the task to her. Delegation takes place when you choose to turn over to a subordinate, the freedom to carry out the responsibilities associated with a key performance area of your job. With obviously appropriate follow-up and control, which we're going to spend some time on later on. You, the manager you will could've decided to either keep the task and perform it yourself, or you could decide to delegate it. Abdication. When some people find a task is distasteful or its least liked, or they don't know how to do it. Often, they simply abdicate. And this has a severe negative effect on your discretionary time, which we discussed in our previous lesson on time management. 14. 4.3 You cannot delegate accountability, only responsibility!: As mentioned earlier, delegation is where you decide to give you a subordinate their responsibility associated with a key performance area of your job. I'm repeating this because delegation is not the same as sorry, delegation. I mentioned earlier that when we delegate, we are giving the subordinate the responsibility associated with a key aspect of your job. You cannot delegate accountability, responsibility. There is a severe, serious misunderstanding about this. When you delegate responsibility. Okay? You are accountable as the manager, it is part of your job. Ok? So if something goes wrong because you've delegated ineffectively, you are accountable. You can only delegate the responsibility to do the task. Okay. Let's look at the benefits to us and others of delegating effectively. Number one, it gives you the additional discretionary time which we mentioned the entire management. And it allows you to gain control of the content and the timing of your job. It also enables you to focus on those aspects of your job, which only you are qualified to do through your personal experience, your knowledge, and those skills that you bring to the position. Delegation gives you time for planning and anticipating problems before they occur. The fourth, the benefit is that delegation will motivate your employees. Why? Well, their feelings of self-worth and competence, their self-esteem is increased, as is their training and their growth for future positions. And naturally, a B for a responsibility can be delegated to an employee. He or she must possess the necessary knowledge and the skill to effectively carry out that responsibility. Or they must have the potential and the ability to learn how to do it. 15. 4.4 Constraints: Naturally, before a responsibility can be delegated to an employee, he must possess the necessary knowledge and the skill to effectively carry out that task. Or you must have the potential to learn how to do it. When an employee takes on a delegated responsibility. He should be made clear about three constraints. What it should be doing, and how well or how soon it should be done. Are there any policies that are involved that he must adhere to? And what sort of degree of freedom are you going to allow him or her? And this I will discuss in more detail later in the lesson. So the constraints are the objectives and the standards by which he or she must operate the policies. Is there a particular budget that he has to adhere to or part of the labor law. And what sort of degree of freedom are you. And to allow the subordinate. When we talk about the degrees of freedom, we can only allow a degree of freedom if initially, as mentioned in the time utilization program, you are in control of the timing and the content of your job. What you should actually be doing, how much time you should be spending on the important versus the urgent tasks. If you are an obscure your heart, then we move to our degrees of freedom and all insurance. What do we mean? Well, the degree of freedom, how much freedom you allow the person, the more freedom he or she has, less insurance you have in terms of things going wrong. The less freedom they have to do the job, the more insurance you have to ensure that things do not go wrong. And there are five degrees of freedom available to you. The first is to allow the person to act on his or her own. And just routine reporting only. For example, you can say to somebody, I'd like you to do the monthly XYZ report and just let me know how it goes on a, on a, on a weekly basis. So they have a lot of freedom. But you have very little insurance if things to go wrong. Where somebody is not as proficient, you could ask them to act and then come in and advise immediately on how well it went. So you ask somebody to go and handle a particular grievance, they'd be trained to do it and say go and handle it and then come and tell me immediately, hard wind so that you can take appropriate action if necessary. And in time where somebody is new to the job, you ask them to do something. They say don't handle agreements before they're handle it. You can say that. First of all, let's work through it with me. Recommend tell me how you're going to do it. Tell me what you're going to do. And then you can go away and act. So recommend then act. Limited freedom. And a lot of insurance numbers, 45, nameless, they'll come to you and ask, what must I do now? I've finished this bus, what must I do to now? Level five is even worse. You walk around and you say, why you're not doing anything. I'm waiting to be told. Okay. So in your dealings with your subordinates, you as a manager, obviously must never let them drop below level three on the freedom scale. 16. 4.5 Potential Problems and Potential Effects: In this session, we're going to spend a lot time talking about over delegation. What are the potential problems of over delegating to your subordinates? But let's first look at the acceptable reasons for over delegating. First of all, you could over delegate. If you are training or coaching someone where the task is one normally done by you, the manager. But it is then delegated as part of a training session. So you're over delegating, but it is acceptable if you are there to try and coach somebody or to give them an opportunity to develop. It is also acceptable if you are involved with succession planning, where an individual has been identified for potential promotion, or possibly to deputizing In the absence of the manager, then certain tasks may be delegated, which would normally be done by the manager. So either you would over delegate. However, looking at the unacceptable side of it, unacceptable reasons would include that the manager dislikes the task. So they over delegate is too lazy to do the task. Or some managers actually delegate to prove the authority. Some methods is actually thick, that everything should be delegated. Moving into what I would call abdication. And hopefully not too often. Unacceptable reason is that the manager himself is actually unable to do the task. When we talk about under delegation. Not delegating enough, not allowing us to create more discretionary time to manage it. The important parts of our job, there are certain acceptable reasons why we should under delegate. And I've looked at two of them where we under delegate and we keep to ourselves the jobs to ourselves. If there is a high workload, there's a heavy a schedule and it's put pressure on the team, then you, the manager, can well go and help out. Another acceptable reason for under delegating is to keep in touch. Sometimes technology changes, sometimes systems change. Your your staff are doing things quietly differently now. And were you the manager, you involve yourself in these tasks normally undertaken by these others, but it's in order to keep in touch with their activities. Or possibly this change in technology which the team is now undergoing. Those would be acceptable reasons. However, there are also unacceptable reasons for under delegating. And that would include that the manager does to match. In order to cover for a lazy team. There's not enough discipline in the department. Or the manager is unwilling to tell others what to do. Here's a bit of a backlash from them. Is unsure how task is done. So what does he do? It covers up by not allowing others to become involved, they might see that he's actually not all that competent. Or a common reason is insecurity. And by delegating, many managers think that the staff are going to take over there it seen as a threat to his position. But as we saw with over delegating at times, we needed for succession planning. Let's look at the potential effects now. On number one, the manager of too much delegating. First of all, the effects of too much delegating is it causes resentment. You are abdicating your responsibilities. By too much delegating the effect on you. You lose the respect to the r star. And you can actually lose touch with what the staff really are doing. And you may be through losing touch, lose control. And I've seen it happen. We move into a situation called managing upwards. We have a staff have been trained in certain areas, certain new ways. You weren't interested in going on it, okay? And they start to actually use a language or jargon that you are unfamiliar with unless talked to manage up to little potential effects on too little delegation. You, the manager, or overwhelmed. You have no time for your planning to create their discretionary time. It makes no provision for work to be done in your absence. Who's going to do it if you are not there? You become despised by the team. They, they did lose that respect which I mentioned. And also with too little, there can actually as a team take advantage of you. Now, there are also effects of over or under delegating on the T and the effects on the team when the manager delegates too much or too little r. Well, for too much, the team is overworked. It's inefficient. They are managing and they are not doing their jobs. They are being given too much of your job to do. They should be involved with vocational time and you should be involved with management time. This obviously will lead to the possibility of the team making mistakes in the areas of both managing and the vocational or the doing of their jobs, productivity suffers. The team resents the manager, and many times the staff turnover is high. And an interesting incident that I saw in a factory recently where we were looking at high turnover in one department, the staff had high turnover, but it was interesting that the wages that that department was being paid were higher than other departments doing similar work. This showed me that the header severe problem with management. Management was trying to buy the the his or his or her cooperation and support. But we're had high labour turnover. The effects on the team of too little delegation. Obviously the individuals don't develop. You have no succession plan in place. Your motivation is low. And if motivation is low, motivation means effort. If at the amount of effort they put into it, you are going to have more rejects, you are going to have poor productivity. Also, a team becomes complacent. And complacency leads to mediocrity. Also a severe consequences that team feels insecure, they not trusted to do some of your job. Now, I'll end this by saying, you cannot as a manager and you will not be promoted if you have not identified and developed a successor for you in your position. 17. 4.6 When your boss delegates work to you: The next graphic talks about what do you do when your boss delegates something to you. What he's asking for is what I'm going to be calling completed work. And this is going to show us what your boss actually wants from you. And obviously what he does not want. And then what is the final test to make sure that you have achieved the completed work your boss desired or delegated. Completed work is the study of a problem and the presentation of a solution by you, the manager, in such a form that all remains to be done on the part of the boss is to indicate either his approval or disapproval of this completed action. And the words completed action or emphasized. Because the more difficult the problem is, the more that tendency is to present the problem to the boss in piecemeal fashion. But by, but now it is your duty as the manager to work out the details. You should not consult your boss in the determination of these details. No matter how complex or perplexing They may be. You may in fact are say you should involve other staff members and peers in advice and so on. The product should, when you present to your boss, were approval or disapproval be worked out in a finished form, not bits and pieces. The impulse, which often comes to the inexperienced manager to ask the boss what to do. Recurse more often when the problem is difficult. It's often accompanied by a feeling of mental frustration. It is so easy to ask the boss what to do, but Piasa, easy for him to answer. And our underlying this, it is your job to advise your bus what he ought to do, not to ask him what you ought to do. He needs onces, not questions. Your job is to study, right? Restudy, and rewrite until you have evolved a single proposed action. The best one of all that you have considered. Your boss barely approves or disapproves. Do not worry your boss with long explanations and memos. Writing a memo to your boss does not constitute completed work. Your views should be placed before him in a finished form so that he can make them his views simply by signing his name. In most instances, the complete work results in a single document prepared for the signature of the boss without any accompanying comments. If the proper result is a tree achieved, the boss will usually recognize it at once. And if you want any comment or any explanation, well then he will ask for it. This theory of completed work does not preclude what we call a rough draft. But a rough draft must not be a half-baked way. It must be completed in every respect, except that it lacks the required number of copies and it need not be neat. This completed work may result in more work for you, but it results in more freedom for your boss. And this is as it should be. He's delegated so that he can have more discretionary time. Further, completed work accomplishes two things. The bus is protected from these half-baked ideas from volume in this memoranda and immature oral presentations. You, his subordinate, who have a real idea to sell, you are enabled more readily to find a market for your ideas, your thoughts, and your solutions, you can actually create a good impression on your bus. The final test, when you have finished your completed work. The final test is this. If you were the boss, would you be willing to sign the paper that you've prepared and stake your professional reputation on it being right? Now if the answer is in the negative, take it back and work it over because it is not yet completed. Staff work. 18. 