Advanced Level Psychology | Elmira Strange | Skillshare

Advanced Level Psychology

Elmira Strange, Psychologist, Coach

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30 Lessons (3h 55m)
    • 1. 0. Promo_Video

      1:23
    • 2. 1. Perspectives: What is Psychology?

      7:47
    • 3. 2. Perspectives: The Biological Approach

      10:01
    • 4. 3. Perspectives: Behaviourist and Cognitive Approaches

      9:50
    • 5. 4. Perspectives: Person-centred Approaches

      8:21
    • 6. 5. Perspectives: Research Methods in Psychology

      11:55
    • 7. 6. Perspectives: Debates in Psychology

      12:35
    • 8. 7. Social Psychology: Attitudes

      9:42
    • 9. 8. Social Psychology: Influence

      10:10
    • 10. 9. Social Psychology: Cognition

      8:33
    • 11. 10. Social Psychology: Applied Social Psychology

      9:50
    • 12. 11. Cognitive Psychology: Perception

      9:42
    • 13. 12. Cognitive Psychology: Attention

      7:16
    • 14. 13. Cognitive Psychology: Remembering (Memory)

      9:38
    • 15. 14. Cognitive Psychology: Forgetting (Memory)

      7:26
    • 16. 15. Cognitive Psychology: Language development

      10:22
    • 17. 16. Cognitive Psychology: Thinking (Cognition)

      7:09
    • 18. 17. Cognitive Psychology: Problem-Solving and Artificial Intelligence

      8:58
    • 19. 18. Child Development: Issues

      5:23
    • 20. 19. Child Development: Cognitive Development

      6:50
    • 21. 20. Child Development: Development of Language and Communication

      6:08
    • 22. 21. Child Development: Social Perception

      5:33
    • 23. 22. Child Development: Moral Development

      9:07
    • 24. 23. Atypical (Abnormal) Behaviour: Definition & Diagnosis

      6:44
    • 25. 24. Atypical (Abnormal) Behaviour: Treatments

      7:26
    • 26. 25. Atypical (Abnormal) Behaviour: Emotional Disorders

      5:28
    • 27. 26. Research Methods: Techniques

      6:21
    • 28. 27. Research Methods: Issues

      6:03
    • 29. 28. Research Methods: Data Analysis

      6:42
    • 30. 29. Thank You & Good Bye!

      2:22

About This Class

Have you ever wondered why people behave differently or what psychological disorders are? Does Psychology fascinate you? Then you might be ready for this comprehensive Advanced Level Psychology course!

In this course you will learn:

  • What is perception, attention, and thinking
  • Why we conform to other people and authorities
  • How we judge other people
  • How children develop in various ages
  • What is anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders
  • How to treat 'abnormal behaviour' 
  • and so much more!

Take this course easy:

  • In your free time at home (or your PC, laptop or tablet)
  • On the way to work on your smartphone 

You will enjoy taking this course if you find Psychology-related topics (e.g. child and social development, thinking and memory, human behaviour, etc) as your biggest interest! 

Transcripts

1. 0. Promo_Video: Have you ever wondered why people behave differently or what psychological disorders are? Thus psychology fascinates you. Then welcome to the advanced level psychology cores. Hey, my name is Samir, a strange and I am British psychologist. And your online tutto psychology is my passion. And in this course I will teach you how you can use psychology in your everyday life and in your career. In this course, you will take 20 fine, informative lectures which you can listen to at home or on the way to work. In this course, you will learn how we think and develop attention in various situations. Why we conform to other people and authorities. How we judge other people, how Children and babies see the world and develop for this anxiety, depression and other emotional disorders. How to treat abnormal behavior and research, psychological disorders and so much more. Are you interested in becoming a professional and work within psychology of human behavior ? Would you like to help people? Your knowledge and skills? Then what are you waiting for? Enroll now and I will see in my class 2. 1. Perspectives: What is Psychology?: Hello. My name is Samir, A strange and I'm a research psychologist And your online tutor. While first of all, I would like to congratulate you for taking this course. I'm really glad to see you in my class. And I hope you will derive a lot of interest. Psychology is my passion. So I do share your interests as well. I'm here to answer your questions. If you have any. Whilst you're taking this course all, perhaps you have some questions in regards to the career of psychology or anything like that. So I will try to help you as much as I can. Well, as much as I know about this topic, I've been working in this field for quite several years. I don't know when you will be taking the score, so I don't want to give exact figures, but you can see my profiles on social media everywhere where you will find my profile. You probably will see that I am doing psychology and specializing in anything like stress management, psychology of human behavior, abnormal psychology and so much more. Anyway, welcome to this course on this course will start with our first topic with our first mortal . Which court, which is called Perspectives in Psychology. And the first lesson is, or what a psychology. So let's get down to it. According to the medical news today, psychology is the science off the minds and behavior. The word psychology comes from the Greek word psychic meaning breath, spirit, soul and the Greek ward. Loggia means the study off something in various dictionaries. You will find different descriptions on what psychology is. Nobody argues with the fact that psychology is a science. But some dictionaries also describe psychology as a science that originates from philosophy around 100 years ago. Oh, even less so you can see it's court in your profession and as a profession that this related to medical establishment as an academic Brian should that focuses on research on as a study of mind and behavior of both humans and animals. Basically, the income past so much psychology doesn't just study the human mind and its capabilities. But it is also interested in examining the developmental growth off a human. The cognitive functions such as memory, learning processes, attention, spun and communication neuropsychology, for example, studies the function of the brain where a social psychology studies, thinking processes and behavior in our interactions with other people. You might have also heard about the branch of psychology that is called health psychology, and that this studies how old behavior affect our physical and mental health or forensic psychology, which examines the behavior off a criminal personality and the psychological processes off criminal an investigation. And finally, you might have heard off the branch, which is called Occupational Psychology, which is focused on the study off people at work, the behavior in organizations and then the teamwork, all the attitudes towards the work they're doing and Korea related options. Nobody would doubt that the human mind is highly conflicts and still not fully understood. But the science for many people is that fascinating topic on this is why psychology is one of the most popular university courses that people choose to study. The mind and the behavior of the person can be studied from so many angles. And this is why psychology branched out. So in so many directions as we've already touched upon, some psychology specialize in the clinical signs of psychology. The study, mental health disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and psychoses on the problems related to those disorders, such as the effects on the person's relationships to all this or the person's ability to memories. Remember and recall, or how the physical or mental illness affect that person's ability to communicate with other people. Take care of themselves. Cool with the after effect of the illness. And so one other psychology study developmental studies that are related to how we develop starting from the birth and until our last day on Earth. The developmental Psychologist study, for example, the child's ability to form attachments with a K. Give us the relationships with the mother, the dysfunctional families, the other lesson periods and the teenagers. Behavior and psychological growth, the older person's well being and the state off. Loneliness. So what is the difference between psychologists and psychiatrists? Many people confuse these two notions on This is why I will make them clear from the start . Psychologists help people to function well in the everyday lives. They might provide consultations all therapeutic sessions. They might test the individual's mental capabilities, either in clinical or academic settings. Psychiatry's On the other hands are medical doctors who specialize in mental health disorders and in the treatments, which can be a combination off a therapy and farm market therapy. We just basically means medical drugs. So it's a combination of a therapy and medical drugs, Really? So you see, it's easy to remember. Psychologists are not medical doctors, and they don't prescribe drugs, but it doesn't make them any less importance with him and mental health science. People can come to see psychologists for many reasons, for example, to help him to deal with fears, phobias and anxieties, wait related problems, depression or stress, sexual problems and relationship issues. But psychologists are also high toe work in work analysis, marketing, improving performance in organization or sports related industry and so on. So psychology is a science and a profession. It involves both research in academia or marketing organization and working with people, whether it is in a clinical practice or unrelated work environments. It's the signs off mind, the most complex mechanism we know off the mechanism that we study for so many years. But we still don't know so many things about psychology is a fascinating science that can help you not only to become a professional who can work with people but also to understand more about human behavior, interactions, memory learning and other abilities that we use daily on that we always strive to improve. During this course, you will continue Learning Award is this fascinating science of psychology from a different perspective. So let's proceed to our next lecture, where we will discuss a water psychology from able biological point of view, or how the psychologist use biological approach to the study off human and animal behavior . Thank you for watching, and I will see you know the next lecture. 3. 2. Perspectives: The Biological Approach: Hello and welcome to our next lecture, which is all about biological approach to psychology, how we see psychology off human behavior, but from the biology or fizzle, physiology or physiological approach. It is one of the very interesting topics and will get down to it in there in a few seconds . But before we go there, I would like to tell you that if you didn't stop making any notes from this lectures, I advise you to do so. Please do take notes because it will help you to answer some of the questions in the final Cui's that I usually put after all the lectures after the last lecture. And, of course, check out the additional PD of guys that I usually supply with this leg with pretty much every lecture, because they will help you to learn it's an additional information. Or it could be additional reading that I would like you to do. If you participate in every study and in every of my recommendations, you will derive the best value from the whole course on This is what you want, really, isn't it? So good luck with your learning on? Let's proceed to our next lecture on the biological approach to psychology. Biological psychology involves a specific approach to studying the human minds and behavior , which is called the biological approach I'm, which believes that our thinking and behavior is a consequences off our physiology and genetics. Basically, our psychological self is based on our physiological, self and all our thinking. Feeling and actions can be explained from the biological or physiological point off you when solely biological approaches used in relation to psychology This is what we can refer to us buyer psychology. So the buyer psychologists, typically scientific researchers study the biological processes such as hormonal, neurological, endocrine and genetic to explain what we feel, what we communicate and how we behave. It is believed that bio psychology is originated in the 17th century, when you re near diss. Carter's suggested that there is a connection between some physiological factors and psychological ones on in particularly that there is a link between pineal gland in the brain and the person's behavior, even though he believed that the mind and the body are totally separated from one another. Other physicians and psychiatrists after him also contributed to the theory off the body and mind's connection with the suggestions. For example, the Russian psychologist Yvonne Pavlov proposed a theory off classical conditioning, where he could demonstrate how the dogs expectation of food could be conditioned through a physical phenomena such as a ringing bell and associated dogs. Physical reaction off salivation B. F. Skinner, who was a founder off Alperin conditioning, shows that student behavior can result from the person's motivational forces. If a person, for example, receives a positive reinforcement, for example, a praise, the person might become motivated to repeat that behaviour. On the other hand, if the person's receives negative reinforcement or punishment, then the behavior is less likely to be repeated. So through these examples, we can see that human mind is a link to a certain physiological aspects without any doubt. But how do, by psychology, study the human behavior today? Well with the advances in technology today, the researches have access to such tools and machines, US and Marie scans and pet scans, which can show which areas of the brain, for example, function when we observe a certain phenomena. So the researchers specializing in biological approaches investigate the human nervous and hormonal systems on what changes they can evoke in the brain, for example, a treatment of depression or in exciting by far Michael therapy. Now you probably remember what it's for. Marco therapy. It's a treatment with drugs can be observed as a connection between the person's nervous system and how it is affected by those drugs on by the person's state off well being. So this type of research and investigation can simply be called based buyer psychology. The next method off by psychological research is comparative methods, where the researchers studied various species off animals in order to understand human behavior. As you can imagine, there are prawns and corns to these methods. In the end of the day, there are many differences between various animal species on humans. So sometimes it is difficult to explain human behaviour based on the investigation results with animals without involving humans and the third and final method of bicycle logical research is the investigation off inheritance or, in other words, examining genetics, which can also be done with both humans or animals. With these type of method, the researchers can find out, for example, whether our I q is passed down to us from our parents and grand parents or whether their parents are upbringing can influence our food. The choices for this kind of studies. Researchers often study models. I got twins, which means identical twins who share 100% off the genetic information. So what would be the basic assumptions off biological approach in psychology? According to a website which called our location dot com, these are first awful thinking feeling and actions are caused by our biology and physiology . Secondly, genetic predisposition is very important in explaining individual behaviors. The third assumption is behavior can be changed as a result of other patients and evolution . Fourthly, many behavioral and thinking functions can be observed in the various brain parts. On the final assumption off biological approach Is that the research that involves animals ? I can't explain human behaviors and therefore these importance. So is it a good idea to use biological approach? Or in other words, is it a good idea to study physiology when we study psychology or human behavior and thinking well, Firstly, the biological approach can be used in, for example, treating certain psychological and neurological disorders. Also, the bias psychology can explain certain behaviors based on the person's current physiological state of health, so they are interlinked, so it is important. On the other hand, the biological approach can be seen as limited because it doesn't account for other factors such environmental influences or the person's childhood traumas. For instance, it cannot fully explain certain psychological states such as motivation, optimism, all tourism and so on. Is there anything else we can add to our study off the biological approach? Well, as we see, these branch of psychology emerged during the 19th century with the rain Aidas Carter's. But some say it is rooted much deeper within the science and philosophy, so it goes centers and centuries back in history. The second thing is that a Lee biological psychologist focused on the mental processes and behaviors off non human animals, and only very recently, especially with advanced tools such as brain scans, started researching individuals as well. So as you can see, it's failing. You approach altogether the biological approach, highly violence above genetic predispositions on physiological processes in order to explain human behaviour. So the genetics and the physiology are very important in explaining human behavior. From the standpoint, the by psychology focuses on research that involves animals in order to study human mental processes and the actions on, as we could see clearly eighties really important phenomena to study animals, to understand human behavior on the finally, As we say daily, the biological approach is valuable to the research but can be seen us and limited as it doesn't account for environmental influences past, leaving experiences, even some individual personality factors. So make your conclusions and these dizzy. This is the end of our lesson, too. I hope you made some notes and you've learned some some new and interesting things on. Like I said, Alia, do check out our additional pretty of guys that come with Alexis to get more information about the interesting top topics within psychology. Thank you for watching, and I will see you know in next lecture. 4. 3. Perspectives: Behaviourist and Cognitive Approaches: hello and welcome to our next lecture, which is about behaviorist and cognitive approaches. By now, you might be thinking, Why can't we just study some more interesting things about, for example, how people get motivated or how babies develop? Why do you have to study all this approaches to psychology? But the thing is, it is foundation when we study psychology. And if you go after these after these courts, if you go somewhere like university or some higher academia to study psychology, you will see how important it is to study the history or how it's all how the whole science becomes solid, how we study, what sort of viewpoints we have. How do we research it? Because the heart there are so many specialists in all areas, and they all think that they know psychology. As we discussed alien our previous research more sorry. You know, previous lecture one. Well, one group of these people is fizzle physiologist who studied physiology on. They think that they can explain our behavior from the genetic point of view on from the physiological point of few, what sort of physiological processes happen in a body like hormonal? I think so. I'll moods, which influenced by what sort of chemical reactions we have. Anyhow, let's proceed to our next lecture. Let's get down to behaviors and cognitive approaches to psychology. So here we're going to discuss another two approaches to studying the psychology of human behavior on the behavioral and cognitive approaches. Behavioral approach also known us behaviorism based on the premise is that we learned through the interaction with our environment. Ailey behaviorists believe that our genetics and our abilities to memorize and recall information we're not that important Onley through observation off our world and other people. That's what give us an ability to muster certain behavior, to make certain conclusions about our environment and to shape our personalities Onley through repetition and conditioning, we can acquire very skills and abilities behaviorism per supposed that all people are born with a blank state off minds tabula rasa with no genetic predispositions to certain abilities. So you can see from the previous lecture. This is very different, that they says the genetic predispositions they're not taken into account at all behaviours think that we're born with a blank state of mind. So according to them or to this premise, all people are born equal, whether you agree with it or not. So behaviour. See, when we observe and learn more about the world around us, only this is when we develop our abilities and before months. So behavior strongly based the theories on the conditioning element. Conditioning can be of two types. Classical and opera and conditioning. Classical conditioning. Waas proposed by even Parle off, as we mentioned earlier in the previous lecture, a Russian physiologist who in the 18 nineties observed dog's behavior on particularly their responses to food. He noticed that when he entered the room, the dogs would start salivates well before seeing any food in front of them. So this is how the first theories off association and conditioning were born. The dogs associated Pavlov's presence with the food, though later he used Bell ringing to associate it with the dogs. Food on it was clear that the dogs can be conditioned to stimulus intentionally so they would celebrate when they would hear the bell ringing that was associated with the dogs. Food Opara, in conditioning, on the other hand, suggest that the person repeats all seizes the behavior, depending on the consequences off that behavior If the behavior is rewarded in any shape or form, the person is more likely to repeat it if there is a punishment or some other negative outcomes full of the behavior than the behavior can be stopped. The behaviorist movement started in 1913 when John Watson, an American psychologist or organ article titled Psychology as the behaviorist of Use it, where a number of certain assumptions became clear, such as the learning process takes place only through observation. Off environmental factors on the people do not have any innate or genetic predispositions that would help them to learn. As you can imagine, this type of thinking is purely objective. Way off, seeing how we learn, remember and response. No talents or inherited abilities that we could be born with Onley developing skills through learning and observations off other people and our environment. On the other side of spectrum, we can see a cognitive approach to psychology instead of learning through observation. Cognitive approach assumes that we have certain cognitive processes such as perception, attention, language, memory and so on that make us to be heave in a certain way. The cognitive approach is relatively young. If we compare it to the behavioral approach. The cognitive psychology began its movement in the late 19 fifties. The human mind has been studied from a completely different angle. It was not seen as a model of stimuli and response, but more as a compass information process. So, just like a computer, the researchers started building various multilayered models off how human attention, memory and learning takes place. Cognitive psychologists suggest several theories, such as that information that comes from the environment, has to be processed through a complex system off attention. Remembering recalling on that, the more than research has to focus on studying those complex processes in order to explain human behaviour. So let's have a look at behavioral versus cognitive approach. The behavioral approach studies the observable behavior, which is stimulus and response or stimuli in plural and response. The observable behavior can be measured on researched objectively. There is no need to study internal processes as they cannot be seen or observed. The cognitive approach Presuppose that internal processes can be researched and studied. It is possible to research internal processes through the mean of experiments. An internal process happened after the person receives an input from the environment on before the subsequent response or output occurs the internal process that in the cognitive psychology known as the mediation process, can involve, for example, through problem solving, memorizing, recalling perception and so on. Cognitive psychologists explain that to understand human behavior, you need to understand how those internal mediation all processes work. So as you can see, both branches of psychology, behavioral and cognitive attempt to explain human behaviour and use their own theories and methodologies to do that, whereas behavioral psychology explains human perception on behavior in the terms of what can be seen and observed. Cognitive psychology, on the other hand, compare the minds to the information processor off a computer which is complex and cannot be seen but still can be researched through experiments. But don't assume that all psychologist today have to choose whether they want to be behaviorists or cognitive cognitive ists, and that you will have to do the same. The thing is, both of these branches have been a largely replaced by all the approaches, for example, cognitive behaviorism, which takes into account both of those approaches. For example, today you might hear about cognitive behaviorism, so basically the combined both of them in one approach on that approach takes into account both approaches at the same time. And so it uses best of both worlds, really. And also, for example, cycle social psychology, social psychology studies the interactions amongst people which producers and behaviors, assumptions and theories, social psychology, for example. It takes into account quite a few things which includes the genetics Aziz well, US environment. So let's proceed to our next lecture, where we will discuss the next approach, which is called person centred approach, which is also interesting and important. Thank you for watching and I will see you in our next the video. 5. 