4.7 Project and Action Steps: In moving to the conclusion of this lesson on delegation, I've put together a project which I am sure you will enjoy doing. The first thing is to identify a task where you feel you can delegate to a subordinate, either to grow them or just to test the delegation program and your skills. So identify tasks. You can irrigate two particular subordinate and then using the following action steps which are going to be coming up on the next graphic before you delegate. Plan on paper your steps number 12. And then during the delegation process, that interaction, or immediately afterwards, complete steps 45 on a piece of paper and then evaluate your performance against the action steps. And what you have learned in the course on delegation, evaluate your performance. Action. Step number one is to state the tasks that you would likely employee to handle and why you would like him or her to handle it? To state the performance standards? What how well by When, et cetera. And go back and have a look at the degree of freedom you are gown gain to allow this particular subordinate based on the competence. Also very important is to ask for his or her reaction. You might find one of surprise or fear or nervousness, white, white. Why? My boss, okay. Listen and respond openly, acknowledging any concerns. Five, ask for agreement and offer any assistance. And then number six, express your confidence in the employee's ability to successfully accomplish this task. This concludes the program on delegation. As we can see, it forms a vital part or twin to the time management and all time utilization program. I hope you've enjoyed it. And I'm quite confident that through delegating, you will achieve the objectives and the benefits as outlined on this program. I look forward to seeing you in the next lesson, which is going to be on productivity. Goodbye. Okay. 19. 5.1 Time Utilisation: Greetings, it says Don again. Another lesson. We've done the interviewing program, done the leadership, and now we move to the time management, or as often call it the time utilization program. Now, the objectives of this particular time management or time utilization cause is to give you the opportunity as a manager to utilize your own time more effectively. It can, and I stress this be used also to help subordinates to manage their time more effectively. Now in order to do this, we need to identify what are the causes of the time management problems. Once we've identified the causes as per a doctor who's identified the cause of the pain. We can then look at how do we control the content and the timing of our jobs. If we do that, we move to our third objective, which is to make forbids the use of not only our own time, but also the time of our subordinates. The program itself, the time utilization program, does not concentrate on what we call efficiency techniques, like a sorting out your in tray or having your secretary screen calls for you. And it certainly doesn't encourage you to rush off and buy a very expensive diary to help you if you do have a problem with your time management. Now these techniques like diaries and screening calls, they are useful, but only if you are in control of your time in the first place. So no matter how, no matter how efficient you are, you are not effective in your job. If you are doing the wrong things, things that somebody else should be doing. Now the largest and the most enduring time games that you can make will be by making sure that you are doing the right things. First. In other words, you are being effective and then do them well, do them efficiently. So while efficiency and your job is important, in other words, how well you do something. Efficiency alone can cause you to lose sight of the content of your job, the effectiveness of what you should be doing. And in this lesson, we're going to concentrate on how to get control of the timing and the content of our job. This is what time utilization is all about. 20. 5.2 Time Utilisation: Okay, in this section, we're going to be talking about three different types of time. First of all, we're going to cover discretionary time, what it means, the impact it has on your time utilization. And then later in the lesson, we will be talking about vocational time versus management time. So let's start now with the discretionary time. Discretionary time is the time that you, as a manager, create for yourself what we call self directed time. Hearing need this time. You need to create it in order to plan, to organize or to activate or control the vital aspects of your job. There are other kinds of time which are not self directed and they severely impact your discretionary time. Again, which prevents you from planning and controlling, et cetera. And they eat up your time. And these are what we call bas, imposed, subordinate imposed and system imposed. How much time you spend on the boss, subordinate or system impose time will affect your output. Now, how do you control these three? So that you give yourself the necessary discretionary time to work on the most important areas of your job. 21. 5.3 Time Utilisation: Okay, so we spoke about the boss systems and subordinate imposed time. Let's look at the upward leaping assignments. These are assignments that you get from your subordinates. If your subordinate comes to you with a problem, and he says, and you say to him, well, leave it with me. Let me think about it. I'll get back to you. What has happened is that you have the next move. Upward leaping assignments or sources are generally bad. Why? Because they leave you with one more thing to do and your subordinate with one less. Do you remember not all are bad. However, there are times the subordinate will come to you looking for advice or help. And the way to manage that time is to help him and to help him quickly and not to waste a lot of time on it. The majority of these upward leaping sources or assignments that you get ten down river to leap onto your back when they don't belong there. So these are the ones that you really need to watch out for upward leaping assignments. They eat into your discretionary time. We'll see later on how are you actually manage them. But for now, what if you can help them do so if it is not his job, do not end up by saying, I'll come back to you. Rather, ask him to go away and think about the problem and to come to you with possible solutions, right? The subordinate imposed assignment begins with a source when it makes the successful jump or leap from the subordinates back onto yours. Now, this eats up your time because you end up doing things for your subordinate, which he actually should be doing for himself. You are guilty of procrastination if or wasting your subordinates time if you don't handle those things. So decide on the ones yet you must hand bacterial, subordinate inducer. Those. Were you he need your advice or assistance, as I've said, handled him quickly and spend a little time as possible. Your downward leaping assignments are ones which unfortunately you are going to get from your boss. And they result in bus imposed time. In other words, the time that you spend doing things to satisfy your boss's requirements. That if you don't do this, it's not procrastination. It's called insubordination. And that's what you're guilty of if you postpone working on a downward leaping assignment. Now, every job has a certain amount of boss impose time. It's necessary to keep the organization running smoothly. But And remember if the bosses imposed time comes to you, it is invariably urgent. So do them immediately and do it correctly the first time. Your sideways leaping, all your system imposed time problems are jobs that you get from your peers, whether they are internal peers like a fellow manager or a sales rep or something. Or they can't come from outside the organization. A buyer or a vendor or trade union official. And they result in system impose time, The time you spend doing things to satisfy the requirements of the system as opposed to your job. This we called it red tape that you have to deal with in getting support from internal peers, like Requests for authorization or some forms that need to be done in triplicate, et cetera. They are sideways leaping assignments. When external peers exercise their claims on you like customers are said, Well shareholders, they are also giving you these sideways leaping assignments or tasks to perform. Now, these sideways leaping assignments, like the downwards and the upward ones, they eat up your discretionary time. However, the sideways leaping assignments, like the ones that come from your boss, the downward ones, they are necessary to keep the organization running. You're always going to have them there. There's nothing you can do about them. Back, what you have to do is to get control of them, to get control of both the content and the amount of time that you're going to spend on them. The content and the time is so important. Handle these sources and assignments correctly and you will give yourself the discretionary time you need. In the next little session with a nice graphic, we're gonna look at ways in which you can actually manage the control, the content, and the time of your job. 22. 5.4 Time Utilisation: As mentioned earlier, there were three types of time. The discretionary time, the vacation or time, and the management time. Let's focus now on the vocational time doing rather than managing. So even if you solve the external problems are the interruptions that come from the boss, or from the systems, or from your subordinate. There is still an internal problem which can affect your job. And that is the temptation to do things when you should be managing. The occasional time, is the time which you as a manager spend doing something rather than getting it done through others. All managers have to do some vocational tasks, but some do more than they should. And they were rationalize it by saying ought to match quicker. No one else knows how to do it like I do. But the long-term effects of their behavior is to hold themselves and the subordinates back. It would appear that the main reason for doing too much vocational work is the tendency to retreat to the familiar. And this is what people do when faced with a course of action involving things that they do not yet do well and therefore do not like to do. It particularly applies to the newer manager as he moves up the management chain. Vocational work also offers some very tangible rewards. You can see them, you can measure them, and the boss can see and measure them to very tangible. And many people do not like to give it up as they progress through the management ranks. When faced with a conflict between doing the vocational work, which they actually love and the managerial work that is part of their job. What many managers attempt to solve this by is keeping the same amount of occasional work, even as they managerial workload gets larger until there are no more hours in the week. I'm going to illustrate this on a graph. You, if you are a person who enjoys management work, let me repeat this. If you are a person who enjoys management work but does not want to give up the vocational work entirely. Then it's up to you to see the point at which you should stop taking more managerial responsibility. Let's have a look at this vocational versus management time. And the top horizontal axis is your managerial time. Let's, for example, take a 40 hour week. Very senior management, let's assume 35 hours of management and five hours of vocational actually answering the telephone or writing a MIMO, et cetera. On the bottom axis, horizontal axis is the vocational work. And again, with a vocational work, you need to at least plan your job. So there's a couple of hours there of actual management work, but the majority is actually doing physically the work. And as we can see, moving up from supervisory level at the vertical access into middle management, into senior management. So the amount of vocational work decreases, the amount of management work increases. That's the ideal. If however, as I mentioned earlier, you loved the vocational side of it and you're not prepared to give it up, but you want to take on more management work. Let's look at an example in the middle management position. Let's say in the 40 hour week you should be doing 20 hours management and 20 hours of vocational work. But now, if you have brought up from your previous position, let's say 30 hours of vocational work and you bring it up plus the 20 hours of management work you are now going to require to do. You are moving into a 50 hour week. The result here is the person the man gets home at night with work to do or who works through his lunch hour. This is a sign of somebody who is not working according to the correct amount of management and vocational time. 23. 5.5 Time Utilisation: The next area I'd like to touch on is referred to as the management circle of influence. But because each circle of influence is unique, I've called this one your circle of influence. You, the person who's listening to me and sharing their views with me. Now, on this time management course, your circle of influence is the people you deal with in your job. As we saw earlier on, we've got the boss, we've got subordinates who we'd have internal and external peers or the system. It is the same here. Center of the circle is you. And then you have the boss above you, your internal and your external peers. And below you are the subordinates. You are the nucleus of your circle of influence. And you depend on all the other elements of your circle to support you if you are to be successful. And this is so important because nothing says that they have to support you. You have authority over your subordinates. If u ofs asked him to carry out a law for reasonable instruction that have to do it. This does not apply to your external peers, naughty or internal peers, and certainly not to your bus. There is nothing that says that they have to support you other than the subordinates. So you have to work for their support. And that takes some of your discretionary time app. Now, the people in your circle of influence will interrupt you. And your job can be adversely affected. If they're interruptions become too disruptive. Interruptions are inevitable. And the solution to the problem is not to get rid of the interruptions, but to minimize their disruptive effect. How, by getting control of your job. Pareto's principle, of which I'm sure you are familiar. It's also called the 20-80 rule. It states that about 20% of the internal and external peers that you deal with will have the greatest effect on your job and your career. The 20% of the internal and external peers you deal with will have the greatest effect on your job and career. So if you have limited time, give priority to those vital 20 24. 5.6 Time Utilisation: Your overall control of the content and the timing of your job depends on a mixture of three different things. One is doing your job or doing somebody else's job. When you do your own job, we call this a positive active task. We'll discuss it later. So doing your job or assigning work means giving the work to the person who should be doing it. You shouldn't be answering the telephone if your secretary is sitting there, for example. Otherwise, delegation. And this means giving up some of your managerial work to give your, give you more discretionary time. And dedication will be our next lesson. How do you go about delegating effectively? The important thing to remember as on the screen here, is in order to get as much discretionary time as possible. In every given situation. You need to plan your work and work your plan, plan your work and work your plan on all the vocational work that you have to do. When it's your management work. What you need to do there is you need to number one, get control of the timing and the content of your job. And then you plan your work and you work your plan. 25. 