4. Perspectives: Person-centred Approaches: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing person centred approach. This is yet another approach to psychology, but it is used no only by psychologists by by therapies but by therapists and counselors today. So it is quite interesting how we can view a human no, only from the biological perspective, but also from the person center it. So it's It's not just about the processes that take place in our human board e or our minds , our brain. But it is more holistic, while onto my opinion it is more holistic view off a person on what's happening with him or with her in terms of psychology. So let's get down to it. Person centred approach emerged in the 19 fifties when humanistic therapies started taking place in America. Psychology then could be seen as clinical and cold, and the need for something more approachable, warm and optimistic became obvious. Carl Rogers, who was also a psychologist in the years of 19 forties to 19 sixties, suggested that in order to heal and to grow, the person needs an appropriate environment, that environment should provide them with genuineness, openness and self disclosure, acceptance being seen with unconditional positive regards and empathy, being listened to and understood. Without these environments, the person may not advance psychologically and emotionally for satisfying relationships. All achieve self fulfillment. Carl Rogers explained that absolutely anyone can achieve many off the desired goals and wishes, and when they do, they reach the state of self actualization. He truly believed that every person has one main innate desire to self actualize or, in other words, to reach the highest potential. This is how Carl Rogers described this. The organism has one basic tendency and striving to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism. But a person can reach the state of the highest potential or self actualizing Onley when they certain factors or conditions are present. And those are the person's ideal self, which means the person is aware off what and then meant to be and the state of congruence with the actual behaviour, which means they're comfortable and in agreement with a self image and the behavior Raj Aaron Person centred approach has started to be used in therapy by many practitioners. From they're known, the main difference between the person centred approach and the psychodynamic and behavioral approaches that were used before. That is the focus on the person Hema herself, or rather than the unconscious motives as it was used by so many psychologists. Rogers strongly believe that in order to help the person to heel and toe advance therapist should be nonjudgmental, accepting and warm and understanding the principle that is the basis for his work is this. It is that the individual has, within himself or herself, vast resources for self understanding, for altering he's or herself concept, attitudes and self directed behavior, and that these resources can be topped if only a define herbal climates or facilitated psychological attitudes can be provided. Person centred approach was groundbreaking because it turned the notion off how a therapy should run on its head. If you think of psychotherapy, ease off those times behaviorists, as we were discussing earlier, who viewed a person or someone who reacts to stimuli or Seconal and Cycle or psychoanalysts such a Sigmund Freud, who worked with the understanding and interpreting off the subconscious mind. Suddenly, a radical approach emerged on that was the person centred approach. The client was not asked to lay on the couch and talk about things that come into the mind anymore. Instead, they were asked to fully participate in the therapeutic session and to focus not only on the past experiences but all they present. The dreams and subconscious is not interpreted by the therapist anymore, but instead declined needs to decide what is wrong in their lives right now on what needs to change these approaches, not about a therapist who's superior to the patient. Instead, the patient is now called a client, and it's seen as equal to the therapist as a partner or even friends who listens and encourages cool conditions off the person centred approach in therapy that are the premises on which these approach operates are those the 1st 1 is The therapies is congruent with a client. That means that the therapist is genuine, authentic and interested in building a good therapeutic relationship with declines, the therapist encourages declined to be true to themselves to explore the thoughts and feelings. Secondly, the therapies provides the client with unconditional positive regards. This means that the therapies is known judgmental and generally case for the clients. The therapist accepts the clients thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Ask what they are without a proving or disproving them, just accepting on 30 the therapies shows and Partick understanding to declines. That means that the therapist attempts to understand the clients experience whilst being aware off the clients unique perspective. The therapies to reflect to the client. What has, Bean said to show understanding? By doing these, the therapist encourages the client to become more reflective in relation to the client's own experiences and more understanding and accepting off themselves. Today, the person center approach is widely used by therapists all over the world. The philosophy of this approach is that that all people are good in the essence. The decline knows best what it is right for them, and that the therapy has to provide warmth and genuineness in order to help the clients, even though some therapies choose not to work with the person centred approach because, for example, they would like to set clear boundaries and seeing more more as an expert than on equal the therapeutic approach off the today has shifted significantly scenes the last century whether the therapist works with a person centred approach, psychodynamic over rational, emotive, behavioral and so on. Most therapies still use the premise off being genuine nonjudgmental on understanding in. They work with a client, which is exactly World Carl Rogers proposed from the stars. So I hope you found this lecture interesting on you've learned a little bit a little bit more. A different approach to seen psychology and the human from more holistic, more genuine point of few rather than this clinical a person while clinical method off you in the person through psychological physiological processes the amazing You need to know here that Karl Gorgeous Waas the founder or the father off these person centred approach. Thank you for watching and I will see you know next a lecture. 6. 5. Perspectives: Research Methods in Psychology: hello and welcome to our next election, where we will be discussing a research methods in psychology. This is an enormous subject, enormous topic, really. And we can discuss it for hours, even for several lectures. So we'll get down to it in the end of this course where we will be discussing it in more detail the methods that it's used in research today, how we analyze, how we measure, how we conduct the research studies s o everything you need to know what condensed. But in this lecture, we will discuss the overview over this topic. So you knew what is the foundation off research methods in psychology? So let's get down to it. Why? The research methods are important to psychology. Any science that includes psychology based the theories and conclusions on the research findings. Those findings can be collected through research studies such as a new observations or experiments on the collection of desire from those research studies. The research findings are important to us because this is how we advance our knowledge the knowledge that can be used by science, medical establishments, academia and schools, and even ordinary people in the daily life. Through a research study, so we can even predict certain events and behavior. To make the research as some kind of systematic data collection, researchers developed several research methods that are used in signs, suit and science domains would use them more than others. But generally speaking, those several research methods are available to the whole community of science, no matter what is being studied. So they operated general in the approach. So how does the research study usually take place while festival You make an observation, for example, you might see how a person eats more cookies under certain conditions when the eat less so . That would be a hypothesis what we call a hypothesis. So you you make that observation where you notice that somebody eats more cookies on. Then you ask a question. Can a person eats more 50% more cookies, for example, when they watch a film, so then you come back. They have offices, which will be something like on individual. It's 50% more chocolate chip cookies when they're watching a film. So through hypothesis, you make a prediction on individual will eat 50% or more chocolate chip cookies when they're watching a film than when they're not engaged into any other activity. After that, you conduct and experiments. For example, it can involve to people who will have cookies in front of them. One person will be washing a film over us, and now the one will not be doing anything else. Apart from each and cookies, it is possible to involve another one, that to participants who, for example, can be engaged in social chat with others. Eso It's different activity whilst they're eating cookies and perhaps another participant, he will be a region a book whilst eating cookies. So let's have a look at the most common research methods that we would use in psychology today. What would be the first method that comes to your mind, especially when you are imagining imagining our previous scenario? Perhaps it's an experiment that you will come. Backed experiments are done within psychology daily on their used for a greater variety of questions, which are formed in hypothesis, as we were discussing earlier through the experiments, we can find out, for example, whether healthy eaters tend to choose healthy foods or junk food when they're hungry, or how an individual can explain to a foreigner. Some street directions through the body language, for example, Experiments can really in compassion, a wide variety of theories and behaviors. The aim of the experiment is to examine the relationship between two or more variables. The advantage of experiments is that the researcher is in control all the situation that is used for that method. The researcher can identify cause and effects within the experiment. When the experiment is completed, the researcher can quickly draw the conclusions. The disadvantages off the experiments would be something like When an experiment is set up , the situation can be seen us artificial, so the results may no be that a clip applicable to the real world may not be us accurate. Sometimes the participants subconsciously would try to help the researcher, so the results may not be as accurate as though, as they would be in a more natural setting. And sometimes experiments may not be possible or ethical. So the other research method that you would come across to East Cold correlation, all study correlation, all study. It's the study that what the approach that examines the relationship between two variables that correlate with each other the direction off that correlation how strong the correlation is, and so one. So if an increase in one variable is associated with an increase in another variable, this would be called positive correlation. For example, a person who exercise mawr throughout the week tend to consume more calories. So we can test this hypothesis and see the correlation or the relationship between these two variables the exercising hours and the number of calories consumed or another example one variable might be increasing waas. The other one is decreasing on that we would call a negative correlation. For example, they might be negative correlation between an individual sense of self esteem and they feelings off depression. As one increases, the other one is decreases. In some cases, there will be zero correlation if the researcher, for example, examines individual's ability to play football on the number off Children they have. Or correlation could be found US zero. If the researcher studies an individual abilities, climb mountains and they like you, for example, the advantages off correlation of studies are first of all, the research is able to examine situations in a natural environment, which can give more accurate results than, for example, through an experiment. The correlation all study can research situations that would be impossible or impractical to replicate through experiments, the researcher can clearly and easily see if there's any relationship between the variables . The disadvantages off relational studies could be something like a correlation cannot explain the causation between the variables. If one variable is correlated with another, this doesn't mean that one is causing the other. If, for example, a person smokes more cigarettes when he drinks more alcohol, this does not mean that drinking alcohol makes the person to smoke or the other way around . Correlation doesn't allow the research to assume the extensive data. If it's been found that there is a correlation between high temperature outside and enough and a number of ice creams consumed during the week, we cannot assume that the temperature that goes beyond our study continues to predict the higher number of ice creams. What's being found is being found on. We cannot make any assumptions beyond the received data. The next research method. The survey, as you can imagine, surveys, can be a great to when researching a phenomena in the large number of people service can give us a large amount of data with a minimal course and time input. If, for example, we compare them toothy experimental studies. But service have they all these advantages, too? For example, the participants might not. Not a represent the accurate sample of population on this can be seen in research studies that often done by cosmetic companies. You might have noticed that they often asked to test a product. Those people that already like that type of product or used the company products before the results can be very different. If they took participants from a different sampling, for example, those who have never heard about the company off those who rarely use those types of products, so you can see that the results can be very biased here. Secondly, people who indicate responses on paper may simply lie being inaccurate or used the answers to please the researcher. For example, you might come across the surveys where there is some incentives, such as Gift is, offer it for completing it. The person might quickly complete it without giving it much thought. Or they might put the answers that Hugh she believes, will help them to receive the offered gift. Other research methods you might come across are naturalistic observation, where the researcher allows the situation unfold in a natural environment. Nothing over a little can be controlled in the situation, but the results are simply based on the research is observations. As you can imagine, the results off the observation can be biased, as they would be interpreted by the researcher him or herself. But nevertheless, this method is great to use, particularly in the initial stages off research study. And finally, you might come across key studies. Case study is a widely used research method, which is used to analyze a person, a group or a phenomenon in depth. It's not just a single research method, but an in depth investigation, which employs a variety of research, tool sources and methods. For example, in the beginning of case study, the phenomenon can be observed, then the specifics experiments can be done. An interview with the participants can also be added to the study too. As you can imagine, this type of research can generate a lot of data which needs to be examined, analyzed and interpreted. A complex research can give us more accurate data, but also can be time and money consuming. So I hope you enjoy this lecture and found out something a little bit more. Especially what? Particularly how we study psychology. How we research how we do experiments and service and anything like that to get the data because of the theories in psychology are based on a certain day za that we go from studies . This is how the research is important to us. Thank you for watching Ana will see in our next lecture which will be the last lecture in this model. The first mortal on perspective in psychology that in the next lecture we will discuss debates in psychology that it seems ever lasting, that they never actually end. And you will see why I will see you now. A next lecture. 7. 6. Perspectives: Debates in Psychology: hello and welcome to our next lecture. Where we're discussing debates in psychology debates is a. As you can imagine, it's in disagreement or in arguments between two people while he awaited talking just people were talking about communities, communities for psychologists, psychiatry's therapy, stand researches, which are related somehow in any way to psychology. So what are the debates? Do they have? Why can't the resolve them? Let's talk about it and find out. So let's talk about the debates that I still violet today within the research community. You might be surprised to hear that certainty Bates continue for many years on. They cannot prove who's right or who's wrong, basically, because both sides have certain evidence that add to the on going to Bates. So the 1st 1 is one of the main debates within psychology East a roll off nature versus nurture in various aspects off behavior. So call just want to know how much of nature contributed to a phenomenon or any behavior, and how much it came from nurtures side of the debate. What do they mean by nature? Nature means individual genetic predispositions. It's what we've inherited genetically, what is nurture than nurture means any other experience after we're born. This can include environmental influences. Pair Insel upbringing. I was schooling environments and so on. For example, researchers have been concerned for many years whether our I Q is shaped by our genetic predispositions or our schooling and toward degree Francis Galton in the late 19th century , proposed of a predisposition to being genius is mainly inherited and that the environments cannot improve or diminish it in any way later on. Some researchers identify that certain cultures have more like you than others, which adds more evidence to this theory. But the question is how much we can influence our wake. You if, for example, will be exposed to the best academic environments. Nature versus nurture debate is also relevant to the questions of sexuality, male and female behaviour, psycho pathological disorders and conditions. For example, it is believed that schizophrenia is largely influenced by certain genetic predispositions , but it is also known that schizophrenia manifests mainly in certain environments. For example, a person have trouble. Childhood grew up in dysfunctional family used recreational drugs on experience. Poverty is more likely to have schizophrenia than a person who who also has the same genetic predisposition but grew up in a much more favourable environments. In the second case, where the person has favorable living conditions, these disorder may never manifest. So the nature versus nurture debate is concerned with a degree of influence off the inherited I e. Genetic and their quiet I environmental factors on our behavior. The next debate in psychology that you might come across east mind versus body debate. The mind versus body debate originate itself in philosophy on ask those types of questions , such as Can the mind influence the body, how the body effects the human minds? Which of these two are more in control, how they interact with one another? We know that the mine involves mental processes such as learning, thinking and memorizing, recognizing and so on. The board, the on the other hand, is responsible for the physiological processes. We also know that our physiological processes can result from our thinking. For example, if we think that we need to stand up, which is the mental process on belongs to mind. The body is getting Brady to get up instantly, so the behaviour follows the mental process. On the other hand, if we get some virus and become ill. Our thinking processes can slow down. We can feel if lethargic, sleepy, less responsive to the events and people around us. Our productivity goes down and so on. So this is the example of how our body gets control over our mental processes, as you probably remember from our previous lectures. Behaviorists are those researchers who believe that psychology should be studied through observational phenomena, observing our behavior and responses. On the other hand, the humanistic approach based on the on the work off Carl Rogers viewed the human mind us something that is in charge off our experiences and that includes physiological wants to. The humanists believe that the only way to study human behavior is through the human subjective experience. So the mind is the most important aspect here. So they believe also, you might have heard about hypnosis phenomenon where the participants can be placed into a deep state of hypnotic trance. The researchers then told the participants that they hand touches a red hold piece of metal where, in fact, there were touching a pencil. Interesting. Any laugh. The participants experienced the skin burn as they had touched something very hot on that burn marks were actually seen. Similar results were gathering in the controlling pain. Through hypnosis phenomenon. This type of experiments demonstrate that the mind can be actually in charge of the physiological reactions off the body. So the mind versus body debate is about the degree off influence off mental process on the physical bodily processes over our behavior and experiences. The next debate in psychology is called Free wheel versus determinism. Free will assumes that we are free to choose water, say, and how to act on unless we're mentally unstable. We are in full control off our choices and behaviour. But is this true determinism? On the other hand, per supposed that all our behavior is predictable, it is controlled by a mixture of our previous experiences and genetic predispositions. The evidence for determinism and for free wheel is strong on. This is why it adds to the current debates. That's why it never ends. For example, in determinism, we can see that the previous research shows that we might not have that many choices when we act out on our behavior. In the 1961 for example, Albert Pandora provided an experiment where he showed the Children he were growing up with violent parents had the highest chance to become violent parents themselves, as they were observing and later imitating the parents during the upbringing. The theories off behaviorists that now you're familiar with also contribute evidence to the determinism. For example, boroughs Fredericks, Kina on American psychologist and researcher in the 19 seventies, demonstrated that our behavior tend to result from the environmental factors on more specifically pulls, a different negative friends free enforcements, praise or punishments, after which were more or less likely to repeat our behavior. And some researchers suggest that our personality traits like extra version and openness come mainly from our habitual part. Rinse off emotions, the words and behavior, these partners. I mean, they learn from our parents emotional and behavioral states that we observe when we grow up . So according to the behaviorists on the pro determinism researchers, we think that we have free wheel. But in reality we don't We think that we can choose our behavior and responses to other people's ward's thoughts and behavior, for example. But in reality, our responses, I learned from our environments. That's the theory from determinism. Let's have a look at the evidence of free wheel free wheel evidence comes mostly from the humanistic approach, which suggests that all humans have free wheel and not all behavior is determined. Humanist a psychologist, for example, Carl Rogers, who we were talking about previously, and also Abraham Maslow, who is well known for his theory off the hierarchy of needs, emphasize that all humans have a choice to develop and grow. According to these theories, free will is essential for becoming self actualized and fully functional human being. Cognitive psychologists also add some evidence to have a free wheel. Cognitive psychology emphasizes mental processes such as thinking and developing thought partners that can be helpful or unhelpful. You might have heard of cognitive behavioral therapy that is used widely to do all over the world. Through CBT, a person can learn to change the thinking patterns on their behavior so that they were able to deal always, for example, stress anxiety or depression in a very effective way. CBT is promoted by National Health Service because it is shown as effective in many research trials. So if we're able to change our thinking on the behavior that is affected by our thinking then doesn't mean that we have free wheel. So as you can see both sides of the debate on free will and determinism have they violate stun points. This is why this debate is still ongoing, as you can get yourself. Perhaps both sides are right to some degree our thought processes. Behavior on other abilities can be passed down through genes from our parents and even our ancestors. But it doesn't mean that we cannot affect them ourselves to, for example, undergoing through according to behavioral therapy or hypnotherapy, reciting daily affirmations and taking classes in personal developments. This all can help to shift. Our habitable responses are thought patterns on our behavior to a certain degree, and sometimes to a very large degree, to the point that the person can heal from some anxiety disorder, reduce or eliminate stress from the lives, change the life circumstances for the better, and so one. So it is clear that the pure deterministic or poor free wheel approach it wouldn't just work. It wouldn't be appropriate when we study the mind to the behavior. Therefore, the debate is not about which one free will or determinism is responsible for our behavior . It's mostly toward degree. Each one of these factors influence our psychology while the secede for our lecture on debates in psychology and you have completed Model one, which is congratulations for staying with me so far, I hope you're taking notes. As I was saying earlier, I hope you are accessing some additional PdF guides as well, and you enjoy learning this course. The next mortal is even more interesting because it's all about social psychology, which I love to be, honestly sees my passion and the first lesson in the model to will be own attitudes. How we develop attitudes. Let's talk about it in our next election, see there. 8. 7. Social Psychology: Attitudes: hello and welcome to our next model. Where will be discussing social psychology and very selections and various topics within social psychology? I'm quite excited about the hut, if you can see, because thesis is one of the areas which I'm really, really interested in because it's all about the human behavior and how we behave, how we perceive the world around us, how we communicate with other people, how we show our behavior that we're pleased or displeased how we form our attitudes and relationships with others. So in this lecture will talk about attitudes, how we form them. So let's get down to when you think about studying social psychology. There are a few main topics that come to mind. It's the individual and Group A here this it's the individual attitudes. So in attitude is a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings on behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols. So, in other words, it's how we feel, or what types of believes we hold towards certain events, objects or people. There's feelings and beliefs is what we call our attitudes. Attitude in psychology can be assessed in a very structured way. The model off attitude has three main part in it, which can be summarized as an ABC mortal. A stands for effective component, which looks at the feelings of regenerate towards the events person or object. For example, when we witness someone crossing the road in a very busy street, we might feel worry or anger towards the person who puts him or herself in danger. B stands for behavioral component, which you can guess is all about the behavior that I should. A situation object or person influenced us. For example, you might see a dangerous creature crawling on the floor, and you would scream or shout as a result. That would be the behavioral component off attitude and C stands for cognitive component, which involves the person's belief or prior knowledge about an object, a person or a situation that you develop an attitude towards. For example, you might believe that, for example, a certain type of job is not worth going for as it is often low paid. That's the call cognitive component where you think off. It's not worth it because it is based on your knowledge or even previous experience, but you can see how all three components would be interconnected. If you feel that a student type of job, it's not worth E. Then you think about it. You analyze your decision and you come to some realization, which is all the coordinative component. Then you might do a bit of for a search to see if anyone else is doing who likes the job and whose speed well, so your behavior off a recision would go under the behavioral component off attitudes. When you do your research, you see other people also complain about this type of job that is really low paid, which can make you angry because you feel it's unfair. Those feelings would be backed up by your attitude, which demonstrate the EF effective component of the whole attitude model. One of the assumptions that people make when think or study attitude is its consistency. Our to do this, consistent in the way the person feels about something, behave in a certain way or consciously think about it. But if we think about it carefully, then we realize that attitudes are not always consistent. The can depend on our mood or recent experiences. If you were in a really good mood, you know how your attitudes to certain things become less rigid. If, for example, you feel that eating sugar reach foods is detrimental to your health, then when you are in a social surroundings on in the better mood, you might think that's an occasional tree doesn't harm health. So you change your attitude. Or if you feel, for example, that the person should work on the career as much as it is possible, then, after experiencing death off a loved one, you might feel at certain times that Korea became less important. You again, your attitude towards this topic has changed. The attitudes can be changed, or they can become more flexible. In the year off 1934 LaPierre investigated the relationship between attitudes and behaviour , and he found that contrary to many people's thinking, attitudes do not always predict behavior. If you have a negative attitude towards smoking, for example, this doesn't mean that you will never smoke despite your knowledge and believes. LaPierre also found that cognitive and affective components off attitude do not always affect the behavior either. So if someone made you feeling angry, for example, this doesn't mean you will avoid a person each time you see them. In fact, you might experience various feelings towards them, even if your attitude towards them is still in changed. Attitudes can be explicit or implicit. Explicit attitudes form as a result of our experiences and observations. It's the attitude that we form consciously were aware of them on. The psychologist can measure them with various question is and self reports you, for example, you believe that females tend to use more spoken wards in a day than males. Then you can probably explain why and how you have developed the belief. Implicit attitudes, on the other hand, is the one we're not aware off. We have developed it unconsciously on we know only off them. When become to some realization. For example, we might undergo a hypnotherapy session where the therapies access our subconscious and literally get the answer from our subconscious part of mind. Or a researcher can find out in police it attitudes by measuring our thoughts and feelings towards some topic, and the conclusion in regards to our attitudes will be drawn. We might, for example, find that we have negative attitude towards the people off authority or a preference towards certain collars on numbers, and we were not aware of that. So you can see our that you just can around on somewhat subconscious level two. Why do we form attitudes? There are four known functions, as it was proposed by the research of Daniel Katz in 19 sixties. First of all, attitude can provide us with some meaning off the events around us that meaning can help us understand the situations, objects and people better. And that, in turn, give a sense of control, control over situations, off soon situations and if our life really. Secondly, when we form attitudes, we feel as if we know better who we are, so it gives us a sense of identity. Identity is essential to any individual before my date. It is constantly throughout the whole life through identifying ourselves with other people or certain groups. So I did. You also help us to for our identity and communicate that to our this thirdly attitude, help us to become accepted and approved by Alice. Research shows that if we have similar attitudes with others, we tend to get accepted by the group easier and faster than if we have different attitudes . People like to find Alice three similar attitude. So it is an important part off social acceptance, and the final reason for having attitudes is because they provide us with a sense of self protection, from for our self esteem and for justifying our actions. It is also known as eager defensive function. So is it easy enough to change our attitudes? It is possible, if derived, few variables present the credibility of the speaker, the background, the attitude and appearance can help to change our attitude towards certain topics. Secondly, it's the essence of the message itself. For example, if the information sounds credible and logic to us, then it can make us to change our attitude towards against certain topic. The characteristics off the audience can help us Well, the personalities, the demographics and finally, the form of channel is really important to us to when we form our attitude, which means that the information can come to our three TV radio, Internet face to face on it will be judged by us accordingly. Well, this is it for this lecture on Let's proceed to our next lecturing social psychology, which is called social influence, compliance, obedience and conformity. When and how we conform toe others see you, you know, next lecture 9. 8. Social Psychology: Influence: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing social influence. So what a social influence? Well, there are three main categories that we need to be aware off, and that's compliance, obedience and conformity. So why do we and when do we conform to others when we become obedient in English cases, what the psychologists say about that on how we can prevent to be influenced by our this all by TV ads, for example, or other people in the group that we find ourselves in. So let's get down to electric. So what a social influence it's when someone influences someone else, right? Social leverage is a change in the person's behaviors and emotions as a result of the interactions with another individual or a group of individuals. So, in other words, when a person has been affected to the point that the attitude ins feelings have being changed because because off one or more individuals, social influence can take many forms. And in psychology you would typically study three main forms, as we said earlier, which are compliance, obedience and conformity. Compliance is when people agree with someone's imposed view, but do not change the internal views on believes. A billions, on the other hand, is when a person, by being to do when an authority figure told them to do often against the free wheel and conformity, is when the person accepts the group. Views on adjust they behavior to be perceived norm. Social influence is a process of changing someone's views or believes on. This process can be either intentional or unintentional. It is not about thing if you think about it. For example, people can be influenced to change the health related behaviour for the better or to become more confident or Syria tive the process off. Social interaction can be seen everywhere amongst people where people get influenced by others opinions often, but they also influence others with their own thoughts, beliefs and ideas. So it's not only other people influence us all the time. We influence other people have told times as well. Conformity, on the other hand, is the process of following the rules this rules and can come in a form off laws, regulations and various group rules, for example, not breaking the laws. Being a respectful worker to all this at the workplace. Wearing a formal attire in the lower court or keep you keeping your phone switched off in the theater. Are all of the examples off conformity? Conformity is an essential part of our lives on most people. Welcome these because they like to full of the rules conforming are following the rules is there for protection, often individual and of the society as a whole. When all the members of the group are conforming, each individual feels a sense of belonging to the group, the protection off the group interests, and they're motivated to be part off the group. The degree to which all members feel that they can conform depends on two main factors. It's the group cohesiveness, or how close the united the field. As a group on the size of the group, the biggest size group can be less likely to conform than a smaller size group. Other factors that can make a person no to conform is the need for demonstrating individuality and the desire for personal control. So now you know what is conformity, which is basically following the rules. But what is obedience? Obedience is a form of social influence where a person receives instructions or rules from an authority. So the obedience is an opposite point of conformity, so to speak. Obedience is a form of social influence where a person has to before some action as a result of being instructed to do so by an authority fear. It is different from compliance in a way that compliance is a milder form where a person agrees to change the behavior as requested by another person. Obedience is also different from conformity, where a person would change their behavior alongside others, in other words, where they would follow the rules. So what's so different about obedience? Obedience involved someone's order and not a simple request as in conformity or compliance . Obedience means on involvements, often authority, figure and some sort of social power, and not just getting along with others being social accepted by the group and so on. But of course, the reason. Negative side to conformity and obedience, where people are made to conform against the wheel or any consideration off they wishes. In the 1963 for example, Milgram's research study demonstrated that people can made to conform even when it goes beyond the moral reasoning. The study participants were made to administer electric shock toe. Other participants who were the students when there were mistakes made in a memory task than those students were supposed to complete. When the participants who administered the shock toe others express the any hesitance about the punishment, they were simply being told that the experiment must continue as the result of an experience. It became clear that 65% of the participants conformed to the instructions of the researcher, even though they believe that the severity of shock became dangerous to the other participants. I, the students, the research that is well known within psychology as a Milgram experiment, and I urge you to read about it in details on psychology related websites or in a psychology textbooks. Another famous experiment, All Obedience, is called Zimbardo Prison Experiments. Philip Zimbardo conducted his research at Stanford University in the 19 seventies. The students were put in the environment that resembled a prison. Some students were randomly assigned US prison guards. Where is all this return to participate as prisoners? This research was conducted in order to see the psychological influence on those who are in power over others and to observe the interaction between the prisoners and the guards. The study progress to such extent where it had to be terminated before its scheduled time. Why the participants that played the role of the prison guards gold into their roles so well that soon some of them were exhibiting psychological abuse and even psychological torture to those who acted this prisoners, many off the of those prisoners became obedient and passive, allowing the guards to exhibit the abuse of power over them. So it's like in the previous experiment that we just talked about in the meal. Graham's research study, Milgram's showed the students were punished by other participants by the medium off electric shock for making any mistakes in this Inbar, the prison experiments, the prison IHS or while they were participants as well. They were punished in a very psychologically abusive way not for making mistakes A such but for the foot bean, a prisoner in the experiment. So that just shows how people in power can easily lose a sense of control off simply being a human on start abusing the power. Where is the other people? The other people off who were not prisoner so who were not in authority can become a B geant and get the wheel broken, so to speak, very easily. So why the authoritative powers can have so much influence over us? The researchers explained that we are all conditioned to a B from our birth first, all parents, another respected adults, then teachers and so one. The third form off the social influence that were mentioned in the beginning of our lecture is compliance. Complies is the most mild form of influence. Various conformity is obeying the rules. Compliance, on the other hand, is more like a green. We shouldn't proposed rules or views. People can choose to comply all they may not. For example, if someone is asking to contribute some money towards a good cause or to participate in some volunteer evening, these are the examples off compliance. Compliance is more likely to happen if we like the person who is making the request. When there is not enough to go around like a lack off resources, wind return a favor to someone reciprocation. So, in other words, will we call reciprocation? Well, if the request came from authority, authority like figure, this is full factors when we are more likely to comply to others or with a request in their views. So this is it for this lecture where we were discussing social influence, compliance, obedience and conformity. I hope you like it and enjoy it and found something new on. Now we'll proceed towards the next lecture where we'll discuss social cognition. See you. You know, next lecture. 10. 9. Social Psychology: Cognition : hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will discuss in social cognition, which means it's all about our cognitive processes, which I involved into attention and building memory and information processing and problem solving. So it's all about our cognitive processes, how we do, how we think, how we again make sense off the world around us. So let's talk about social cognition. So Social cognition can be interested, for example, in researching how people view themselves and others, how they deal with social situations, what they believe and how they stereotype. These are all examples off social cognition, which belongs to the domain off social psychology. What differ us from animals is our ability to be aware off our own thoughts and identity. We're also aware off our relationships with others replaced meaning to those relationships , analyzing what works and what doesn't for us. This all would goes under the name of social cognition in psychology. The concepts in social cognition are very similar to those within cognitive psychology, because both off these domains study cognitive off mental processes that the cure in our brain, however, social cognition, focuses on those processes that take place in social settings, and this is what mainly differ. Social cognition from cognitive psychology. There are three main principles off social cognition that you need to know about. People ask cognitive misers spontaneous versus deliberate thought on the importance of self esteem. So let's have a look. The 1st 1 people ask cognitive misers. What does it mean? Cognitive psychology and social cognition hasn't underlying believe that people have a limited capacity to process information. You can see these in, actually, if you try to do several things at the same time. The more things you add, for example, Ace obstructing certain number whilst trying Teoh watch TV and I assured the more mistakes you will make simply because your capacities become fully engaged and you will feel that it will take you a lot of effort to become focused. To deal with a complex, multi tasking functions, we often come up with shortcuts where we will use a rule of thumb or some strategies and helpful techniques, even though the shortcuts are great because they save us time and effort to get a decision or conclusion. In reality, there are often inaccurate, leading to errors and misjudgments. So what is cognitive miser. The cognitive misers may be characterized as a trading off accuracy and thoroughness for speed, a quick decision or judgement on use of minimal mental effort. We all become cognitive misers from time to time. We use shortcuts to form certain conclusions. And when we simply process information without the short cuts, it will be difficult to process all the incoming information in a probe of rational logic way spontaneous versus deliberate thought. Previously, we discussed that US cognitive misers. We often use certain shortcuts when processing complex information on making decisions, while some of those short cuts could be called social schemers. When a similar social situation occurs again and again, or when there are perceived similarities between different social situations, a person's response may be spontaneous. Seems it's so well learned that it is automatic. Gilbert proposed the notion off spontaneous and deliberate social thoughts. When people use spontaneous automatic thought, the process becomes fast efficient with the least off effort and time spent. However, this type of thinking leads to many errors and misjudgments on best to be avoided as much as it is possible. Deliberate thought, on the other hand, involves more thorough process where the person ways all the pros and corns and think logically and rationally before reaching the required decision. The importance of self esteem, individual self esteem and social cognition. I linked more than you might think. If a person has high self esteem, they behave. It demonstrates more confidence, uncertainty. Other people are able to pick up on those clues and recognize that person or someone with high self esteem and self confidence. If the person has low self esteem, there are other people would recognize it too. Moreover, the individual self esteem can either help the person to integrate into social groups or not. This, in turn, can either increase or lower the self esteem. So if you think that social cognition is all about how we use our cognitive processes and evaluate the world around us now, you can see the individual self esteem plays an important role in social cognition. Cultural differences, another important variable within social cognition, researchers have noticed that people can view the world around them differently. On those differences can lay within the variety of cultural backgrounds that these people come from people's perception, the interpretation of social interactions and understanding off the environment can all be different based on the cultural differences. We wouldn't be surprised, for example, if someone say's that Eastern World is different from Western world because on some level we understand the underlying differences. All the people in Asia, for example, with view relationships differently than people from the U. S. For example, a research of our JAL A towel in 1986 found that in Japanese culture, people tend to endorse more rules for avoiding conflict in the friendships, whereas in Italy, people are more preoccupied with regulating intimacy in the divine at all. In the 1995 research, the participants were asked if they met a person who has all the qualities that they desire . But we're not in love with a person, whether the marriage would be possible at all. In most collectivist society, such as India half off, the respondents say, two years to agree in marrying the person who has all the desired qualities, even if they were not in love with them. In contrast, other countries such as England showed only 7% favorable response through that question or in other words, being in love is more important for the western society than perhaps for Eastern and Asian cultures. In addition to that, statistics showed, the divorce rates in China are less than 4% whereas in the US there over 40%. It is possible that divorce any individually societies is much higher because of the common view that one should seek the ideal partner. So it is clear that cultural differences might be playing a very important role in social cognition. People from all over the world used shortcuts and scheme us in the thinking, but the content of the scheme s will be different from country to country. The content of the shortcuts or schemers and thinking would be based on the beliefs and norms off that society. For example, people from East Asian countries such as China and Japan tend to form scheme us in a more holistic way than people from the U. S. Australia, who employs an analytic style off thinking. It is possible that that cultural differences in social cognition developed as a result off various philosophical tradition, for example, confection, ism and Buddhism in the eastern cultures and Greek philosophical approaches in the West. But there is also a possibility that the differences and social cognition could have been originated from our physical environments, our lifestyle, our language, and so on 11. 