5.7 Time Utilisation: But let's look now at a project that you can handle in order to make sure that you have the ability and the skills now to either manage your own time more effectively, or two, help a subordinate who may be struggling with time problems. The first thing you do when you return to work, and you're gonna be faced with a large variety of tasks to do. So, number one, make a list of all the things that need to be done. This must include all the tasks you have to get done. Everything. Not only the immediate things that are at hand, but even the longer-term projects. Make sure though, that when you do these do include those tasks which help you to achieve the primary purpose of your job, its objectives and developments. And, and remember, the to-do list does not have to be in any particular order. Now once you've done this number to identify what we call the active positive tasks and the reactive tasks. And I'll explain these. Cause you will undoubtedly be faced with a mess of large and small tasks. Some of them are going to be urgent or non-urgent. Some will be an important word, important and some will be less important. Some might well be very interesting, and some might be boring. These tasks will fall into two categories. The act of positive tasks and the reactive tasks. Now, the active positive task, that is something that task that you must do in order to achieve the objectives of your job. These are the tasks that would assist the organization in meeting its objectives. Active, positive tasks. These are important tasks. Then you have the reactive tasks. These are the tasks which land up on your disk and have to be dealt with to keep things running smoothly. Remember, the systems impose time, the boss impose time. To keep the organization running smoothly. They will be the, they must just be dealt with effectively. And they are called the reactive tasks. Now the danger is that many managers spend a lot of their time on these reactive tasks. Therefore, they are always terribly busy, but they never seem to meet their objectives. We call this apparent effectiveness. The third thing to do is now is to prioritize those tasks. And to do that, you look at your list of tasks and you list them in terms of how much time you want to spend on them. And this is determined by its importance. The greater the importance of the task, the more time should be allocated to it. How soon you have to complete the task. This is determined by its urgency. So importance and urgency on not the same and urgent task need not be important. It may be urgent but trivial, in which case I deal with it immediately, but devote only a small amount of time to it. If you have an urgent and an important task, do it as soon as you can, bearing in mind, you need to plan in a fair amount of time because it is important. If it is not important and it's not urgent, then leave it leave it for much later. So as a general guide, as I've mentioned here, your active positive tasks are most often the important ones. So next to the important ones you would put an active positive task or APT. Those are more, more than likely important. The reactive ones are often not important. Some of the reactive ones can actually be urgent there. Okay, so for a time point of view, we would do it early, but give it this time. If something is important and urgent, it must be assigned a high priority important act of positive tasks must be allocated sufficient time so that the work can be completed on deadline. Sales reports, marketing reports, training reports, et cetera. The unimportant but urgent tasks should be done immediately, but assign only a limited period of time to them. Once you've done that, you can allocate time in your diary. Allow the time for those active positive tasks. Number one, during which you do not wish to be disturbed. And you allow time to deal with the reactive tasks half an hour before lunch or whatever it might be, put aside time to deal with as reactive tasks. You should also allow time to practice management by walking around. This is where you have created discretionary time, time that you can use on your own to walk around a plan, organize, Have a look, monitor, motivate people. It is important to remember that one reactive task is dealing with visitors from your circle of influence. Now, you could shed your some drop in times when your door is open and you're happy to be interrupted. You could also as well as your staff at these times, some people do it, some people don't. That is up to you. But people didn't know when you when you cannot be interrupted. The first thing to go back and you go back, your job is to actually action this diary. Now, the sheer Jew, very important, work on one thing at a time and finish it. Too many. Major problems in time utilization occurred when somebody starts something which is important, and then they get interrupted, and then they come back and pick it up sooner or later. Now, you work on one thing at a time and you finish it, that is the ideal. You avoid jumping from task to task. It looks busy, but you are not going to achieve your time. And you are not going to achieve the objectives of your organization. Always develop that compulsion to closure. I have something which is important. I need to close it and I need to close it. Well, remember the final thing number six is priorities change. Things which are important today might not be as important. Tamara, there might be something even more critical. And the emphasis much. Therefore, your list and your time plan need to be updated on a daily basis. I hope you enjoyed doing your project and I hope it works as well for you as it has for me. And I can assure you from any other people that I've worked with. The next lesson that I have prepared is a listen on delegation. Why? Well, time management cannot be accomplished completely effectively without true delegation. Now that you can manage your time and the content of your time and your job. You have more discretionary time to work through and are quite confident you will enjoy. The delegation. Listen to follow. I thank you. 26. 6. Setting Standards and Objectives: Greetings from Don again. Moving into our next lesson. I've titled this one the setting of standards and objectives. In the past, I have when running my boards management program, often called it planning and control. So whether you're looking at planning and control or the setting of standards and objectives. It means the same thing. Now, why standards? Why are they so important? We know what objectives are that standards? Well, let's look at induction program for a start. Induction program for all new employees at any level. Should communicate that job standards and the behavioral standards for the new employee. You want his understanding. And if I might add more importantly, you want his or her acceptance of these standards as well. So it's a vital part of any effective induction program. You cannot run a performance appraisal system. With art, clearly defined standards. Performance appraisal is, you're measuring a person against the standards for the job. Discipline. How can one apply discipline? Fairly, both procedurally and substantively? With art, the employee and yourself, the employer having a very clear understanding of the standards by which we are measuring this individual. One of the most important parts leading into productivity improvement is the interviewing program. If you've got poor raw material coming into your factory, it is fairly simple to use the process of rejecting it back when you interview somebody and you employ them and they turn out that they are bad raw material, you have a very expensive time-consuming problem on your hand. So without job standards, without specs, how do you interview? Because when you interview you intervene that applicant against the specs that job specs for the for that particular job. Right? Let's have a look at our standards and our objectives for this program. First of all, you will understand the difference between standards and objectives. There is a lot of confusion here. And at the end of this program, you will clearly understand the difference of the two. Will also look at a method of setting standards, whether it's for an induction program interviewing or for a performance appraisal system. There must be a method and I will show you an effective method of setting standards. Once we know what standards are and we have set the standards for the various jobs. We are then. Able to implement a method of objective setting in order to obtain improvements. These we will discuss in greater depth as we worked through the program. Right? Let's have a look at the relationship now between standards and objectives. Okay? First of all, standards, standards mean a level of competence. And we'll discuss this in a bit more depth later on. But a standard is a level of competence very important and are repeated. Very important. Standards relate to the job, not the impolitely objectives. However, they showed that there is a change in the output level or there is an improvement in the results. Unlike a standard which as I said, relates to the job, objectives relate to the employee. Standards. Also, unlike objectives, they are ongoing, they are recurring and they continue over a long period of time. Standards will only change where there was a dramatic change in technology or a major change in the roots for various salespeople, et cetera. If they're route has increased dramatically, then one would relook their standards, et cetera. I mentioned I would expand upon this word competence, a simple definition, simply achieving that which needs to be achieved. Sales target, achieving that which needs to be achieved. Machine downtime for an autism. Achieving that which needs to be achieved. It is a level of achievement. What level of achievement? Well, neither a minimum nor the maximum. The minimum level of achievement as a, as a definition of competence, would leave no effort or motivation to actually achieve if it is the minimum effort. Likewise, if you set somebody as a standard, the maximum level, they all staggered into, lose the motivation to do it and they are not going to try. So we're looking at somewhere in between a good or an effective level of performance between minimum and maximum is a level of competence. Job standards measure levels of competence. However, objectives, we will set objectives where somebody is either below that level of competence, IEEE standard for the job, or where that person is consistently achieving. That level of competence to types of standards. The one commonly used by many, many companies throughout the year is the problem-solving objective. And that all it does is it restores the level to a level of competence somebody or a group is performing below the level. We set them a problem-solving objective to bring them to the level of competence, however, to grow the organization. Okay, and to grow the department or to grow the individuals. We should be looking for opportunities to set the innovating objectives. This grows the individual and the organization above competence. It moves from that average up towards the excellence. The most difficult to achieve. They are the ones that we should be looking at when we look at our standards and our objectives in this lesson. When we talk about objectives. And objective consists of two things. And it must, it must have a task. What do you want to achieve? And the measurement, planning and control, the setting of standards and objectives. How to control others, okay? By setting a task and a measurement, in other words, and objective, whether it's problem-solving or innovative, they must contain those two criteria. A task, for example, I've done one here is to develop a cost reduction plan. The measurement is to achieve your savings of 10 thousand by January 2020. Ok? So a measurement will always have time apart from other things like quality or quantity. That measurement will always have time. Develop cost reduction plan to achieve the year saving of 10 thousand by January 2020. Right? Let's work through the standard objective together to show how they relate to one another. First of all, the jobs standard. This applies, as I said, to all the job holders. All sales people will have the same job standard. That is to achieve the sales target on a monthly basis. If somebody is not achieving that, we move into a problem-solving objective for the employee. And we say to that employee, I want you to improve your sales by 7% to achieve the agreed sales target. In other words, he or she is below within the next two months. And innovative objective where no problem exists, but one or two salespeople are currently meeting the job standard is an opportunity to let them grow and to challenge them to grow the current sales target by an extra 5% to achieve higher monthly sales figures by the end of June. I do hear at times a salesperson saying, but why must I the OS to increase my sales over and above the monthly figure where x, y, z, and our department is struggling to achieve the figure. Well, my reply to that sales rep is to say, there's time's going to come where we are going to be looking for, for sales managers or people to move into marketing or to take over more responsibilities. And your track record is going to be very, very important to you. Let's look at a job Standard and objective again. On the production side now, to achieve a weekly production target of 100 units. Now, where we are failing to do that and individualist failing to do that, we set him up problem-solving objective to improve the current production level of 90 units to the budgeted a 100 units by when, by the end of the month. The innovative objective where we're growing to grow the company. And we are going to grow the individual. And you're going to have a good is to increase the current 100 units, a 110 units per week by the end of next quarter. Once we've got our objective, our task, and our measurement, we can then on a form, this is the document that are normally whose it's worked for me. I've seen others which worked for the individuals. If this has worked for me, three simple columns. Once I've agreed the objective with my staff member, for example, to increase sales of product a from 2.6% to a minimum of 2.9% of the market. During this year. I then work on three columns. My action steps by when and who's responsible. And what really is important here is the third item down. So analyzing sales records were determining the competitor service. The third one, checkpoint, not enough people in meeting, sales meetings and production meetings and engineering or maintenance meetings have that checkpoint. You do not want to end up towards the end of the year and find out that somebody has been sick or has not done his or her task or has confused it and said, oh, I thought the sales endless was not it was going to do not to me. So we have these checkpoints on a fairly regular basis in order to plan and control the name of this lesson. So I work with those three columns. You'll feed back control information. How will I, the job holder, know whether I am achieving the necessary results? How will I, the boss, know whether my subordinate is achieving the necessary results? You need a document. You need, even if it's like housekeeping by observation. However, most output areas have some way of actually measuring the results. You have weekly or monthly stats. You have job cards, people have attendance registers, some people have clocking machines store. There are monthly accounts. There are complaints from customers. These are your feedback control information. It allows both parties to see whether the job holder is above or below the competency level, the standard for the job. Right? Let's have a look at the total function now. Step number one in developing job standards. Your job, in other words, if you're the boss, was sitting down with a subordinate, work with this set of action steps. If you yourself would like to develop the job standards for your job. Feel free. This is a very effective way of doing it. As we've mentioned, step number one, you need to clearly define what is the main purpose of your job. A statement describing the overall aim of your job. Step number two is the key tasks for each of those output areas. The key tasks, for example, under costs. To ensure costs are kept within budget. Sales to achieve the required level of sales, customer satisfaction, to ensure that customers are satisfied with both the quality and the service of our product. Profit as per the budget is step number three is the competence standard. So we've got costs again, as we repeat, to ensure that costs are kept within budget on a weekly basis, no deviation. It doesn't mean that the employee can say, well, I did it last week, so I missed last week. So I'll make it up next week. No deviation. It's a weekly basis. Sales, the same story. It's to achieve your required levels of sales as per the monthly sales target. And a good, it's a no deviation there as well. Customer satisfaction. And interesting one, there are no more than one justifiable complaint in a two month period. Its customers, whether they are retailers or buyers or suppliers, or actual end users, often do complain. But I think there's a difference here. I'm talking about a justifiable complaint. More than no more than one in a two month period. Let me give you the world standard for this. No more than to justifiable complaints in a one-year period. That is the annual standard for customer satisfaction. Step one, main purpose, Step two, key tasks. Step three, the competence standard step for feedback control. How do we know we are achieving it? Costs? We have a monthly expense report, sales we have a monthly sales report. If we're looking at the maintenance side, we look at machine downtime. We have that report. Okay? Right. So now, having completed your time management and your delegation, where you yourself are really an organized manager. Now you've developed and completed the job standards and objectives for. So now you are able to organize others around you, and I wish you well in doing that. Now, you can also go away and set your objectives. Particularly our stress that innovative ones, the ones where you grow, your business grows. Member motivation comes from success, your success. Okay? Our next lesson looks at going beyond the organizing of the individual to looking at the organizing of the organisation itself, organization structures, and the relationships within them. And I hope you are going to enjoy that as much as I've enjoyed running this and putting together the organization structures and relationships program. Goodbye for now. 27. 7. Organization Structures and Relationships: Greetings again from Don. Today we are going to be looking at the lesson on organization structures. And we will move this listen into the relationships within an organization structure. The primary reason for an organisation is the need for us as human beings to cooperate in an effective and an efficient way to achieve a common objective. Whether it's a team, sports team, a department, whether it's a major organization. It is the need for us as human beings to cooperate in an effective and an efficient manner. Why to achieve common objectives? There are a few guidelines to organization and planning which we're gonna be discussing, which are generally accepted. A major degree though. The way in which organizations structures are established will depend upon a particular circumstance of that particular company. What is its technology? What are its objectives? What is its stage of development is just starting out new or was in what we call the mature stage of development. What we must realize here is that there is no perfect organisation structure for all time. And I repeat that for all time. It must be adapted continually to meet changing needs. Now, how do we go about organization structures? Before we look at the actual steps, let's have a look at our objectives for today's lesson. You will be able to contribute to a sound organization structure. And you will also be able to facilitate the relationships within that organization. The sub objectives, you will know the different types of organization structures. There are different types. You will also know the factors that you need to take into account when establishing an organization structure. You will be able to make and improve organization structures by following certain action steps. And you'll also be able to explain and apply the guidelines for facilitating organizational relationships. Whether it's you and your boss or your self and a subordinate or you and appear, for example. The organization structure. To continue. Just going through the graphic. Number one, we organized by objectives. Number two, we group our work. And number three, we establish the authority structure within that organization structure. These are the first three steps. This go through each one independently. Number one is to organize by objectives. The first thing we need to do when we're looking at it organisation structure is to clearly understand what are the common objectives of the organization and the effectiveness of an organization structure. It can only be assessed in terms of its contribution to meeting the objectives of your concern. So organization structure should be good First and foremost to the objectives of the organization. If not, the danger exists that the structure itself becomes an end in itself rather than a means. And you start to have what we call empire-building. Right? Let's have a look at grouping of work. First of all, we group our work into the smallest number of different functions required for what, for the achievement of our objectives. And important point to note in this regard is that separate organizational components should only be established with a comprise logically separable functions. And it is absolutely necessary to segregate or to separate them or to give them their own appropriate visibility. Nevertheless, it should be noted that adequate visibility must be given to important. And here are stress problem areas in structuring the organizational components to ensure that each function will be performed. How do we structured? Well, we can structure it according to by function, by place, by product. Or you can do it by customer. When we do it by function. Members of an organization who share a common expertise and draw upon the same set of resources are grouped by function. Let's talk about the financial department. So functional grouping of activities covers what the organization actually does. Finance, production, marketing, personnel, training. And it gives rise to functional departments on this basis. Most companies, particularly at senior management level, have organized by function, your md, and then you have your financial manager, your engineering manager, your sales or marketing manager, human resources manager, for example. We can also organized by a place, grouping by place. And this is done on the basis of a geographic area, and it's fairly common for organizing physically dispersed components. Now, on the assumption that efficiency will improve, all activities in a given territory are grouped and assigned to one manager. So if you are in town a and you want to establish a facility in town B, all those activities in town B would be under the control of a separate Manager. We can then organize by product. A product structure becomes more appropriate way to group activities when an organization produces two or more products that are different in the ear of a technical maker. The production process, or maybe the market distribution. And then finally, we can group our work according to customers. This is the grouping of activities to reflect the interests of the different customers. Grouping by customers is used often when the various needs of the customer must be met by the organization. You get very expensive product and you get a much less expensive product. We would probably groupBy customer there as well. So we've looked at organizing by objectives. We've looked at how we can group the work. Now we're having a look at number three, step three to establish the authority structure. And what do we mean by this will authority is the right or the freedom for you as a manager, as a formula, as a supervisor to make decisions. Authority is the cement of an organization's structure. Or authority or freedom may be seen as existing in various degrees. For example, level one, where you can act on your own and you do routine reporting to your to your boss. Maybe once a month, once every six weeks. This is normally for senior management or lower level management or even supervisory level who've had tremendous amount of experience. What we are saying that is you are giving them a tremendous amount of freedom to run the operation and you are giving yourself very little insurance. But, you know, they're going to do a good job. You trust them, you don't need all that insurance. Level two is to allow them to act, but then to advise at once as to how it has gone. What is any problems or what are the successes. In other words, you have a little more insurance and they have slightly less freedom. Normally middle management areas there we look at the supervisory level or people fairly new in a position or taking on a new responsibility. We had moved to level three. And this is where they would actually recommend to you, first of all, the bus what they would do, how they will go about it, what they anticipate the reaction is going to be, et cetera. And you say, fine, go ahead and do it, but then let me know immediately afterwards, hard wind. So you have a lot of insurance and they have less freedom as, as the cement that bonds this whole organization structure together. Step four of the organization structure is to exact accountability. Step five is to try and have a shorter lines of command as you can. And then number five, a sorry, number six on the graphic should be, is the unity of that command, exact accountability. The short lines of command and unity of command. Let's expand on each one of those. Exact accountability. And accountability, ability simply means carrying the can for the responsibility that you have. You are held to account for the success or failure. Now it's important to ensure that accountability covers all the results in an organization. If no one is accountable for sales, then it's unlikely going to achieve your sales targets. Okay, so where there are areas of accountability functions, there must be somebody accountable for it. Then the short lines of command, as we can see in a and B, a is much steeper. A lot of lines of command. B is a flatter organization structure with less lines of command or less lions in the organisation. And it's particularly important for these lines of command from the top to the lowest level to be as short as possible. But consistent with the objectives of the organization. You can't simply threaten the structure. For the sake of flattening the structure, how's it going to contribute to the achievement of the organization's objectives? The smaller the number or all the reporting levels, the less likelihood there is of misunderstandings and poor communication, et cetera. Also, in number a, where you have lots of levels, the person at the lowest level sees little chance of progressing to the next level and the next level, et cetera. And they become very de-motivated. So you want your flattest level as possible. And in this regard, it's important to remember with organization structures, the one on one reporting relationships are generally inefficient and costly. When you have one salesperson reporting to one sales manager who reports to the managing director. That is inefficient, it is costly. Rather get rid of the sales manager and have your sales rep simply report directly to the managing director. We then have our number six are unity of command. This unity of command principle forms the basis for most organizational hierarchies. What it states very simply is that each individual Show Have one was only. Step number seven in the organization structure lesson is the span of control. And this deals with the number of subordinates who report directly to a superior, whether he or she is a foreman or supervisor or senior executive. And what are the key questions when you are designing an organization structure is to ask yourself, how many immediate subordinates can be managed effectively? The determination of an optimum span of control is very, very difficult. But it can be done and it depends to a large degree on the level. The employees supervised, what level are they in the organization and what type of work do they perform? So as a general guide, a supervisor or manager should be given the maximum number of employees for whom he or she can effectively carry out the management functions. As mentioned when we did the process of management. And less than one in the advanced management program, planning, organizing, activating, and controlling. Under the process of management. Listen one. Senior management ideally, look at about five, sometimes six. You have. For example, depending on the organization's objectives, you might have your financial manager, your production manager, Sales and Marketing Manager, Human Resources Manager. There might be a proud engineer. If you're only in manufacturing, you could have quality control, manufacturing manager, proud engineer, human resources and finance. That's a senior executive level. When you get to low levels, if people are doing the same job and there are 20 of them doing the same job, then you can have one formula one supervisor and managing those 20 in the achievement of the department. And ultimately the organization's objectiveness. Objective. Number Eight, Step Number eight, once we've decided on our span of control, no names, just functions and span of control. We then define the individual positions again, no names. These are job specs at Murray area. Ask ourself the question. Why are we here? I'm here to make cold calls, also