10. Social Psychology: Applied Social Psychology: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing applied social psychology. Or in other words, how do we use this information that we we derive from psychology, All these theories and knowledge? How do we apply to our everyday life? This is exactly what we're gonna discuss now, when we're talking about applied methods in psychology, we usually refer to the research theories and principles that psychologists use in order to understand certain issues and to provide the solutions to those issues in social psychology They underlying principle is that issues are typically developed as a result of human interactions and behavior. Social psychologists conduct study on human thinking, feelings and behaviour in order to understand behavior and interactions in social environments. So the applied cycle social psychology, in a natural aims to understand the problems related to behavior and social environment through research and to change them in the best possible way. You might come across to apply social psychology in action If you saw, for example, a lecture on promoting health related behaviour or stress reducing workshop for employees or through interviews and surveys with people with specific mental disorders. The main growth off applied social psychology happened around 20th century, when researchers started noticing its possibilities within advertisements and also education on health psychology. For example, in 19 or three experimental psychologist Walter Deal, Scott wrote the theory and practice off advertisements where he suggested that consumers behavior can be influenced by emotional suggestions on the 19 awaits psychologist Heuberger Monster Bert proposed that applied psychology in a form of research can help toe alter unhelpful behaviour and resolve problems that people encounter in the everyday life. Then, in 1917 psychologist Gs Whole founded that the Journal Off Applied Psychology, with the aim to fill that explore the potential off these domain Ah, social psychology became widely recognized and accepted within academic circles. In the 19 fifties, research within this area became less popular and was replaced by basic academic psychology . However, 20 years later, after the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement in the U. S. Ah, polite psychology has become needed by society of once again, psychologists try to make sense of what was going on within the society through the domain on. Later in the 19 eighties, applied psychology became a really lucrative business, finding its use in health and education areas. Criminal justice, government funded research on others. How does applied social psychology work in practice? Applied psychology is a systematic application off social psychological constructs, principles, theories, intervention techniques, research methods and research findings to understand or ameliorate social programs. So, in other words, applied psychology started with a proposed theory in a specific area, which is then tested and possibly fill the developed. But it doesn't stop there yet as it's what basic social psychology does. Applied psychology goal step fell there When the researchers try to understand and resolve practical problems, basic social psychologist may conduct research STAIs based on the interests which are purely scientific apply. Social psychologist, on the other hand, conduct research with the aim to contribute towards solving social problems in a practical manner. Basic social psychologists typically use deductive approach when they start with a particular theory, which is then started, how it can be helpful in understanding social behavior. Applied psychologist, on the other hand, tend to use inductive approach where they start with a specific social problem on. Then they examine what theory or theories can explain the problem and suggest any potential solutions. Examples off induct different deductive approaches in social psychology, you can see on the picture the inductive approach on the left side can be seen us having a matter in the center. It is a specific problems such a small king or a program related to car use. Or perhaps it's an issue related to health behaviors such as exercising oh, work related absenteeism. Then the researchers would take into account various theories, such as social comparison or plant behavior theory, and see how they would apply and explain the problem that is the prime example of applied social psychology. The basic social psychology, on the other hand, is taking a theory such as plant behavior or social dilemma in the heart of the matter. On then, see how the theory can explain a change, their unhelpful behaviour that is related, for example, to exercising, smoking, car use or safe sex off course. In both domains, you can see the research issues in both approaches. What we see here is a typical method, but by no means the only way off. The practices academic, social psychology and applied social psychology can both use a theory that starts in the centre off the research or a problem that became prominent in the society. It's just basic. Social psychology tends to be more academic or scientific by nature, whereas applied psychology is directly related to the problems and issues in this society. One of the great examples off apply psychology is a research by Shelley Taylor and her colleagues. In 1985 who study Aim were to Research Corp in Strategies and women with breast cancer. What they found is this. Around 80% of women with breast cancer believed that they were doing better than other people in similar situations. Whether they knew those people in a similar situation personally, or imagine that there is always someone worse off than them. This belief on its own wasa strong coping mechanisms that helped the women to feel more positive and hopeful towards the treatment and recovery. So, in this case, applied so called you looked at the problem itself how women with breast cancer cold with the condition of treatments. As a result, we started provided theoretical importance, for example, a theory off downward comparisons, which means comparison to those who are in a less favorable situation. On that, those downward comparisons tend to be prevalent amongst those people who is in harmful or dangerous situation on that downward comparisons do not have to take place in the real world. Instead, they can be cognitively constructed. I imagined in the mind off the suffer on the main oblique implication is that those downward comparisons can allow persons with cancer to cope with the situation better. Today, applied psychology is used everywhere in government health care, education, business and marketing, environmental issues, politics and so on. Some researchers work in organizational settings in governmental buildings. Where is all this work in academic institutions, volunteer organizations, all private companies? As you can see, the application of this type of research is widespread. What would be the criticism off? Apply psychology, apply psychology studies often conducted with smaller size groups and self reliant. Question is they might not have control group or they could be heavily funded by certain organization. So the researchers might be somewhat biased in their research. So the academic based psychologies may have heavily criticised applied social psychology results that are added to the general academic knowledge. On the other hand, applying psychology does not discount theoretical knowledge and instead aims to build on the existing principles and policies. The main and final point here is that the advance psychologist employ problem oriented focus, which can be seen as a modern contribution which delivers faster results to the overall psychological knowledge. Well, this was the last lecture in a model to on social psychology. I hope you enjoyed it and made some notes and flirt a little bit more. That adds to your overall knowledge in psychology more done for staying this far. And I hope you derive the best value from this course by participating in it. ASUs. Full as it is possible. Perhaps you already start doing some additional reading. In any case, I will see in our next model in our next lecture on our next model will be on cognitive psychology and its applications. Another interesting model. So stay with me on, see you there 12. 11. Cognitive Psychology: Perception: hello and welcome to our next mortal Model three, where we will be talking about cognitive psychology. So instead of looking at social directions and how we communicate with others on how we perceive world through social psychology, as we were discussing in the previous moral here we're looking at the structure off attention memory learning how the process a cure from the from the cognitive psychology approach. Cognitive psychology is also looking at the models, the models off perception, remembering language acquisition thinking processes in different situations, on actual mortals, off thinking patterns anyway, in so much more. And welcome to our first lecture in this model, where we will be discussing the mortal off perception on how we perceive the world and everything around us. So stay with me on enjoy the lecture. So let's have a look at perception. I don't know. I often say that your world, and the way you look at it depends on your individual perception. Is the good day about they? Is someone a kind person or an angry person? A study hard or easy? It sold down to your perception. So how would we define perception? Perception is the interpretation of the experience gained through different sense organs. This interpretation is partly objective and partly subjective. So in other words, we form impressions and make attributions about other people's behaviors and attitudes, even though the process of perception may seem a really straightforward in reality. There are so many factors involved in this process, which makes it more complex rather than simple. Our perception off other people's behavior is often shaped by our own attitudes and believes we used to a typical judgments and prejudices, and we think we know how to explain in interpret other people's behavior. But very rarely we admit that we might be inaccurate in our judgments. Research shows that when we form impressions of other people, we tend to focus more on personal factors rather than situational ones. For example, if you see your friends making a mistake in counting, you might think that he's not good at maths and completely ignore the fact that the friend might be jet lagged from the yesterday's journey. Haven't slept well last night and prone to making mistakes this morning. This tendency can be explained by the attribution theory, where we make internal or external attribution about the causes off others. Behavior attribution means making sense off or attribute in behavior to something that explains it. External attributions is an explanation of a person's behavior as caused by situational or external factors. Internal attribution is an explanation off a person behaviour has caused by disposition, ALS or internal factors. When you make external attributions, that means you explain someone's behavior with some situational factors. For example, he is late because he got stuck in heavy traffic. She's angry because you had a bad day at work. When you make internal attribution, that means you're explaining someone's behavior with the internal personal conspiracies. For example, he's rude because he has an aggressive personality. She sounds critical because she lives to feel in control. This is how we explain someone's behavior quite often. So we look at the personal characteristics. Julie use attribution in our daily lives. Yes, we dio. If you think from an evolutionary standpoint, we need to make sure that we are safe. That's our primary goal, right? So with the attribution, we feel that we need to interpret other people's behavior simply because we can predict the behavior in the future. Do individual differences play pot in human perception In the previous lectures, we already discussed individual differences on that People from different countries and off different experiences of life can understand and interpret the same situation differently. What is considering is unacceptable will be different for people off different countries. Some would feel that certain situations off raises are taboo worries for other people. They wouldn't look or sound offensive at all. Gender differences also play an important role in perception. For example, in earlier research, 1996 from the people tend to interpret success of women and men in sport games differently . Observers who watch a sport game tend to attribute male failures to bad luck and low effort worries that would explain female failures with, like a viability that is needed for successful performance. What types of errors can we make when we try to interpret other people's behavior? The fundamental attribution error is a common type of attribution Errors in the U. S. And many European countries. The fundamental attribution error means that when observing and interpreting someone's behavior, we tend to overlook many variables such as situational factors and focus on the personal causes instead. So when we observe someone's failure we tend to attribute it to the personal qualities off the person as they are always in control off the actions. In reality, the course for the failure may be caused by a certain situational or outside of control factors. But we tend to pay less attention to that and instead seeing the personal fold as a cause. Interestingly enough, we interpret our own failures in exactly the opposite way. We blame the situational factors more than our own personal folds. We do these even in times when it is clear that it was down to our personal reasons. Secondly, errors caused by stereotypes. When we form stereotypes, we over generalize concepts. For example, when we look at the group, we tend to perceive that all group members are alike, though in reality, of course, they are all different. We tend to use generalizations, shortcuts, scheme us and stereotypes on a daily basis. Why do we fall into judging people's behavior based on stereotypes, even though we know that this is not the most accurate, we even appropriate way of thinking. Research suggests that we use stereotypes because it helps us to be more efficient in making decisions and conclusions so we make decisions and conclusions much faster when we use those shortcut shortcuts and stereotypes. Interestingly, research also shows that people of higher status have a tendency to use stereotypes more often than people off lower status. Do this possibly happen because people of high stages tend to compete more for attention, and Syria typing allows them to be efficient? There is also a possibility that people of high state stages have more power on. That allows them to make more mistakes in the perception and reasoning. Finally, what factors can impact our perception? Formacion nonverbal information such as appearance, body build, body language is such as a justice vocal sounds, body movements, resemblance to another person. For example, research shows that if someone knew resembles you your friend, you tend to have more sympathy and openness to him or to her categorization. Or in other words, we tend to have certain prejudgments about people of different age groups or personality traits, so you can see the perception is not a linear process. It involves a multi layered approach based on our pre existent knowledge, attitudes, individual and cultural differences. Previous experiences off observing similar behavior over generalisations and stereotypes. We start this process with impression Formacion, where we form initial impression about someone. Then we change it throughout when we observe the person's behavior. When we hear their voice on, we become familiar with the views on beliefs. If we feel we can relate to the person in any way, for example, through belonging to the same group or sharing same similar believes about something, then we may also alter our perception of that person's even fill. The same goes for perception off situations, a situation that we observe will be likely processed through schemers, shortcuts and Syria types. Pre existing knowledge and attitudes in most cases will shape our perception off the situation quicker that if we took time to think about it logically and rationally. However, when the situation is new or unknown to us, then we employ all our senses to process it on a more detailed way, with less shortcuts. 13. 12. Cognitive Psychology: Attention: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we'll be talking about attention and the model off attention. How do we become attentive? We know when we look, for example, a dog. We can see that when the dog is paying attention to our behavior. When we try to interact with with the animal, we tell the Children to pay attention to us when we talk to them. But how does this process off pain and the pension to something, or someone is actually taking place within us in our psychology? So what is attention? In simple terms, attention is a process of focusing on certain object whilst excluding others, or, as the psychology today described it. Attention is a spotlight that focuses here awareness on what's going on in your head or in your environment. Some people naturally have more control over this port light than others. Control over the spotlight can also vary in certain situations, for example, when while is free off destructions or with the aid of certain drugs like caffeine retelling or are the stimulants. So attention is when we focus on something for the purpose of dealing with the matter effectively whilst withdrawing our attention from others. You can think of attention as a spotlight on something you need to focus on and deal with. The process of attention belongs to cognitive psychology. Domain on cognitive psychologists tend to view attention as a moral. In fact, there are a few attention models that students of cognitive psychology study these days. But let's have a look at one of them, which is called the Broadbent's Filter model the World. Broadbent is one of the major contributors to the information processes approach, which explained how the information processing and attention really work, and he started his work with air traffic controllers during the war. As you can imagine, air traffic controllers have to deal with many messages that come from different sources on have to be processed and dealt with continuously. During the research, it became clear that, first of all, the traffic controllers can deal with only one message effectively at any given time, and secondly, the message can be passed on to one year, then to another year, and it will be processed. In fact, it is possible to switch the channels or the years continuously, but no more. Then twice a second, it also became clear that when a person that he is a message in one ear, there are they here, they unattended. One can quickly forget the information that was coming shortly before that, so the unattended ear or channel has a shelter. Memory store. Broadbent also came to conclusion that there is a filter that selects one channel for attention on That happens depended on the physical characteristics only, for example, which year the information was coming to the type of voice. The meaning off the messages is not taken into account by the filter on all semantic processing, which means processing off. What it has been said happens after the fielder has selected the channel to pay attention to, so the information that is coming to the unattended ear would not be understood. Brought beds also established that we have only limited capacity to process information. So in he's model, the future place an important role. It helps to prevent our information processing system from getting overloaded. The broadband model is called a bottleneck model. As it explains, our attention and information processing are something that has to be filter it coming in from a narrow point like a through through a bottleneck before, before being processed and stored in the brain. The critics say that the mortal might not be an accurate representation of what's happening in our mind. For example, the unattended message may still be processed by our brain, but possibly only subconscious level. Imagine if you are at some social event. You can not pay attention to all the conversations that go on around you, but your brain has an ability to catch. If someone pronounce your name in any off those conversations around you, you'll quickly notice when someone mentioned you started talking to you. This effect is called the cocktail party phenomenon and is well known in psychology. I urge you to read about the experiment so you knew you'd suddenly what? The cocktail party. Phenomenal ease. So it seems that critics are correct in saying that messages that come to us in the channels that are unattended can still be processed on some level that is below our conscious awareness. So what else do you need to know about the process of attention? Firstly, attention is the first stage off information processing. Secondly, there is a selective attention theory that explains that our brain is able to prioritize the incoming messages, select the main wants to deal with and put our this not so important ones away for later on hold. Thirdly, divided attention is when we divide our attention into chunks over a number of tasks. When you learn a new skill such as driving, for example, all your attention goes into learning to manage the vehicle. With time and experience, the practice of driving becomes easier and more automatic. Then your attention can be divided or two extended to and another additional tasks, such as tuning the radio whilst driving. Even though we can divide our attention to many tasks, research shows that we divided attention. Our performance on various tasks can be less efficient and even dangerous, as in case with driving, some stimuli can get more attention than others. If this Tim wise large, bright, allowed to intense, in other words, these all can attract your attention even if you were engrossed into some activity. Attention is an important focus of studying in other areas of psychology. For example, when the researching psychological disorders such as dementia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which is known as a D H D and the role of attention and cognitive processes in them and finally just reminds you that attention is often seen as a bottle neck mortal. The information is entering through a narrow pathway into the brain. Wages then prioritize and processed or get ignored, as in case of unimportant messages, all noise from outside and additionally, attention can be seen as a spotlight model where the attention is a process of focusing on a certain object or information. 14. 