here to follow up on an existing kinds. Now, if this is why you are here as a salesperson, what should be accomplished? Five code calls a week, 20 calls on existing customers per week, a $100 thousand per month on sales targets. So these are defining the individual positions. Right? Let's look at it from a practical point of view. Let's look at your own organization structure. Or if you'd like to run this program for your company, then this is how you would start it. You download these pages and you would work through your skill use plan. In the order I mentioned Iran. So step number one is with your team, state the objectives of your organization and make sure that everybody not only understands the objectives of the organization, but they also accept them. I can understand that we are moving into a much more marketing oriented sales operation. But do I accepted, if I don't, I must mention it. And why? So step number one. State the objectives of the organization and do not go on until we are all clear in our understanding and acceptance of it. Step number two then is to identify all the problem or the opportunity areas. State the problems which are preventing the attainment of these objectives. Also, look at the positives, look at the opportunities which can assist in achieving these objectives. Once we've done that, we move into step number three. And this will go quickly. If you've done your steps number 12 effectively is your structural recommendations. Here you start to list the changes which should be made to the organisation structure in order to overcome problems. And of course, to use those opportunities and thereby to facilitate the achievement of your organization's objectives. Step number one. So the first thing then is to organize by objectives. We are in the the receiving and distribution business. So your objectives, receiving and distribution, you're grouping of work, receiving, distribution. You establish your authority structure and your accountability. And remember, the shortest lines of command that you can have. That enhances your, your communication skills and it ensures better understanding. Certainly. Then the unity of command. You establish your span of command as well. How many people reporting to various people. And once we've done that, and only then do we define our individual positions. What are we here for? If that's so, what am I supposed to actually achieve in my job? Define those individual positions. We now move to the second part of this lesson. Once you've got your team in place, you've got your captain, you've got your vice captain, and you've got your positions on the field of play, your organization structure. And we've defined what each person is going to be responsible for. Who's going to take throw ins or kicks or free hits or whatever it's going to be. Okay. We now must make sure that we, the members of their team, the employees of the organization, have good relationships. These relationships we talk about our birth line and staff relationships. Line relationships or relationships of those people in the organization who were actually accountable for the business objectives. So a production manager in a production environment, in a factory manufacturing things that would be aligned position, the personnel position would be there to support that this line manager, he or she on the personnel or the financial side, what we would call staff positions. So you've got your production manager line. You've got your finance manager, you got your marketing manager, or your maintenance manager. These are staff positions. You align people are directly responsible for the actual achievement of the organization's objectives directly. The staff people are there to give them advice and support. It's likely army. You have your actual soldiers going into battle. And then you have people building bridges, manufacturing firearms, et cetera, and supplying them. Okay. These are your staff functions. And from this, it can be seen that a staff function requires competence not only in his speciality like finance or plant engineering, but he needs to also understand the role of the staff. In terms of communication. He must possess very good or she must possess very good interpersonal skills. A staff person has to be sensitive. I've gotta be discrete. There gotta be totally honest. If they disagreeing with something, they must mention it and mentioned why. It's got to earn the confidence of his line management. It's got to be patient, but he's gotta be persistent. We talk about the staff person. One of the most important things that I can mention for a staff manager is that he or she has got to find satisfaction in good team results rather than personal glory. If your job in the team, your sports team, is to offer first aid to people who were injured. And the man that you offer first I two scores, the winning go. You must feel so good as well because the team has succeeded. So staff person last take great satisfaction from team effort. Looking at the relationship between line as people directly responsible for the key objectives and the support functions, the staff functions. The first thing to realize is that looking at line functions, line makes the final decision. With respect to the organization's objectives. Line has the final decision to not forget that staff provides advice, guidance, and service to the line in the accomplishment of lines objectives. Staff, you are they to offer aid? I can see it's required. And also line must give full consideration to the recommendations made by our staff. Although they have the final say, listen to the staff members. However, you have the ultimate as law and the ultimate right of refusal. Also remember that both line and staff have the right to appear in cases of disagreement and conflict. The relationship between boss and subordinate. We've seen line and staff. It's looked at boss and subordinate. In order to facilitate or to make it easier to have these sound relationships in a team, in an organization, in a company. Subordinates in dealing with their bosses should observe certain guidelines. The reconciliation of their point of view with that of the bosses. The subordinates should reconcile their point of view with that of the boss. They should support the bosses viewpoint. They should present all sides of a story to the boss. They must avoid as upward leaping tasks. Remember when we did time management that we spoke about upward and downward and sideways leaping, leading leaping tasks. Well, we must avoid us. They consume a lot of time and cause a lot of frustration. So avoid running to the bus with all your problems. Coordinate these problems at your own level and solve the mature earn level. If necessary, initiate request for assistance when required, you can ask peers, you can ask your subordinates and always remember, adhere to the chain of command. Do not go above your boss. You're going to destroy the relationship. The boss, however, in dealing with his subordinate, he must keep his subordinates informed as to what is going on. They don't want to hear about it through rumor or reading about it on a notice board. He must allow for the participation. He will get a greater buy-in if you had asked them to participate in how things can be done, not necessarily what must be done. That's the bosses authority, but how it can best be done if he wants a buy-in and motivation to achieve it, get you by. His job is also to represent his subordinates to higher levels of management. He too, must adhere to this chain of command, it called bar parts, you and go down and address one of your subordinates. He's going to destroy the relationship. He must give recognition when it's due. Yes, the team is going to achieve great success. He's going to add executive level, be praised for having done a certain thing. Will then he must say, thanks for the recognition and the praise. However, I'm going to pass it onto my subordinates, particularly XYZ, because he really did a good job in analyzing the problem for us. And for heaven's sake, do discourage any game-playing or politics. That really does get in the way of an organization structure and the relationships within the organization structure, right? Let's leave on a positive note. We've looked at our organization structures and relationships within them. And I'm confident now that you'll be able to achieve the objectives that we set ourselves. And I wish you all the best in your analyzing your company's organization structures and relationships. Until the next lesson. Ottawa. 28. 8. Performance Problem Analysis: Well, hello again, it's done. We're looking today at the lesson on performance problem analysis. In other words, we are looking at what an employee should be doing versus what is currently doing. We're looking at the gap, at the performance problem. But let's have a look at our objectives. Objectives are to, number one, analyze performance problems into causes, and to take corrective action. And number two, to be able to analyze and resolve performance problems in your own work situation. Whether it's an individual or group of individuals. To analyze performance problems into causes and to take corrective action. And other words to be a doctor diagnosing a problem. But like an effective doctor, we would like to take the correct action. As mentioned, this performance problem is defined as a situation where an employee is not doing what he should be doing. In other words, there's this gap between what should be happening and what is actually happening. And generally speaking, performance problems may be analyzed into one of two main causes. The first is there could be a deficiency in the skills and knowledge of the employee or the employees. In other words, the employee does not know how to do the job or he or she does not have the skills or the ability to perform as required. And in this instance, training the employee may well be the solution to the problem. If it's not skills knowledge deficiency, it might well be a deficiency in the performance system. In other words, there could be barriers to performance, something that is preventing them from achieving their job. Or it could be inappropriate consequences to the employee. As we'll see in a case study just now, what happens when somebody does something correctly or their praise or that awarded? Who are they're punished? What happens when somebody doesn't do what they're supposed to be doing or other in some way rewarded. It could also be a lack of standards and feedback. The peop, the person doesn't know how she or he is actually performance. So where there is a deficiency in the performance system. Number two on your screen, training, the employee is definitely not a solution and that will result in a waste of time, effort, and money. Now let's have a look at the probability that it could be a skills knowledge deficiency. In other words, that training could well be the solution. Remember this often shakes and shocks a lot of people. Who just say train him, train him. My person needs training. That skills knowledge deficiencies account for 14% of performance problems, not 90%, 14 percent. So only 14% of skills, knowledge deficiencies, or sorry, performance problems can be actually attributed to a lack of skills and knowledge in which training could well be the solution. Eighty-five percent of performance problems are normally environmental and motivation or in other words, something in their performance system that is preventing them from doing their jobs. It is interesting to put down that much, much less than 1% of people cannot actually be trained. They are so severely mentally or physically retarded. So for somebody to glibly walk into your office and say, Don, this person is simply on trainable. Now, I raise my eyebrows and think, let's sit down and analyze the performance more effectively. Right? Let's have a look now at a case study. A real situation that I was asked to come and assist with. And we'll work through it together. We'll analyze it. And we will see what sort of solutions we could come up with this problem. What are the Hindus? I'll take you through a set of questions, 40 odd questions, and we will reanalyze it and see if we come up with the same solution. Solutions. Case study one, charge it, right, let's read through it together. The operations manager of Magnus Airlines was discussing the training needs of a staff with the training officer. There's one area though, we're training is required, he said, and that concerns the performance of our check-in staff at our seven check-in counters. And the training officer asked him to elaborate, what according to the airlines policy, when a passenger has more than one piece of luggage for transport in the hold, they must pay an excess baggage fee for each additional piece of luggage. And the problem is that our check-in staff are not always charging passengers for extra baggage and this is losing us a lot of money. Do they know the policy? Foster training officer? Yeah. Straining officer was called Daan. Yes. Said the boss. When they're taking when that taken on their given comprehensive instruction on the policy and also the procedure to be followed in making the charge for the extra luggage. And we also speak to them when the policy is not followed. Well, may I observe one of the chicken staff ethic counter? Go ahead. Said the boss, but please help us to sort out this problem as soon as possible. Well, the training officer went to Janet's check-in counter and watch the operation from a suitable spot. When he arrived there, along q had formed at the counter and Janet was dealing with a man who had handed in four pieces of luggage for storage in the Hogue? I don't see why I should have to pay for excess baggage. The man was saying indignantly, I don't have to pay on the I didn't have to pay on the international flight. I'm sorry, sir. But our policies quite clear on excess baggage, say Janet, opening up the procedure book and pointing out the relevant section to the man. The American carried on grandly. Meanwhile, the public announcements system came on. Will all passengers on flight QA 5.1.3 please board immediately. And at that moment, a woman came from the back of the queue and C2 Janet, I'm on fright QA fiber three. Could our chicken please? The man at the desk sit aggressively, Madden, we are all on fright. Qa 5.1.3, and the woman returned to her place in the queue. The man finally paid the excess baggage. But in doing so, he said to Janet, I want your name please. I am going to speak to the airline's management about this. At that moment, Janet supervisor appeared at a shoulder. Janet, you are holding up flight QA 5.1.3. Janet checked in another two passengers. After these two passengers were checked in, the next three, handed in three pieces of luggage for the hole and Janet did not request the excess luggage payment. Finally, she checked in all the passengers and setback emotionally exhausted. Right? Let's analyze the problem. What we know here is that the bosses saying that the staff and the training, they have been trained. We also know that the company is losing money. We're getting upset passengers. Jhanas bosses upset with Janet because she's