13. Cognitive Psychology: Remembering (Memory): hello and welcome to our next election, where we will be discussing remembering. Remembering is a part off a memory structure or memory process. A memory port process is quite a complex area to learn or topic complex topic. The memory process can consist of paying attention to something understanding what is in front of us processing the information that's coming to us from either visual or auditory channels. What you in sensory, what we feel. Then they have to be processed by our brain and then retained by our memory storage, dismissed or stored for a short while and then removed from our storage box. So in this lecture will have a look at the remembering process. How we do, how all brain does that, remembering things, what it does to them, what a dust of the information that has to be stored and remember it for longer. Or the information which is unimportant. Memories of vast area of study in psychology, and nobody would argue about its importance studying memories both fascinating and important. We rely on our memory from the moment we wait company morning until we go to bed at night. Memory is vital to our survival. We rely on the fact that we remember where we leave, where we work on even our ability to feed ourselves, because it's all down to our memory. We have to remember what is dangerous on what is safe. We need to remember who we are and what our past experiences are. So remembering is a vital attribute or we're leaving and surviving. It is no wonder that psychologists are also fascinated with this topic on Have Bean the Resurgent For so many years, many mortals have been constructed to represent our memory system, and many theories were proposed to explain how we can remember and retain information and then later recall it when we needed to. Cognitive psychologist Margaret Modeling has described memory us the process of retaining information of a time, whereas other researchers described memory us the ability to use our past experiences to determine our future path. Remembering is a process of in cording information story and within our brain system and retrieval whenever we need to access it on. This process starts us airless from our fails days. When we are born, we remember familiar faces and voices around us. We learn and remember what it's safe and pleasurable and what isn't. We use all our senses together, the data around us, and when something is to become a memory, the information is stored, fills, you know, short term storage. And then, with repetition and occasional retrieval, he can be safely stored in the long term storage you, for example, of we learned how to ride a bicycle and focus on all the aspects that I involved. How to hold the handlebars. Way to look to what when we ride how to balance our boarding. After a while, all this aspects, through repetition, settled deeper and deeper. You know, a long term storage. This cycle becomes a second nature to us on. We can ride without thinking. You probably heard to saying that once you've learned how to ride a bicycle, you will never forget it where, in other words, it becomes stored in our long term memory bank. So we've already mentioned some types of memories, such as short term and long term here. What do we know about those types of memory? What are they? The 1st 1 is a sensory memory. It's the shortest memory that we have. It's an ability to retain information after its ended on its altar Short. Anything that you see or hear for fleeting moments and then forgotten quickly afterwards, would be an example of sensory memory. For this type of memory, we use all or any off our senses, sensory memory. Formacion usually happens on our subconscious level outside off our awareness. These episodes are retained accurately, but briefly, the information can be ignored by us or perceived when we actually paid attention to it. If it is received, then it is stored for a short while, and if it is ignored, then it gets forgotten straight way. This type of memory, unlike are the types of memory, cannot be prolonged through repetition or rehearsal. The second time is shorter memory. Generally speaking, it's an ability to remember events that happened within the last several days. Research shows that we can store on 5 to 9 items. It could be objects, events, situations, features. It's a truck, you know she'll turn books on that. We can retrieve them with a minimal effort when it is needed. People who suffer from short term memory loss, for example, people with dementia or brain injury may not remember if they have eaten a brush the teeth this morning, however, they might remember certain events from the childhood because they long term memory is still in working order in short term memory. Unlike in the sensory memory, we can actually remember and process information all at the same time. Shorter memories often referred. There's a working memory, which is used literally full working. For example, in order to understand a full sentence, you need to remember the beginning of the sentence whilst reading the rest of the sentence or in arithmetic. You remember the beginning of the equation whilst working through the rest of the equation . So this is how you use your shelter or working memory. Long term memory, as you can guess for yourself, is all about storing information for a longer period of time. Short term memory can become long term through rehearsal or repetition, but generally speaking, it's capacity and amount of information that can be stored is pretty watcher unlimited and can be stored indefinitely. It is still not clear whether we forget forget anything at all on whether all the forgotten information can be retrieved through. For example, hypnotherapy dreams, similar events and so one 4th 1 is in place of memory can be also known as automatic or unconscious type of memory. It's also called procedural memory. In order to perform tasks, the brain is using memories from your past experiences. So if you think about it, most of the activities you do are just like that, the Iran on automatic label without our conscious thinking about them, you can also think of musicians who use these type of memory when they play piano. For example, Explicit memory, which is also known as declarative memory, is a type of memory that is related to Fox and events. It's the information that we process store and retrieve at a later date. These facts and events are consciously recalled or declared semantic memory, which we talked about earlier. The ultra short memory is actually a subdivision off explicit memory. On another subdivision off the expressive memory is called episodic memory. So episodic memory us you can guess from the name. He's related to exhorts experiences and events in our lives that represent themselves in a legal form. On our perceived timeline, it is the memory off autobiographical events, times, places, associated emotions and other contextual knowledge that can be explicitly stated. Individuals tend to see themselves as actors in those events, and the emotional charge on the entire context surrounding an event is usually part of the memory. No, just the bare facts off the event itself. So what can we say about memory? In a nutshell, Memory is the process of maintaining information off a time. Memory is the means, but which we troll on our past experiences in other to use the information in the present, there are three main stages of memory in Kolding storage and retrieval. The information can commas, visual, a teacher, acoustic US sound and all semantic as meaning. The main storage boxes are shorter and long term but memory, which then can be split into implicit and explicit on sensory memory. Most people can store on 5 to 9 items in the short term memory. A memory retrieval is a straightforward process. If we can't remember something that means were unable to retrieve it for some reason. But we try to organize information, for example, by using certain associations over your teachers. Then the retrieval becomes easier and foster, so it is possible to train the easiest torch of information on the amount off given information by using various memory techniques that are available to us these days. 15. 14. Cognitive Psychology: Forgetting (Memory): in this lecture will continue talking about memory. Where is in the previous lecture? We have learned many interesting things about memory. It's storage, the types of memory retaining and processing, and so on in this lecture will talk about forgetting and how in why it would happen from the psychological point of view. Why do we forget? It seems that there are two main points here. We can forget something entirely. The information has disappeared from our mind and cannot be retrieved. It is no longer there. We cannot recall information. For some reason, the information is still stored in the brain but cannot be retrieved. As you can remember, from our previous lecture, we have two main storage boxes. Shelter, memory and long term memory. So for getting information from shorter memory can be explained by the theories off trays, decay, displacement or interference. Rice for getting information from long term memory can be explained using the theories of interference on a lot of consolidation. So let's have a look at those trace decay theory or forgetting. The theory suggests that where we hold information as our memory, it leaves a trace in the brain. These trains can be in a physical chemical form, Seymour, like a change in the nervous system rather than an actual object. When we don't rehearse information, it starts fading away to the point of all its trace the case. Hence the name the trace to gaze hearing so the information fades away due to the lack off rehearsal on this happen on an automatic level Displacement Displacement Theory explains that really learn new information. It simply replaces the old one. As we know from all previous lecture, we can hold her on 5 to 9 items you no short term memory books, so the boxes pretty limited, so to speak, though you have to understand that each item can be expanded with training, where we can hold a larger amount of information as one item. In any case, when we learn something new, for example, your new work payroll number it can replace the old number that you knew previously, or your phone number or an address. The new one is replacing old one. This is why we have difficulty off remembering the old address or the old full number when you change it for the new one that you might find that you have a difficulty in recalling your old full number or even your old address. This is how displacement theory works. It is also believed that information you hold in your shelter memory the longest will be actually the 1st 1 to be displaced by the new information. Where is the fresh information can be retained for longer interference? Interference Theory explains that information can be forgotten due to interference off similar information that we have learned previously or we'll learn in the future. So in other wards, information that we already have stored in our memory can become distorted when we learn something similar. For example, if you learn a new piece of information that is very similar to the information that you have learned many years ago, that similarity can interfere with the process off remembering. As a result, both pieces of information can get distorted to the point. You'll be confused. Which information is the correct one? Same with numbers. If you're trying to remember a set of numbers that a similar in any way to set that you have previously stored in your memory, then as a result, you might not remember well any of those sets of numbers assed there will get distorted and confused due to similarities with each other. So these explanations of forgetting information the trays decay theory, the displacement and the interference explain well about what happens within the short memory books when information gets forgotten with what about a long, long term memory and forgetfulness? Launcher memories explained to be limitless in its capacity and in the length of time. But we all know that we can't forget information from a long time ago. The researchers explained that this happens through a natural and automatic decay as it happens in the short term, memory on through interference from other memories. Another explanation to forgetting of the information in a long term memory comes from the retrieval failure theory. Retrieval failure happens when information is still stored, but cannot be accessed and retrieved for some reason. Typically, it cannot be accessed simply because the retrieval cues on north presence what others retrieval cues when we process and store a new piece of information, we also make notice off the information that is related to that. This, for example, can be external context cues such as the environment we're in and how it looks like or the smell of the place, and that all will be connected to the memory. So anything that is related to the environments where in when we're processing and storing the information will be associate with that chunk off. Information on would be important for travel. The queues can also be internal or state related, which means, for example, our own internal state, the physical, emotional, mental and so on can believe linked to that chunk off memory off the information. So when we trying to remember a certain piece of information, we can do it much easier and quicker you've those retrieval cues are also present. For example, it would be helpful if you are in the same environment as you were when you have the experience that you are trying to recall, or if your experience in the same state, whether it is, for example, a very awake states or very drunks they hit and depending on the state you were in when you store that piece of information, this is why if you're trying to find the keys that you put somewhere last night in your drunk states, you would find them quicker if you get into the same state of being drunk again. The retrieval cues also explains why, when we hear some familiar song, you bring certain memories to us. The memories were encoded exactly when the song was blamed on the background. All the retrieval cues can be, for example, a group of the same people a rainy day being in the same location. We're seeing the same animal or even wearing the same clothing. So even though we can forget information, we cannot exactly say that it is decayed and disappeared completely. Go displays by another piece of information or go distorted through interference with analyses. Similar information. We cannot say if it was erased completely from our memory or if it is simply cannot be accessed right now. But with the presence of retrieval cues, we might be able to remember it. 16. 15. Cognitive Psychology: Language development : Hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing language, language, developments, information how we acquire language, how we learn it. What is the process? Nobody will argue. Language is one of the most fascinating areas and psychology to learn language, abilities, water differ us from animals. Is the ability to understand comprehends the conversation to respond meaningfully through verbal sounds? Three words and through body language is the communication that is so important to answers humans. So let's get down to our lecture. So we use the language to express ourselves toe. Let other people know what we think about certain topics. We express our gratitude and appreciation through verbal sounds and wards. And of course, we can explain ourselves when we don't like something. I am also also communicate in the old way, mainly through the non verbal language, with addition off certain sounds but language and cognition, our steel, what makes us human? It is known that our vocabulary is also increasing and our knowledge grows from generation to generation. It would be pretty accurate to say that we have more knowledge than any other generation previous to us on the main method off passing this knowledge from generation to generation happened through the medium off language wadis, language language is a system of symbols and rules that enable us to communicates. It has been found that we don't use language only for communicating with each other in FARC late that language has eight main functions. For example, thinking, recording information, expressing emotions, pretending to be animals, expression, identity with a group, for example, through singing and so one one of the A list. Prominent figures Who explained how we develop language. Waas Bouras, Frederic Skinner Commonly known us B. F. Skinner, American psychologist and behaviorist in 1957. Skinny. Believe the language development and acquisition How are our learned behaviours on We developed language, particularly through operate conditioning, which is learning through punishment and reward system. So, in other words, a child gets reward mainly in form of verbal appraisal, for developing the language through repeated exposures, the child also learned to associate wards to objects and people, which is known as an operate conditioning. On another aspect of behaviour, reason that applies to language development is the Children learn through observation and imitation. Norm Chomsky, the world's famous linguist date, was the next to propose an explanation to the language acquisition. Chomsky criticized the work of B. F. Skinner by saying the Children can not the learn language that quickly if it was on Lee explained by the aspects off behaviorism, he explained that they must be the innate ability to learn language in all of us and to speak verbally is our natural behavior. If we are pretty supposed to language acquisition, that means there is another explanation to why we developed language so fast. In order to answer this question, Chomsky proposed the theory off universal grammar, where he explained that first of all, Children all over the world learned to speak in similar ways, despite of the cultural differences off the language they speak. Also, the universal grammar theory explains that we all have a set of unconscious constraints that make us aware whether the centers is correctly formed. If we mix off the words in a sentence, for example, instead of saying a baby goes to school, we would say the school goes boy to even as Children, we would recognize that the centers is incorrectly formed. This is why it is easier for us to learn language in its correct grammar from the start. Obviously, Children make mistakes when they learn the first words on build a few sentences. But overall, the approach Children take to the development off the language is very similar to Children all over the globe. Some research has been done with animals and particularly chimpanzees, to see if they could be told to communicate with us in a more meaningful way, using verbs, sounds and body language. One particular study has been done by Savage. Remember, with a bonobo chimpanzee cold on Venetia. Indonesia spent her entire life in captivity of whilst receiving training in the use off language and her communication. She uses a specifically designed tablet or keypad, which illustrates around 400 geometric patterns, or Alexa Grams, or Neitz. When she presses a secrets of keys, a computer translate the seconds into a synthetic voice on Venetia learned a vocabulary of 3000 words, but the age of 14 years constructed your sentences in a dramatically correct order. She can't build sentences such as, Please, can I have an iced coffee and I'm thinking about eating something. These chimpanzees achievements are simply remarkable. However, the level of her develop language can only be compared to the level of a young child. She cannot come up with new sentences and all her sentences operated simple in the structure. As Noam Chomsky pointed out, if animals had a capacity as biological advantages as language but somehow hadn't used until now, it would be an evolutionary miracle, like finding an an island off humans who could be told to fly. So when we develop language, the whole process can be recognized as going through certain stages until we are able to speak well enough to be understood by others. What are the stages off language acquisition? The first on these pre linguistic stage, which involves crying queen gurgling and bubbling. The main braces for those produced sounds are hunger, anger and paying a liquorice associated with the baby's physiological states rather than the communication attempts. Cooing and gurgling, on the other hand, is the baby's way to interact with the K. Give us on the expression of emotional states. Bubbling, which accuses the round 69 months old, allows the child to practice their vocal sounds that would be needed for Phil, the communication on wards pronunciation, bobbling is they first at attempts to communicate on the child can use bubbling for getting attention on for improvising the communication with the adult. Secondly, one word. Hola. First speech. The Fifth Wars appear the age of 12 months old. When the child has come out of the pre linguistic stage, the first wards might sound more like organizations. But the K Give a usually A recognizes the baby's attempts to pronounce the wards. At that stage the one word speech. It simply means that the child can use Onley. One words to communicate the whole centers. For example, the word milk may mean I would like some mail, or I spilled the milk that the chance for cavalry quickly increases where the child Lourens various names off the objects that surround them. The recovery girls fast from Iran. 20 wars at age of 18 months to around 200 wards at 21 months. Thirdly, is telegraphic speech. At around 18 months old, the child built two word sentences, which can be described as highly meaningful, so each worth has strong meaning. For example, the child might say Lisa Doggie, which might mean lease, explained with a doggie, all wants to play with the dog researcher off the pair is to help the Children to expand the sentences from those two word phrases. Healthy language development significantly, which can be laid a scene when they take tests on language ability. Fourthly, it's simple sentences. At around the age of 2 2.5 years of age, the child forms 3 to 4 word sentences, which my not bigger might be correct. However, the use of grammar develops quickly enough, and it is known the Children off that age have an interest in learning through rhymes. Children might talk to themselves when they go to sleep and tend to engage in a monologue, which is falling to serve free main purposes, to practice newly acquired wars and Gramma to play with sounds and to make sense of the world by ordering events in a systematic way from the age of three. The child's vocabulary is large enough to converse with other Children and adults as long as the conversation is simple and is mainly focused on the present. The vocabulary there on the 1000 words and the main communication difficulty at that age is to express the child's own mental emotional states early school years, the Children at this stage can express themselves in a more complex way and be able to adjust the level off the communication skills to that off they listener. Middle childhood and above is when the child learns complex chromatic rules and developed a language ability to more advanced a level. So what we would say to conclusion to this lecture? The current psychologists argue that language development is still not explained fully. The language acquisition is highly complex area of study on the more sophisticated tools, along with more advanced research he still requires, For example, we still need to understand how the process of transitioning to building grammatically correct sentences really happen. Well, what exactly happens when they're bilingual? Children learn to speak different languages at home and in school or with friends. 17. 16. Cognitive Psychology: Thinking (Cognition) : Hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be talking about thinking, processes or cognition. In other words, in a previous lecture, we re discussing language acquisition language formacion, how we develop our language abilities on. We also say that that's what differs us from animals, the ability to form language to communicate, using words and sentences with each other. So thinking and cognition, that's another thing, which differs us from animals. We can think Russian allies weighs pros and cones, make decisions based on evaluating our ideas, come into some conclusions it so it's all about thinking. So that's another yet another fascinating topic. So let's discuss it. You all probably have heard the famous phrase of Disk Artois. I think. Therefore I am. What do we use thinking for? For solving problems and puzzles for the standing and Russian arising on, even for making important decisions? The psychology of thinking is into wines with the concepts off other mental behaviors, such as decision making, reasoning, problem solving on becoming an expert thinking is not just a mental process or basically condition. It's a very specific subset of mental activity that involves working with mental representations, planning and executing behaviors and the coordinations off cognitive resources, for example, solving a puzzle, analyzing an article or a film making a decision about which career to go for but also thinking depressive thoughts on remembering the past or day Dreaming about the future are all off the examples off thinking on through these examples, it is clear on that thinking is far from a simple linear process. On the contrary, it can involve visual and auditory aspects on understanding and imagining complex mathematical equations dialogues when we imagine talking to someone we know in our head and so on. So we can rightly say that thinking allows us to make sense and interpret the world that we experience. There are two main types of thinking directed thinking and undirected thinking. Director thinking means that it's the type that is goal oriented and rational, which means that there is a goal that we need to achieve or a program that we need to solve in director thinking we avoid creativity and wandering aimlessly in our thoughts, were not looking at old solutions or new ideas were simply focused on reaching the goal through our thinking process. Undirected thinking would be considered anything but rational and goal oriented thinking. We use underrated thinking when we want to think about the meaning oflife, for example, or when we daydream. This type of thinking is used for searching solutions to problems as well, but the problems might be loosely defined and not clear to us. That's true. Multitasking exist. You probably know that what we mean by multitasking. And perhaps you have your own ideas on water teas and who can do it. For example, you probably have heard that females can be better suited than males. But is it true? The researchers say, that multitasking is both commonplace and misunderstood? Multitasking is about doing more than one task at the same time, for example, of reading and listening to music, talking to a friend whilst cooking dinner, browsing Internet whilst watching a TV programme. According to one of the researchers, 1984. Our human mind is actually designed to undertake more than one task at any given time. In other words, it is designed to be able to divide attention and resources among several input and output channels. Most people assume that multitasking is opposed to thing. It seems that we can accomplish so much in a short period of time. What's not good about that? We even hear the phrase that so and so is really good at multitasking. But can we be good at doing more than one task simultaneously at at a really good level? Current research shows that when we engage into mawr than 11 activity, we actually don't make it that well. In recent research by offer, a tile in 2009 found that people who multitask on media related tasks for example, starting bossed watching Netflix show or chicken tweeter whilst treating, found that heavy multi tasks were really bad. That's reaching quickly between responses on focusing on the important information or fear it'll say's. The people are not good at multitasking overall, because good performance relies on the ability to switch quickly and to screen out Erel irrelevant information. The research, also shoulder being a heavy media multitaskers, did not seem to predict better performance on those cognitive tasks. On the contrary, the researchers found that heavy media marketers did wars on the test off tasks which inability so in other words, people who are constantly engaged in multi tasking are not that good as a Tate, as you would expect quite the opposite they before. Worse on the test of actual multitasking, the researchers explain that by saying that heavy media multitaskers have probably got used to the attention being distracted easily as they tend to switch between the tasks frequently. But that means they're good at being distracted and not so good, focusing on actual tests, which makes them poor multitaskers. What do we know about various types of thinking? There is a scientific thinking, which means a process of applying questions and theories, toe ideas and testable hypothesis. This type of thinking is typically applies to researchers who then do very studies and experiments. There is a critical thinking, which is a process of making reasons and logical judgements. In this type of thinking, the person doesn't just make conclusions. Instead, they apply questions, agreements and debates to gather enough evidence to make certain conclusions. There is a practical thinking time. The type of think enough has a specific aim or a goal that requires some other patient or changing off the environment in order to achieve it. Practical thinking they usually doesn't involve gathering new knowledge, but instead it is focused on using the existing knowledge for analysing and applying it to the process of achieving the gold. So this is a for this lecture on thinking or cognition. Let's proceed to our next lecture, where we'll be discussing problem solving and artificial intelligence. That would be the last lecture in the model free See there. 18. 17. Cognitive Psychology: Problem-Solving and Artificial Intelligence: hello and welcome to our next lecture on problem solving and artificial intelligence. This two topics are linked, and you will see why in the sexual will talk about problem solving, what sort of methodology or sort of processes we employ when we need to make decisions when we need to solve some problems. And then we will talk about artificial intelligence, what sort of technology we use today to help us to create solutions to certain problem. What to accomplish, moments asks, in a short period of time. We are very aware that more things and and situations in life are surrounded by challenges and problems that we need to solve. It seems that we cannot escape them because Italy have to solve some problem from a simple task of fixing the shelf in the bathroom to creating a solution for a family budget to a solving problems on a global scale. We use our mental processes and to come to those solutions. Problem solving can be described as a process that happens when a problem arises when a living organism has a goal but doesn't know how this goal is to be reached. Also, problem solving can be describe US cognitive processing, directing at transforming a given situation into a goal situation when no obvious method of solution is a valuable to the problem solver. So from these definitions, we understand the problem solving has three main aspects in its process. The 1st 1 is the process has some purpose or, in other words, a goal. The second, the process requires certain cognitive processes, and it doesn't a cure on automatic level. Thirdly, the process happened when an immediate solution is impossible. An additional knowledge is required. You remember in the previous lecture we were talking about directed and in director thinking, where directed thinking is all about aim and goal. When we talk about directed thinking, we assume that the goal that we need to achieve through thinking is well defined. Therefore, we can say that problems can be well defined and ill defined. Well defined problems are those where the main aspects off the problem are clearly identified, starting with the initial stage of situation, the range of possible options and stages, and ending with a stated goal or aim that we need to achieve ill defined problems, On the other hand are those that are not clear or specific. They may be several solutions available to the problem, but every one of them has its own downsides on it is not clear what would be the correct strategy off achievement. That is our goal. Researchers say that most problems we have to deal with in there today society are ill defined programmes, whereas the psychological research of thinking and cognition mainly basis the understanding off problem solving on the premises off well defined problems, the's happens because well defined problems have a best strategy for the solutions on. It's easy to identify the errors and deficiencies in the strategies adopted by human problem solvers. Problem solving, as you can imagine, can be an easy task or a very difficult one. It is possible to categorize problem solving into six levels. The 1st 1 is a factual problem solving, for example, a need to identify a specific days or a fact off the event that is known. The second category of problem solving is certain rules need to be learned in order to achieve the solution. For example, the Book of rules and regulations needs to be referred to in order to solve a certain problem the 3rd 1 ease certain skills needs to be acquired in order to reach the goal. So it's not just about the referring to the rules or certain book. It's actually about learning a specific skills acquiring in order to reach the goal. For example, learning to drive the fourth categories. Several methods can be identified, and the correct one needs to be chosen as an example of solving a puzzle. The fifth categories A problem is to be reformulated in order to be solved in an non ordinary way. For example, invented a new kind of windscreen wiper 61 is the problem itself needs to be invented or specifically identified, for example, explaining the laws of physics addressing the global hunger issues. So what would be the steps? The actual problem solving the 1st 1 is to identify the problem itself. The 2nd 1 defined and represent a problem on the more detailed level. 3rd 1 he's developed a solution strategy. The 4th 1 is organized. The information about the problem, the Feast Juan East allocate mental and physical resources for solving the problem. The 61 is monitor progress whilst working on achieving the goal. The seven studies evaluate the solutions for accuracy and efficiency. It is clear that the ties, when seeking solutions for the problems people get it wrong and make mistakes, misjudgments, errors, miscalculations and so on. But would it be better if all decision making could be done by a computer? It is clear that today's researcher and program developers can create many complex computer programs and applications as we know, for example, on a smartphone that would be capable of performing a highly complex cognitive tasks for humans. This artificial intelligence approach has been applied to several different areas within cognitive psychology, including perception, memory thinking on, of course, problem solving. There are certainly some pros and cause to use artificial intelligence for human problems holding. So what are they the pros off artificial intelligence are? It's the perfect accuracy and precision that can be achieved easily through this computerized approach, tiredness and boredom that so applicable to the human mind here would be absent for all detection would be possible. Less resources. I need it. For example. Less people need to be involved in the process functioning without stopping, so there is no need for break asleep and you can store in process a large amount of data. But the cords of artificial intelligence would involve something like the high cost of running, maintenance and repair. Absence off ethical or moral values. For example, in studies that require human participants no improvement over time and through experience As a human development, we cannot be flexible in solutions seeking. You cannot find shortcuts or change the strategy at instant, or you cannot be creative. It has a high risk of creating unemployment for people. Over time, you can be programmed to perform destruction in the wrong hands. So the conclusion to this, like chase problem solving, is a complex cognitive process that involves identifying the problem, finding optimal strategies and a reaching for solutions. Artificial intelligence has been created to mimic human thinking that takes into account all the available parables and produces the solution, which would be precise and accurate. Even though we use artificial intelligence already, for example, by using calculators and computer programs, we can also say that artificial intelligence wouldn't be able to fully replace a human. Also, we think these days it can certainly eight many human processes, but in some areas it cannot provide the needed ethical considerations, for example, or an important human interaction as it can be seen. For example, in problem solving, as in psychotherapy counselling and are the forms off therapy Well, we have completed model free well done for staying this far on. I hope you deriving the best violin from this course on learning so much about psychology. So the next moral East child developments Mortal four. Let's proceed to our next lecture, which is called Issues in Child Development. 19. 18. Child Development: Issues: Hello and welcome to our next a lecture and our next section, the section old child developments. Maybe you're fascinated with babies and Children development, so this will be probably your favorite section then, because we will be talking about the cognitive develop developments of the moral development. Well, we will touch a little on physical development, but off course, we are concerned more with the psychology off human developments, especially in babies and Children. On, we'll start with section with discussing the issues in in the psychology area off child development. What sort of issues we can come across, too. Okay, let's get down to the lecture. Let's start this lecture with getting to understand Waters Channel developing in psychology when the researchers are studying channel developments From a psychological perspective, the court simply Developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the study area that is concerned with human development from they felt, they scenes birth. Why and how a person changes through. He's a her life spun well, challenges they face when they go, for example, through puberty and adolescence, what I billet in awareness they have at the age of six, or how not to feel lonely when the person has reached the senior years. These are all examples off developmental psychology research. Child development can be seen as information of personality on physical body, with its associative biological and psychological changes from the birth until the child has reached puberty off course. Here we are concerned with the psychological rather than physiological developments. As we mentioned already, there are several theories available today that explained the child development through identified stages that are applicable to various periods off the child's life. These theories explain how Children change and grow over the course off childhood. Some theories explain the Children's moral and cognitive development, whereas are that's a more focused on the child social and emotional changes. But before we'll explore any of these theories, we need to become aware off certain issues the developmental psychology has on the knowledge is widely, for example, the main question that arises within developmental psychologies. How much influence nature versus nurture has over the development off the child. So, in other words, is development more influenced by the genetic predisposition off the child all by environmental factors. For example, the child has inherited the gene that is responsible for money fest in a show encircle psychological disorder such as schizophrenia. At some point in their life, the questions that come up here are Is it definitely going to manifest? If, yes, then when What can we do and how much power we have to stop it? What about the environmental influences such as parents are brain ing and schooling? What role would the play in manifesting off these disease? Researchers have been studied this topic continuously for many years, but the debate is still ongoing. Maybe Start is happy down to draw just one conclusion. It's both. It's both the genetics on the environmental influences or nature and nurture are responsible for the diseases and problems, whether they manifest at birth during childhood or much later. Another issue that led to the ongoing debate in the development of cycle psychology. Is this thus development, accused slowly and continuously, or do changes happen in stages as you'll see in our lectures? Many theories proposed child's development as it happened in stages, and it seems that each stage can be clearly identified. But in the reality you want notice that the child is forming or developing in stages, Children don't change overnight, and they don't skip from one stage to another, it is more like a gradual process to us. So who is right? Or who is wrong in this debate on the last issue is this. Do early childhood experiences have the greatest impact on the developments, or are later events equally important? According to Sigmund Freud, for example, most of the Children's personality is formed by the age of five, and they suggest that Children from abusive environments would never be able to adjust to a normal, healthy life. But we know it's not really the case. Many people with a challenge in childhood become well adjusted normal people. So let's have a look at various theories of child development whilst being aware off what we just mentioned. Nature versus nurture. How much of the G's versus environments play a role in the child's developments? Thus development a cure slowly or in stages. And what's more important, the early childhood experiences or all of the experiences that form normal, healthy development 20. 19. Child Development: Cognitive Development: cognitive development is a major area off developmental studies in psychology. Developmental psychology is the study of psychological changes that take place between birth and old age. The aim of developmental psychology, as we've discussed Alia, is to understand and explain the changes that occur from birth to adulthood. These changes can be biological, physiological, psychological, emotional and so on. He in this lecture we're looking at cognitive changes or cognitive development. Cognitive development includes those mental activities that involve in the process of thinking and knowing the information that has to be processed, understood and used in cognition. So cognitive development is the study off how these processes developing Children and young people, and how they become more efficient and effective in the understanding of the world on in the Mental Processes. The main Siris in cognitive development field Waas Jean Piaget, who proposed his theory off cognitive development. Jean Piaget was a Swiss clinical psychologists who became well known for his work in child who developmental studies. He proposed the Children think in different ways than adults to and can be described as less competent thinkers. P Arches Theory in 1936 off cognitive development, explains the child's perception off the world is different from that often adult on the Children learn about the world through schemers. Schemers basically a building blocks off information when the child learn about different situations, whether they're basics such as first feeding through suckling or more complex, such as the response into question or behaving correctly in a certain social situation, he or she is learning to respond, thus forming scheme us when he or she enters the same situation. Again. The schema is appearing in a form of subconscious knowledge on how to response to the current situation With age and experience. Scheme has become more complex on when the child is able to confidently understand and respond to very situations. Then it is to be noted that the child isn't stayed off equity, liberum, cognitive or mental balance. The object also proposed that the child's intellectual development happens through the process off adaptation to the environment, which involves three stages, assimilation, accommodation and equal abrasion. Assimilation means that the child would use an existent schemer and applies it to the new situations. Accommodation happens when the existence schema doesn't work for a current situation and needs to be changed a collaboration means dealing with most new situations comfortably through applying the existence scheme us, whereas disequilibrium accused when existence schemers don't work and cannot be applied to new situations. Piaget believed that the child goes through four universal stages in their cognitive development. Sensory motor stage. It's the from the age of birth to two years of age. At this stage, babies and told us acquire the knowledge through sensory experiences and playing with various objects. The main achievement that should happen at this stage is that the chances the objects of separate and being aware off them, even if they are hidden this can be called in as object permanence or object constancy. If the child reaches this achievement successfully, then here she would be able to attach names and words to objects and proceed to the next stage, the pre operational stage 2 to 7 years of age. During that stage, Children play unloading pretend games. This allows them to learn to think and speak symbolically. They can speak about objects when they're not there with ease. They language matures. However, they still cannot use logic and taking the viewpoint of other people, and they would struggle with the idea of constancy. The third stage is the concrete operational stage states the age of 7 to 11. During this stage, the child demonstrates the ability to think rationally and logically, though they thinking can be very region. They might not understand abstract concepts, though at this age the child also becomes less egocentric and more aware off other people's feelings. During this stage, the child also understands better that not everyone would agree with the opinions and that other people have their own viewpoints. The former operational stage, which is 11 plus years. At this stage of the child who becomes an other lessons, he's able to use a logic and rational thinking even better. But they are also able to understand abstract and hypothetical concepts they can think of. Various possible options on reflect on ideas related to relationships, justice and so on. The the lessons can also think about the world. They're on them in a more scientific wait. What else can we adhere about? The PR Just theory? Jnpr just believe that Gaza, in knowledge and building our own intelligence, is not a passive process quite on contrary, we are just explained. I find myself opposed to the view of knowledge as a passive copy off reality. I believe that knowing an object means acting up in eight constructing systems off transformations that can be carried out on well with this object. Knowing reality means constructing systems off transformations that corresponds more or less adequately to reality. So, in other words, learning ease an active process which involves plain and dealing with objects, taking part in situations and not merely observing all this in the world around us. Finally, PRG believed that even though the formacion of cognitive development accused through the stages that we've discussed here, he also believed that intellectual development never stops on. Instead, it continues to happen through accumulation off knowledge in our adult hood. Okay, this is a beautiful this lecture on will proceed to the next lecture where will continue talking about travel development and particularly the development off the language and communication 21. 