holding up the airline. Janet's process also upset with Janet because she's cosine accompany money. We also know that there are passengers who are waiting to board who are being kept waiting by the policy. Janet was emotionally exhausted at the end of it all. Okay. So we've analyzed the situation. You might have seen that differently. And now we say, what are we gonna do about it? Well, is training the solution? I agree training is not the solution. Well, what should we do? Well, there are a lot of things that could be done here, but let's be a really good. Doctor, now and let us go through the full performance problem analysis questions. What I've got in front of me is 40 questions. On the graphic on our PC screen is a summary of those 40 questions. And this is one effective way to analyze performance problems with individuals, with groups in a work situation at, in your home situation. It is a tremendously valuable to, to have as a respected manager. First of all, number one is problem specification. Number two is deficiencies and knowledge and skill. And number three are the possible deficiencies in the performance system. It start with number one. Remember the airline situation with Janet and her boss? The problem specification. First of all, let us describe the problem. What is the performance gap? Well, the performance gap is that the airline is not recovering the money. It should be. Who is shown in this problem? The airline is showing this problem. What are the gaps? Are the end performance. It looks like it's the airline is losing money more than anything else. Uuu showing it the airline shameless problem. What incidents have occurred to indicate that a problem exists? Janet being shouted at Janet being exhausted. A customer from the back complaining, Janet's boss coming to tell her she's holding up the airline. A vital question here when we described the problem is, what should be happening? That is not happening now. Well, people are being advised passengers are being advised very late. As to the policy, what should be happening that is not happening now. Maybe there should be advising the passengers habitude earlier. Let's take that with us into the next phase. Here. Is the problem worth solving? Is this problem important? Yes, it is. It is going to cost the airlines passengers. What will it result B of solving the problem, satisfied star, satisfied passengers and a satisfied company. Bottom line, is the problem getting worse. Is it stable? Is a declining? Is it getting better? It's getting worse and it is going to get worse. What is the effect of not solving the problem? Well, I think we've discussed that de-motivated staff, absolute passengers, and a loss of income. Right? So we're looking at gender theory. Let's now have a look at. Is it a deficiency in knowledge and skill? I go to this list of questions I have here, which you can download if you want to. Is the problem due to a lack of knowledge or skill on Janet's part? Well, no, it's not because we know that Janet had already asked a customer to do it. Does Janet Know how to perform this required? Yes, she did. She asked that customer and showed in the policy. Is her present level of knowledge skill adequate for required performance yesterdays? Could Janet perform as required if her livelihood depended on it? If she could she could ask every one of those passengers for the excess baggage payment that they will be negative side effects on the company and on Janet's health. Now, we've said yes, Janet has done this before. Has she performed as required? Yes, she has. A she may be forgotten how to perform? No. Why do we say this? Because she's just done it. Are there any changes that have occurred while Janet has been busy? Any methods or procedures? No. Is this skills knowledge is used often Hall asking people for excess money for excess baggage is it's done all the time. And how long ago was Janet last are asked to perform this? Well, she did it one passenger before. Okay. So doesn't look like there's a skills and others deficiency on Janet's part. Let's have a look then at deficiencies in their performance system. Barriers or blocks to performance. Are they adequate resources to perform as Janet should? Does she have adequate time? The doctor the doctor says no, she Janet does not have enough time. Does she have the tools to do it and the supporting equipment is she does. She has her policy. They Does she have enough personnel or people? Well, let's talk about that. Would having double the amount of check-ins, would that solve the problem? The passengers market through quicker onto the plane? Does with excess baggage, you are being asked to pay excess for the first time. To their knowledge, that are still going to be upset and they're struggling to complain to the check-in staff. So Personnel we'll talk about that later. Is money a problem to the passengers? And does Janet, do they have all the information they need? Is genotype. When do the passengers get that information? Well, that is a shock, isn't it? They get it when I have face-to-face with Janet for the first time. So there seems to be a major problem with information. If they had this information earlier, would still be a problem, possibly not. Facilities. Well, if you're going to have more check-ins, you'd need more facilities. But maybe that is not the real cause of the problem. The next question is, are the procedures and the workflow design adequate? Well, the workflow and the procedures that are not correctly or they're not appropriate, that information, that system that they've implemented to correct Money is not organized properly. Let's look at barriers. Two, let's look at the appropriate or inappropriate consequences to the employee. What happens to Janet when she performs as required? She get shouted at by the passengers. When she performs as required, she slows down the queue. Her boss shouted her. What happens to Janet when she doesn't perform as required? The passengers are very happy. They don't have to wait. And Q and argue, the Janet's process, not heavy. Genic gets a tremendous sense of relief. And when she allows these people to go through onto the plane, does Janet view performing as required or asking every customer or passenger? Does she view that as punishing? Is she certainly does. She certainly does. So there are a lot of inappropriate consequences to what appears to be a problem with this information, this procedure. Is there a lack of standards or feedback? Does she know what's expected of her? Yes. Does she know what the standards are yes. Issue receiving accurate feedback? Yes, she is. Whether it's good or bad, she knows exactly what she's doing. Rotter watches doing wrong. There are other reasons that are causing this problem. So let's go back and find out what we would do in terms of a solution. Well, in this case study, the real situation, what we did is we maintained the policy that excess baggage would be paid for. But the timing of it, the sooner the passenger is notified of this beta. So soon. Well, you can put it up in the check-in area, as people have said. But that's not soon enough to walk in. You haven't got enough money, you don't I'm not aware of it. And you see a sign-up hanging up above the queue saying excess baggage must be paid for. Now you gotta go to the bank or the ITN. Yes. When you buy your ticket or when your ticket is sent through to you at the check-in. When you get your ticket. The ticket has honored, written, as well as you are informed verbally that excess baggage will be paid for. That will solve the problem for Janet. Changing the leaf, the information, the procedure, making it much more user-friendly. Everybody. I guess as I mentioned, there are about 40 questions under those three major headings that are available. If you'd like to download them, please do. Let us have a look now at a second case study. This is in the banking industry. The same. Let's analyze it. Reuse many of those questions again to come up with the final solution. This involves Dave, who's a new legis clock. And he soon found himself in hot water. During peak hour. He had incorrectly opened a company account without obtaining the necessary company documentation from the client. A small initial deposit was made on the day the account was opened. And shortly afterwards, the company issued checks which place the account in overdraft. And this was brought to the attention of the branch manager, Charlotte, get that bad in here. Who would she wrote Charlotte, I'll teach it to make our branch look bad. Fortunately, she was persuaded to sit still for a few questions. How long has he been in the branch? She was asked oh, about a year. What has he been doing during that time? Well, he was assigned as an inquiry clock. How much time has he spent on legis? Well, child has had very little he spent the last week in natures. So let's analyze this problem again as we did before. Let's describe the problem. What is the problem? Janet has opened an account and it's gone into overdraft. That is given the bank abed name. I'm going to have to sort this problem out. Whose shade this problem will Davis date is showing this problem. What incidents have occurred. We know what the incident is during peak hour. She opened he opened an account. What should be happening? That is not happening now, Dave should have actually made sure that documentation was correct is the problem with solving? Very much so. Now is it a deficiency and knowledge and skill? Is the problem due to a lack of knowledge or skill on diets part. Well, does he know how to perform this required? I don't think so. Is Dave's present level of knowledge skill adequate for required performance? Well, obviously it's not you wouldn't have made this mistake. Could the employee performed as required if his livelihood depended on it, the chances are no. And just to add something that was during peak hour that Dave was put into this position. Has Dave done this before? No. No, he hasn't. He hasn't done this before. Is there a problem in the performance system? The things that are preventing him from doing it? Well, I think one of the problems is to put a new employee onto a job during peak hour. Charlotte should be spoken to write lists. Come back today, begin. He has all the information, everything. He just doesn't know how to do it. It's got nothing to do with the consequences, whether they are appropriate or inappropriate. And it's got nothing to do with standards or feedback. It is simply a training problem. Dave needs training. Case study number three, the factory per hour, joseph. Yeah. It's Joseph who works in the injection molding plot. He was giving good instruction on how to inject compound into a mould and really became proficient in this task. In other words, he could do it and you could do it well, use permitted to perform it alone. Now, it was found that the quality of the moldings deteriorated after a few months. And it was not the practice to make immediate tests of each molding as it was produced. Proper inspections only took place. Next process started, which in time was a few days later, sometimes a week, two weeks. So Joseph only became aware that the product was inferior after this proper inspection that taken place, at which time we were shown that is moldings were not up to standard. Right. It's ask ourself is what is the problem? The problem was that Joseph was able to perform as required in terms of quality. And over time now, the quality has started to deteriorate. That is the problem. Who showing it? Josephy showing this problem. Is it important? Is it worth solving? Very much, sir? Is it a deficiency in knowledge and skill? No, certainly not. Why? Because he knows how to do the job, is done it before his Danner regularly. And he's had no problems until these inspections take place. Now, why the deterioration is a deficiency in the performance system? In other words, are the blocks or barriers to performance, has time become a problem now? The tools or the equipment has changed. No. Personnel, the boss, no. Nothing information. No, it is the same information. The facilities haven't changed. The procedures haven't changed. So there's no barriers to performance. What about consequences? Does he get rewarded for poor work? No. He gets praised for good work. And he's also told as a consequences that the work is poorer once it's found out or being discovered. So they said, well, look, is there a lack of standards and feedback may be. Does he know what is expected of him? Yes. Does he know what a performance standards are? Is who tells him? What his boss tells him? Has he been told it is not performing as required? Yes. Does he get regular feedback on our wellness performing? Well, he's finding out a little bit later is any how does he Joseph find out how well he is performing? Only when a property inspection takes place a week or so later. Does the employee received the information time? Yes. We know it as you receive it frequently? No, certainly not time ESP. Does he know what he must do to correct his performance? Yes. Once he's told that the performance standard is that the quality is dropped, it knows exactly what he must do. So is getting this information too late. What he needs is he needs standards and feedback. He needs the feedback to be more frequent. Okay. Now, in the next case study, I'm not going to work through a list of questions. I'm going to follow a flowchart which is okay and available to you. However, you can only use float, uses flow chart effectively. In other words, be a good doctor. If you know the questions. First of all, to describe the problem or the gap. Is it worth solving? No, it's not. It's not important. We ignore it. If yes, it is worth solving, we ask ourself, going down the center column, is that a skills or knowledge deficiency? If their answer is yes, has this person ever done it before? No, they've never done it before. So we will train them. Have they ever done it before? Yes, they have. Well, is it used often? No. It's only once every six months. Well, then we will arrange practice with feedback, in other words, refresher. However, is it used often? Is it is. Then as with Joseph in the molding injection molding, we will then improve the standards and feedback that he is getting. If however, we ask ourselves, is it a skills knowledge deficiency? And the answer is no, this person has done it before. They've done it regularly, if they are grinded recently and they've done it to the right standards. So it's not as skills, knowledge, efficiency, setTraining is not a solution, is a barrier or block in performance, time, facilities, etc. Use your questions, become familiar with them. If it's not that, what about consequences or the inappropriate consequences to the employee when he or she performs as required. If it is not a consequence problem, then it will be standards and feedback that is required. And that is your flowchart. So in Elliott, a production manager, explained that he felt he had a training problem in the brake shoe shop and he was asked to explain further. According to our calculations with our new plant layout, we should be able to produce 500 brake shoes per day. And in fact, for four days last month, we produced an average of 400 brake shoes with a normal working day. The alarming figures out the best we can do at the moment is 190 per day, from 400 to 190. Well, what do the employees get when they produced 400 brake shoes per day? Well, we stopped over time. It wasn't necessary. And what did the company get from producing 400 brake shoes per day? Well, the Abbasid Well, besides the good production, we were able to transfer James Smith to the hand brake shop in our other plot and the other side of town. Well, let's go through our performance. We know what the gap is. They were producing 400 and now they're down to 190 and certainly worth solving. We can't ignore it. Is it a skills knowledge deficiency will it's not because they were producing 408 down now to 190. So training is not a solution here. Is their barriers to performance. Nothing's changed. The consequences, Oh, yes, the consequences. When they performed as required, the company got good productivity figures. What happened to the workers? The one got transferred. They were all punished inappropriate consequences by having all forms of overtime stopped. And if they carried on achieving for a 100 and another one of their people would have been transferred out. So that's your problem in this performance problem. It's not standards and feedback, it's not training. It's not a barrier to performance. It is inappropriate consequences. And the solution was to bring that transferred Employee back to reinstate the conditions and to clearly state and have a meeting and openly communicate your apology and that it would not happen. Again. The last one, the bank was introducing the if 65 Taylor for tronic machine. I don't know what it is either. And it was, it was in January of the company year. Training and development had already developed a course for training the tellers. In May of the year, prior to the introduction of the machines. The machines were introduced as we see sentence one in January. The training was done in may of the previous year. In addition, that commenced a massive project for the training on all tellers countrywide, and it was completed in June. The course content was excellent, a great deal of individual practice. And by the time they had completed the courses in May, the trainees were fully proficient in using this machine. Now the machines have been introduced in January, February, etc. And the first programs were being experienced. Tellers were not using the machines and this was costing the bank a great deal of money. It was evident. Tell us we're not fully able to use these machines. And as a result of a lack of confidence, we're developing a poor attitude towards the installation of the machines where we can see what the gap is. So we can describe the gap. Is it worth solving? Yes, certainly we cannot ignore this. Is it a skills knowledge deficiency? Is it is. Have they ever done it before? Yes, and I did it extremely well. Is it used often? Not. It's been a huge gap from the end of the training until when they're actually used it. So is it used often? Know, we arrange, practice with feedback. Now you go away and practice your performance problem analysis. I've thoroughly enjoyed presenting this course and please feel free to download the full set of questions. As I do believe the graphic on the performance problem, as this is not sufficient without all the questions. Thank you and do enjoy the rest of the advanced management program. Could day for now. 29. 9.1 Decision Making: There's greetings from Don again. The final or ninth module in the advanced management program covers a fairly complex object, which is decision-making. The lesson that I have put together consists of two lessons. In fact, the first guy to decision-making. In the first lesson, we're going to look at a process for decision-making. What we've analyzed, where people make fairly quick, hasty decisions correctly. And we've analyzed what did they actually do. And what we've come up with is they followed five creaky steps to the decision-making. So in lesson number one, we're going to look at a fairly quick way of making fairly good decisions, okay, using five action steps. So the purpose of this is to give Delhi gets the approach of how to solve problems in a series of logical steps. And it also encouraged delegates to broaden their outlook in considering options in problem-solving, you can involve your staff, ya know, much more participative management basis if necessary. And obviously you get a greater buy-in from your staff. Okay? Lesson number two, we look at a far more complex, but also still a very practical approach to decision-making. Yeah, we're involving a good deal of money. Much more complex, involving a lot of people, et cetera. The steps that we're going to follow an ad look case study. It's a bit of a fun exercise, which is good. Many things are often learned in jest. So this is a fun exercise. We'll identify the problem, establish the facts, all the facts. Freewheel, and consider all the options available as wild as they may be. Assessed the effects then of each of those and other words reverse free. We'll now assess the effects. Rummer or high risk is at low risk isn't going to work, is it not going to work? And then finally, to take a decision. And as I've said, many of the situations that we've heard people without made fairly quick decisions. We've recorded it, we've analyzed it, and we've covered that they've all followed these five steps within reason. Okay? So we're now going to work through a case study. Read it first, become familiar with it. And then we'll go back to our five action steps. The case study. It's an old one. Being updated and it is called blowout, in other words, a puncture. You on your way to the station at little Hampton. You're there to meet an important, important business client who has a meeting with your managing director tomorrow morning. We'll spend more time looking at the detail. But it's an important business client and he's meeting your managing director tomorrow morning. And on the way there, your car has a puncture. Now this train is due at 1700 to two minutes past five let's say five o'clock. You are still one mile from the station. But you get the spear from the boot, your jacket, the car, you take off the wheel nuts. You put them beside you on the road. You then take off the wheel with the puncture on it and had a temper, you throw the wheel on the ground. In doing so, what do you do? You knock all the wheel nets, all four of them down the drain. The drain is stuck fast and you get out to reach those nuts. Thinking back, you passed a garage about a mile back down the road, which you know, was only open for Pietro. You are a member of the Automobile Association. You take out yourself heard my words. There is no signal, but there is a public phone a half a mile ahead. So a mild Beck is a garage half a mile ahead. It's a phone booth. It's four o'clock in the Sunday afternoon. Your client has traveled up today because he has come a long way and the meeting is early tomorrow morning with your managing director. The road is deserted and it's in a very isolated area. There are no houses, insight, there are no passing cars. Now, the last time you call the AAA or Automobile Association and on Sunday, they took well over an hour to arrive. Well, incidentally, you are an expert in self-defense. So step number one, what is the problem? Think about it. Okay? The main problem is that you have a very important client who's coming to meet your managing director for a meeting, and you cannot let either of them down. Now, many people will say what my problem is. I've got a Pancho of lost my wheel nets. That the fact that you've lost your wheel, let's have a puncher. That's not the problem. That is a nuisance. Yes. That can happen anywhere, anytime. But the client is the problem. Meeting the client and getting the client that he can be at your with your managing director tomorrow morning is the client. How in other words, can you or someone else meet him, your client on time? Okay. Well, step number two, let's Establish all the facts. I've just listed a few here. I'm sure you can see others as well. Number one, we have a puncture. Another fact, number two, there is a train due at two minutes past five. Number 315 minutes still from the station. You've lost four wheel nuts. That drain is stuck, which compounds that problem. There is a garage, a mild Breck, but at this stage you note only has Petrel. Okay. There's also a phone about a mile ahead, half a mile rather head. You are a member of the Automobile Association. It's now four o'clock an hour away from meeting the client. It's a Sunday service, isolated area that seemed to be no pause and cause a tool. And you do know that the effect of the the last time you found the AAA, I took well over an hour to arrive to help you and then they had to help you, which took time. Oh, yes. And of course he was an expert in self-defense. But one of the big factor, you have no cell phone signal. Ok. Step number three. Let us consider all the options based on those facts. Or quick one comes to mind. We can just drive on three wheels or we could run to the petrol station. We can run ahead to the phone booth. We can sit and wait, possibly for a par passing car. We can go into the mountains or the bushes and look for some farmhouse or some people. Or we can keep an open mind. Okay, now we know we have an hour to repair and get to the station. The fourth step, let's assess the effects of those options that I have listed here. To drive on three wheels. Harsher risk. And it could cause a lot of damage to your car. And you almost certainly are not going to get the, but it's worth considering. You really can't run all the way to the train station because when you get the what are you going to do? You can't carry your client exhausted and rather grubby style. In terms of the number two to run to the petrol station. It's just too risky. We Dynasties a workshop, we did it as a mechanic available. It could be a tremendous waste of time because we've also gotta get back again to the vehicle. To the phone bucks go to the fan box. Well, who do you phone? Last time you found that it was too slow? Your objective is to meet your client on time. I'm not dead. Okay. Who else can you find? You can find the station and say, look, I'm not able to meet my client if you know the stations number, just tell him I can't fit you. That's not going to work and the managing director is not going to be happy. So let's look at those factors. We could wait for a passing car is that's high risk and a very low possibility. Very high risk and very low possibility of course, is, can a wandering around looking for some farmhouse place where they might have a telephone. What we could do that is we could read, look at the whole situation of Freeze. It's keep that open. Ok. Now, have you considered it? You've got all the facts. We've looked at options. One of the options is to keep an open mind and go back again. The affects of the options that we recreated were not feasible, not practical. Can we think of something else? Yes. Let's take the decision. And quite rat, you are correct. What are we going to do? Is we're going to take one of each of the other three wheels and we're going to screw those three. We'll not onto spare tire. And we're going to drive slowly but carefully to the Station. We have plenty of time. We're going to fetch our important client and we're going to deliver him to his hotel. We do not need to tell him the problems that he has created. We're just going to fetch him, greeted him, taken to meat, to the hotel so that he can have his meeting with your managing director. Okay. So well done. And I'm sure enjoyed it as much as I did. We're now going to move to the second part of the lesson, which is Decision-Making using a different or complex but equally practical set of action steps. And I know you're going to enjoy it. 30. 9.2 Decision Making: Alright, we are now moving into the second lesson of our decision-making module and our objectives compared to the first one. Change. In the first one, we looked at decisions that are made fairly quickly without much thought. One thinks of how you actually can't do arrived at that decision. But as we saw in lesson one, once you analyze the situation or the case-study, realized that those successful decision-makers do follow a certain technique which we left you with in less than one. Listen to has a different technique because your objective is different. The objective here, number one, is to explain the technique for making major decisions. Decisions which involve senior executives, for example, that require a lot of money or major resource movements, et cetera, within the company. And our second objective is to be able to apply that technique both in your work situation and in your home situation. As we work through this lesson, I'm going to take you through a fairly common home situation that we're all confronted with and that is to buy another house in a different town. And as we worked through that case study, I'm going to refer to a situation that are handled about 2.5 years ago, which was a major work situation. Just to link that to the techniques is the critical thing and the area that I really want us to focus on as we work through the listen, right? The case study and I'm going to be reading it. The reason for this is that I don't want you nor me to get to table it terribly involved with the content of the case study, we're going to be looking at the techniques for making a major decision. This case study and are referred to my page here, is that we have been transferred and the family needs a new house where the family we've discussed that and what we've agreed is that not more than a deposit of a 150 thousand is available. Ideally, we are looking at about a 120 thousand. What is important though, is that the repayments cannot be more than 20 thousand per month. It's definitely not a house that we want in town. On the other hand, that it cannot be more than 30 minutes drive from my place of work. What is also very, very important as at the occupancy, must be within 60 days, no longer. Ideally, we would like to use our prison furnishings and drapes from the prison house to save a few ran or some money. Also, we definitely wouldn't need shelter or cover or garage ing for two cars. If that's not available, then we need space in the new premises. To be able to build is a cover or garage ing for the two vehicles. It is interesting though that we have a daughter of 14 at a son of seven. So obviously we're looking at a three-bedroom house. We're also obviously looking at schoolgirl in children. And now the wife comes part of this case study. She does drive, but she absolutely detests having to fetch and carry children to and from school. So we're going to need to find a house that is reasonably near to school or has some form of transport to get to and from school. What the wife does love there is her shopping. The kids themselves as HD, they would prefer a modern home. But you and your wife say, we actually don't mind. As long as it is as neat and tidy Ho with a tidy and a secure garden. The wife is reasonably keen on baking and cooking, but it's not a fanatic and therefore says, look, I don't need a state of the art kitchen, but I need something that is adequate. All of you would prefer a quiet neighborhood and then quiet, you add a little something for yourself. And your rightly that a workshop would sure be nice. Okay. As we work through the techniques for making decisions involving major expenses, we're going to follow a certain set of steps. The first thing that one would do is to very clearly define the purpose. I'm going to go through these later with the case study and with the documentation. But number one, we need to define the purpose. We then list all the criteria that apply to the smooth or to the big warehousing situation that I spoke about. We listed all the criteria that apply to that. We identified what was absolutely essential. And then after listing those essential items, we then identified the desirables. We then classify those desirables under high, medium, and low. And the finally, we rated their importance from one. It's low and it's not all, not important at all to attend, which means it is very, very important. Okay, now we need a document in order to do this. And what we have here is a worksheet. And this is the decision-making worksheet. Don't worry about it at this stage. What we've got here is just that abbreviated version. As we work through the lesson, I will take you through a far more completed version, which will answer all your questions. The important thing, as we said, number one, is to define the purpose. And yeah, we need to as a family or that warehousing thing, we sat down with every executive who was involved from finance to engineering from a maintenance point of view. The sales and marketing gods who were involved with the, the, both the receiving and the dispatch of the materials. So everybody sat down and we then looked at the precise purpose of the decision that we want to make. Once we'd agreed the purpose of the decision. We then, as we said with step number two, we list all the criteria. That is on the left-hand column of the blue and white sheet that we have in front of us on the computer. Now. We have a four or five space for four or five at this stage. And as we'll see, there's many more as we worked through the program. So the left-hand column, ignore the other columns, the left-hand column, we simply lists the criteria. We list the things that are important to you in making this decision. In terms of the desired result or the main purpose. We list any resources such as money or manpower, equipment, et cetera, that is to be used in this decision-making and or any limits to be observed. For example, with the housing, there is a limit. We cannot spend more than 20 thousand a month. That is the limit. So we put these under the criteria. All the important things that we need to do. Okay? Now once we've done that, we then move to the middle column, which is under essential or desirable. And the first thing we do is we identify the essential items, the essential criteria, they are mandatory and they must be satisfied. Not some of them or the majority of them. Everyone of the essentials that has been decided in the objective and in the case study that I did as well that have to be satisfied. What I'm saying though is that the success or the failure of the decision, whether you're moving into a new house or you're moving into a very expensive, much larger warehouse. It will depend upon the essentials being met, not just short-term, but also long-term. That's why we involve all the people who again, to be involved or be part of that or affected by that decision, including the children. Okay. So we've listed our essentials and then we list the desirables. We put an E next to the essentials, and we put a D next to the desirable, for example, in that column, I would have not more than a 150 thousand. So that I put an e there under the next criteria could be, would be nice to have a workshop. Now there it's a desirable. So I put a d k. Now once we got all the desirables, okay? We then classify those desirables as the family or as the executive group saw fit. The desirables, some are more important than others. So it is very useful to classify them. First of all, as we see in the second column from the right, we classify them as high, medium, or low. My workshop could well be a medium. The fact that we need to be fairly near good shopping center for the wife who just loved shopping, there could be a high desirable OK. We didn't hurt classify the essentials because as I said, the essential is essential and it is mandatory. Okay, so I've given some examples. The wife is reasonably keen on baking. So the kitchen, we're looking at a medium desirable. It hasn't not high, but it's certainly not low. She, she's reasonably keene. Ok. Now we've looked at the right-hand column here. The importance. What we do here is we look at those criteria, the desirables, and we rate them from a one to attend. A one, meaning it is very, very low in terms of desirable. And at ten it is highly desirable. So you go through your, your classify, the classified ones of your desirables, the high, classified high. And you give that and importance of say, ten or nine. The mediums might get a six or a five. And you write the different mediums by giving them a 54 or 705. And then you move to your low and you could have a 321, for example, or 31. Ok, so we established the importance of those desirables. This sounds very complex. So let's have a look at it being in a completed form. Now, right here we have the completed form. Let me just remove myself from here. And as we can see, the purpose is to satisfy all the family members requirements, both short and long-term by meeting all the essentials mandatory and by matching the desirables of all the members of the family. So for example, from that case study, the downpayment, 150 essential, the monthly, not more than 20 thousand essential and so on or near the schools, essential. The others we've listed as desirables, the modern style, the shelter for two cars, workshop, large kitchen, it's settler, and down to minimum maintenance at the bottom. These are all desirables. Then what we've done in our next step is to classify them as to whether they are high, medium, or low. Now we've listed these in any order. So we're gonna have highs and mediums and lowes all mixed up. In fact, the minimum maintenance right at the bottom of that graphic shows the minimum maintenance is highly desirable for both mommy and daddy. And and whereas there are some like the workshop, we've rated it as a low. Now, you and your wife mile. Well, right. These things very differently. I've just wanted to show the technique for it. And we did this with that huge warehouse move as well. There was a curtain, key, key areas which were absolutely essential according to the financial God, according to the engineers, and according to those people who are going to actually be working with the people who are not working there, the sales and marketing people. They were involved because it is ultimately going to affect them in getting the merchant ice into the various stores on time and in good condition. So once we'd done all the highs and mediums, we then established the importance of those desirables. And here we rated them between 101. For example, the monthly payment we write a desirable, highly desirable, we'd write it as a ten. Whereas the minimum down payment, it would be nice to have years. We've added that as upon, et cetera. And so we worked our way right down to a couple of 2's, like the workshop with kids in the otherwise said, Dad, you don't really need that workshops that I've said no, that's fine. So to low and so on. And with the large kitchen, as long as we have a decent average kitchen than the wife will be happy. Cat. So that's the decision-making work sheet that we would use. Okay. What did we do then? After this? We then go out and we look for that house. We went out and we looked at several different major warehouses that we could possibly move into. And each one we evaluated as a group against what we as a group had defined as essential and highly medium or low desirable K in terms of achieving the purpose. Once we've done that, as I said, we looked at seven warehouses. We then step number seven, we then generate the alternatives, right? Yes, I abridged version of the decision workshop. The first stage here is to generate your alternatives. At this point, the creative process of decision-making is required. Okay? You can look at past experience. You can even brainstorm certain situations. And what we do there is we list the essential criteria First of all, on the left-hand side of this document, as you can see. First of all, the essential. Now let's look at go back to the house situation now where the wife and i or the family, we finally identified alternative a, an alternative B. With the warehouse. We actually established quite a few, and I think we ended up with four really good ones out of the seven. Then we establish now with the essential criteria left-hand column. We then looked at house number a, warehouse number a. And we said, what is the information here? Well, for example, if the central criteria was a 150 thousand and alternative a is a 140 thousand and Alternative B is a 150 thousand. They are both within the essential. So those would both be a go. But let's say we came up with a house which was magnificent, but the deposit was a 165 thousand. So the information for alternative See if it were there, would be 165 thousand and it is a mojo. And what do we do? We cross out that entire column from top to bottom. It doesn't matter how highly desirable the house is. If it does not meet a mandatory essential, we cross it out because you will not achieve your main purpose. Okay? Once we've done that, we then goes or logos, alternative a and Alternative B, they both satisfied the essentials, as we'll see later. We then look at the desirables and we listed again, we transferred from the worksheet, the original worksheet to that now to the decision worksheet. And we look at the alternatives against those desirables. We do know the importance. For example, we said the importance of nearest shopping center was a ten. Now the information alternative, a, for example, let's say it's a half, a half a kilometer by half a mile drive. Okay. So that's scores quite highly for the wife, so we'll score it and nine. Okay? So that will give us ten times nine is a, give us a score of 90. Alternative B might be two miles away or two kilometers away. So it scores a little bit lower. So it's ten times seven, that will give us a 70. So the one has got a 90 score alternative a, and the other one has got a 70 score, Alternative B, k. Now once we've done all that, we can then add up all those totals and find out the turtle satisfaction of the desirable criteria. The total satisfaction of the desirable criteria. The highest, the higher of them, would help us towards making how tentative decision. So we list the alternatives identified. We test them against the essentials, yes or no. We then score them against the desirables from a tin, highly desirable, and then to a one. And then we score the total satisfaction of the alternatives. We add the whole lot up and we give ourselves a total at the bottom. And that will then allow us to make a tentative decision. Now, once we've done that, we can then move across and see this decision worksheet now in its complete form k and we'll go through it slowly here. We've listed all the criteria. We've listed the essential criteria, the downpayment, et cetera, alternative A1, 45 thousand, Alternative B, 135 thousand, both within the essential, both of them are still goes. And so we worked through both of these alternatives, satisfied the Essential criteria. And when we went down through the desirable criteria, okay, we score them. And as you can see, alternative a right at the bottom, alternative a score 587, while Alternative B scored 584. Now we found this with the warehouses as well. Some of them scored quite considerably differently as well, but some of them were fairly close. Anyway, so we make our tentative decision. And at this stage, the house that satisfies all the essentials and best satisfies the desirables Of all the family would be alternative. A score only three, but three points higher. Now, before we make our final decision, we need to ask ourselves, Is there anything that can go wrong with that final decision? How do we do that? What I have introduced into my advanced management program, a fairly simple, but a vital and a very powerful tool. And that is to identify any possible problems and to be able to calculate them. For example, let's take the house. Let's identify that possibly the best route is going to be changed. For alternative a about not Alternative B. So we say what is the possibility of the bus route being changed? And let's say it's a seven or an eight, they're not too sure. How serious would it be? Well, it would mean under Alternative, a mommy having to carry and fetch those children, which he hates doing. So the seriousness could be as high as 1010 times seven is 70, which is pretty serious. If on the other hand, an alternative B, there is no possibility of it. Okay? The possibility is no, and obviously serious nothing. Seriousness is nothing. It remains the same score. You then make your foreign or decision. Just to go back to the warehousing, This is where it really became an important step in the techniques of major decision-making. What we discovered. Of course, we can then approach the municipality having made our final tentative decision, we approached the municipality and we asked them about the these two warehouses. Alternative a, an alternative B, alternative a would score high, higher than Alternative B. The municipality told us that attended had already been accepted for the widening of a road just outside very close to our tentatively selected warehouse. This would have involved 2.5 years, at least of extensive road works. Apart from the noise, there would have been a lot of stop and goes and a lot of delays and time delays in getting merchandise into the warehouse and possibly getting it back out into our stores. This could have upset delivery people. It could have upset our customers. Ultimately, the possibility was attend, it had already been accepted. The seriousness we write it as a man or a ten, and that is just so high. So we made our final decision based on that. And we went for the other alternative, which actually scored quite less, but which we found out was not going to be affected at all by anything that was going to take place in a town. Just on a nice little aside here, a 2.5, nearly three years down the road. And everybody is very, very satisfied with that decision on which warehouse that we've taken as regards the house. Now, that was just a case study, but a vital tool to use in your private life. I hope you've enjoyed this decision-making. I've enjoyed putting it together. I've enjoyed sharing it with you. And I hope that you are going to have as much success as I've had over the last few years. And forgets to move onto our next module in our advanced management program. Goodbye, and good luck.