20. Child Development: Development of Language and Communication: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we continuing to discuss developments off Children and babies on. In this lecture, we will be discussing the development off language and communication. I know we've already discussed quite a bit about language and development for the Formacion off language in the past. In one of the previous lectures on Dhere, we sort of we will continue, but with a more focused on Children, how they develop the communication abilities. What sort of stages to go through that sort of thing. I hope you like it. So stick with me and learn as much as you can from this lecture. The 1st 3 years off life when the brain is developing a maturing is the most intensive period for acquiring speech and language skills. The skills developed best in a world of his reach. We sounds sights and consistent exposure to the speech and language off office. If the baby or a child is not transition and well through this period, you she might be able to miss the opportunity to develop language in an efficient and most natural for them way. This can lead to development off disorders and conditions that are related to communication and speech development. There are four main components of language for knowledge. E. This is the first component of language that means the organization of speech sounds in a meaningful sequence. Semantics that involves wards and concepts expressed through words. Gramma, which means the rules for ranging words and grammatical markets such as active or passive void, tens, etcetera, and pragmatics, which involved rules for using language for appropriate and effective communication. So from birth Children, our program to develop speech and language on, they feels attempts to communicate start with a first of vocal sounds, usually crying, which would indicate that they're hungry what, perhaps in pain in the 1st 3 months off life, the babies often trying to imitate the sounds that he was. She hears around them, and they can also tell the difference between parents and other people's voices. We ran through each stage of language development in one of previous lectures, which is which called, which is called language in the cognitive psychology section. So please listen to it again, or of her to it. If you want to remind yourself about the H stages for the language acquisition, but generally speaking Children say the first wars between nine and 18 months old. He usually they felt the world would be a word that they would use to call the parents on this phenomenon is actually global. It happens in each and every country where a baby attempts to say the first word and call the K giver and about 9 to 12 months of age, the child can often understand the names of many people and objects used the body language and facial expression to show how they feel and to say a few words. But by the age of 18 months, a child usually has a vocabulary or 5200 and 50 words. Around the age of three years old, Children begin to use language in a variety of ways for different reasons. They understand possessions off objects, for example that played is mummy's off the bear. He storms that how specific wards to describe most things they see and can even build 23 word sentences together when studying how Children the language and to communicate with others around them. You might encounter quite a few different theories, and we mentioned some of them previously throughout the course. The main thing here is to understand that the approach that is used by native ease the natives theory explains, the Children haven't in. They desire to understand and explore world around them. They would have a natural drive to attach, meaning to object and two people and make sense of what's around them through verbal expression, Warrington proposed the Children have genetics, provide Children with ability to learn behaviors with very little effort. Whereas Noam Chomsky proposed that we have an inborn language acquisition device somewhere in the brain, it provides us with an innate ability to master language at a nail age, or even to be bilingual from childhood. We have looked at his theory previously in this course, and his theories are well known and accepted by other researches, especially the fact that we seem to be hard wired for language development. Though he's language acquisition device has never bean located physically. Another approach to language development stems from social learning theory, which explains the Children have desire to learn, but most importantly, they develop language through imitating wards and language potters from others. I hope you remember previously we were looking at issues in debates that are still ongoing within psychology, and one of them is about nature versus nurture. And here is the prime example of these. Where is native ist theories? Explain the genetic importance and our innate ability to learn to communicate nature. Social learning Theories, on the other hand, explained learning processes from the nurture standpoint the role of gag US schools and Alice surrounding environments that facilitate language development in the child. They are the theoretical approach you would come to if you studied language development in details would be interaction ists theorists who argue the Children have a need to interact with others and that need is what drives them to develop the communication skills. Finally, recent findings in brain research demonstrates that the brain is most plastic and flexible in young Children, which shows that young age is the most critical and suitable stage for language development . 22. 21. Child Development: Social Perception: Hello and welcome to the next lecture on development of Psychology, where we will be discussing social reception. Oh, into personal perception. Social perception or interpersonal perception is one of the most recent areas emergent within the social psychology domain into personal perception is the study of how individuals form impressions about others, how they influence others and perceive the interactions with them. The study also includes examining the person's behavior towards other people, the body language on the verbal communication used in interactions with others. Social perception and person perception are the two areas off the interpersonal perception studies. Social perception is more general than person perception and involves studying social processes such as forming relationships with others, interacting with others and forming perception of people, groups and social situations. So social perception is the processes through which a person seeks to know and understand other persons, whereas person perceptions referred to the manner in which impressions, opinions or feelings about other persons are forms in Children development. Social perception starts from the from the early age, even though a perception is a complex process that involves taking in organizing and interpreting information. The first the times to do all that can be seen even in babies, when they respond to the sights and sounds around them when the baby is responding to an adults face in front of them, or to the sound off voice that here those would be examples off early stages off social perception, motor developments or, in other words, the child's physical behavior plays an important role in the perception. Formacion, for example. They can turn away from an object they don't want to see, or they attempt to push it away. When the baby girl's a bit more, the mortar development improves. They can make more movements, and they have more choice about what action to take. They can choose if they want to crawl towards the desired object or even take the first steps towards the mom's face and months encouraging voice. They can touch, grub and reach for the objects that wants examine. For example, at the age of her own eight months old, Children used the senses to explore objects and people in the environment. The, for instance, can look it object in the mouth, then take it out and then look at it again. Oh, they can show excitement when they recognize the color of their favorite food or the child can he His darts, food steps on his voice, and then they would turn their head in attempt to look at him at around 18 months of age. Children use information that they receive through the senses on will use it for interaction with the environment. The child might, for instance, pull his hands away from something that looks unfamiliar and that can include someone new face. They can show recognition of sounds such a small this food steps, water running in the bathroom or the reef or the refrigerator doors. Being open at the age of 12 to 18 months old is when they really enduring mess activities or show a complete dislike to them. But there are 36 months of age. Children can quickly and easily combine the information received from the sensors on use it for understanding off how to direct with the environment. For example, they can watch a family member draw a circle, and then they would try to do. Or they can identify their favorite toy or blanket by touching them. But from all the objects of the child wants to recognize and make a sense off east a human face. The researchers showed that an infant demonstrate significant interest to human face than to any other object. The complexity off the shapes and lines on the human face and official expressions on the most fascinating things to the baby. The most important reasons behind this phenomena are the baby learns to recognize specific people to perceive characteristics of people and to engage in non verbal communication. Social psychology and particularly the study of social perception, has been widely applied today in various roles. Social psychologist study, how social influence, social perception and social interaction influence individual and group behaviour on that is used, for example, in organizations in hiring, training employees in colleges and universities where they teach, and to research in government offices, nonprofit organizations, hospitals, social services and private businesses. Developmental psychology is concerned with the study off. Social perception on its formacion in Children and young adults on already gives us so many answers, but also so many questions, for example, at what age the child can recognize true friendship or how to make a young adult who understands that the first impression counts but not necessary is factual 23. 22. Child Development: Moral Development: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing moral developments. How do we know what's right and what's wrong? When do babies and Children learn what they're supposed to be doing and what's not, what is acceptable in society and what isn't? This is so called moral development when we learn to distinguish right from wrong. But I know the question is here. Who said it's right or it's wrong? How do we learn about the process? When do we realize who's right and who's wrong wanted? Give us this rules. We're gonna discuss all these in this lecture. Well, let's discuss old Laysan. This lecture and let's get down to moral development is a process of growth and understanding of what is considered to be an acceptable or good behavior and what is not acceptable off bad behaviour. Straight way you might be thinking, but who is right to give us a definition of good and bad. Something bad is not necessary bod for someone else. What is considered acceptable or good may not be so good for someone else, especially if they're from another culture. But generally speaking, at some point of our life We know what is considered to be wrong in the society, for example, a behavior that is not approved in our family over school, for example, or the activities that are punishable by law. Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, proposed a theory off moral development that progress through three levels off moral thinking. Based on our cognitive development, this theory is known as the Colbert Stages Off Sacre Social development. Lawrence Kohlberg expanded on daily work off Jean Piaget, which we discussed A. In this course, Colbert's proposed that there are three levels of moral developments that all Children go through conventional, conventional and post conventional. Each of these levels have two distinct stages. Level one at pre conventional level. A child sense of morality or what's right and what's wrong is controlled by external factors. For example, the child accepts what the parents consider of Rome the rules that are imposed by any authority like figure that showdown at this age judge in action based on its consequences. As we were saying, a layer there are two stages in each level. So at this level, stage one is obedience and punishment orientation, where the child's focus is on making other people being pleased through or being the rules and avoiding punishment for doing something wrong. The child sees anyone who's performing some bad behavior. Ah, someone who must be punished on the severity of punishment depends on the severity off bad behaviour. Stage two is instrumental. Orientation is the stage where the child is interested in gains and they personal interest . The child is interested in the needs of fathers Onley if there is a personal gain from it afterwards, Watson. It for me is the question that underlies the behavior at that stage. Level two conventional level and at the lesson sense of morality greatly depends on the relationship with others. Rules from the authorities are they to be followed. But now the individual considers. Are the relationships personal and those really society as tight of a moral values? There is less flexibility in the stage. The rules are they to be followed and their property this off. Rules and laws are rarely questioned. Stage three. East Desire for Approval stage. The behavior goes alongside of wanting to be approved and avoiding to be criticized. The person wants to be nice and demonstrate how good and nice they are in every situation. Stage four is the law and order orientation, the way the individual doesn't question the rules and instead of follows them to the T. This is important because of the role in the society. Everyone should follow the rules on if anyone breaks the rule than there is a possibility that others would follow it to, as they would feel obliged to conform to the group rules. But in any case, the rules are mainly dictated by the outside force and authority figures. Researchers say that many, if not most people stop their moral development. At this stage, Stage three and four level three post conventional level on individual sense of morality has changed. The rules from the authorities still have power, but at this stage the person questions whether all these rules are just on whether some should be changed or eliminated entirely. The person is able to see more abstract values and principles and may be able to realize that not all laws are consistent or follow ethical principles. Post conventional moralists leave by their own ethical principles principles that typically includes such basic human rights of life, liberty and justice, and view rules us useful but changeable mechanisms rather than absolute dictates that must be beat without the question. Stage five social contract. Or, in addition, the person sees the world is a place that holds many different opinions. Violence and theories. Rules and laws are social contracts, which are there to ensure the welfare off society. But at the same time they're not fixed. That can be changed and adapted, particularly when the majority of people need it. This is the stage of people in democratic government. Fish see six. It's a universal ethical principle. Orientation. Moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning. Using universal ethical principles. Justice and ethical principles are underlying reasoning for the behavior. At this stage, the person violates principles that are based on, for example, equality and respect for all this dignity on moral ideas, the person follows the laws and rules are not because of the fear of punishment, but more because they want to follow them. It is morally right to do so. On it is in the best interest and the interest of the whole off society, according to Colbert. Not many people reach this stage of developments, and even amongst those who reach it even fewer can remain constant at this stage. So Colbert's theory is one of the grand theories that established itself as the most appropriate when we discuss moral reasoning and perhaps you would agree with it. But before you do realize that there are a couple of criticisms exists as well as it happens naturally everywhere in the research, these criticisms are coming from other researchers and question the following callbacks. Theory doesn't account for cultural or gender differences my agenda because, according to Carol Gilligan, a research assistant off Colbert's, women tend to be more focused on interpersonal relationships more than man to unemployed. Different reasoning from the males on another criticism is that Corvex theory Presupposes that all the stages are pretty consistent in our developments. But they don't account for those situations. When human reasoning operates differently, for example, under the influence of alcohol and the person may value the moral and ethical ideas more than falling the rules and being the laws, While this is it what you need to know about moral developments, the main figure in the moral development studies is the corvex theory. So now you know what it's all about, and Of course, I urge you to read a big more and research. Now all the details about this theory if you would like to explore, fill that. But by now we've completed model for which is great. Congratulations for stain on learning this far for staying with me Wear Hey, didn't really really good. We're going towards Model five now Model five will be about the psychology off a typical and off abnormal behavior. This is another very interesting area of psychology and that I think you might like it as much as I do in this motor will cover Freeman areas the definition of diagnosis off a typical or normal behavior treatments. And we will talk about emotional disorders mortally and how they treated today. 24. 23. Atypical (Abnormal) Behaviour: Definition & Diagnosis: hello and welcome to our next lecture and to our new model on a typical or abnormal behavior. What do you think is typical behavior or normal behavior? Is it something that deviates from the norm, isn't it? But I'll be all on some sort of scale who say's where the abnormality starts? That is the question that psychologist asked the day. Okay, so let's have a look at on what is a typical or normal behavior, the definition of it and how the diagnose the abnormal behavior. So first of all, let's understand what a typical abnormal behavior really is. We can say that abnormality is simply a DVD deviation from the average or, in other words, no behaving in the way, as most people to or, as the study dot com describes it, abnormal behavior is behavior that deviates from what is expected and normal. The study of abnormal behavior is called abnormal psychology, so let's have a look at the two types off behavior desirable versus undesirable. Before we continue discussing what is a typical abnormal behavior, we need to understand one very important point behavior, and that includes normal and abnormal ads can be desirable or at least accepted and undesirable or unaccepted. For example, a serial killer who mercilessly murdered a few people can be described a someone with abnormal behaviour, which is not accepted in society. On the other hand, Mother Teresa provided spiritual service to thousands of people all over the world, and her behavior is not a norm either. And, they thought would be considerate. US abnormal. But it is desired and accepted by the society. So can you see the difference between the two? Both of them exhibit atypical or abnormal behaviors? Just one of them is desirable, and the other one isn't also the reason type of behavior that we can call normal but within the psychiatry domain is classified US disorder. Take, for example, depression and or anxiety. Both of these states are familiar to most people on it is normal to feel anxious or depressed in certain situations on in a statistical form. Both of them are normal behaviors. However, at some point, the person can be diagnosed with having a depressive or anxiety disorder and receive a treatment. So in a psychological sense, there is a continuum which displays normal and abnormal behavior On Dhere. We're discussing where the markets are on the continuum. How can abnormality be defined for any individual of normality? Can be defined as a personal distress attribute. As girls explains, Abnormality is a subjective experience off intense on society and happiness, depression or whole host the father forms that personal suffering can take. While this may often be the only indication that anything is wrong and may not necessary be obvious to others, it may be sufficient reason for seeking professional help. As Mila and morally explain, people do not count two clinics because they feel that have met some abstract definition off abnormality. For the most part, they come because they feelings or behavior caused them distress. So from those definitions, we can see that diagnosis off abnormal behavior, in other words, when the person has some kind of psychological disorder would be made when the person feels that it causes him a de stress. And he or she came to the therapies for help most of the time and in most cases, this way, the individual diagnosis starts from, but in some cases, the problem article normal behavior can be obvious to all this, but not to the person he herself. In these cases, the abnormal behavior is present, but it's not diagnosed until something happens, for example, connected to an accident where emergency services are involved and then the person can be finally diagnosed. How does the medical partition that make the diagnosis? It's all down to the severity of symptoms and the length off timing when those symptoms are present. Within the psychiatry domain, the practitioners use diagnostic and statistical manual off mental disorders, which is known as the SM for short. This model gets revised and updated every so often with a Dear Sam five came out of the Year of 2013. The manner has a collection off possible mental health related disorders and conditions they forms and classifications. The GSM is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association, but it is used all over the world by psychologists, psychiatrists and other practitioners working within mental health domain. So the actual diagnosis of mental illness goes in several steps. The 1st 1 is evaluation where the current symptoms aren't discussed or observed the petition. I can ask questions. Discuss how the symptoms affect the individual's life. Look into the past of the patient to see if there are any specific factors influenced the present condition. The second step is certain tests might be done might be used, but more often the patient is referred to a psychologist or psychiatrist, the psychologist or psychiatrist then conduct the specially designed interview in the form of questions and answers. The force. The reason assessment is conducted, usually through a series of tests that will give a bigger picture from making an accurate diagnosis on the final step is the diagnosis is made and the treatment is offered and discussed. Once the diagnosis mate, the person is now ready to discuss the possible treatments. Way there will be conducted and for how long. This can include for example, eight medication and counseling or psychotherapy sessions. What are the treatments can be? Offer it and for what? Disorders? This is what we will be discussing in our next lecture. See, there 25. 24. Atypical (Abnormal) Behaviour: Treatments: hello and welcome to our next lecture, where we will be discussing treatments off on abnormal or typical behavior or, um, and treatments off very psychological disorders. What treatments are available to us these days? What do you think would be a therapy can think off, or some sort of medication that comes to your mind? While this is saw, we will be talking about what it is used widely and what is not used anymore. So let's get down to it. Many of mental health illnesses are long term and have to be treated for months and often years. Some of the mental health disorders and conditions last a lifetime. For example, a person who suffers with excited with depression related disorders will probably always have a disposition to develop in them, even if the symptoms will get reduced over time. For many people, however, and ongoing treatment and medication will become a part off their lives What kind of treatment individuals with mental health conditions receive these days. While it's medication, counseling and all psychotherapy, it's according to behavioral therapy. It could be a hospital treatment, which means that the person can stay in all come during the day for certain treatments. This could involve community support programs, group therapies or individual therapy, alternative and complementary treatments, hypnotherapy or even a city, which is electroconvulsive therapy. If the person receives an appropriate treatment than more often than not, he or she would be able to resume the normal day to day activities, whereas the symptoms of the condition will be controlled with the medication. For some, people with a mental illness can be treated to the extent when the person would be considered us fully recovered. But because of so many factors involved, it is simply impossible to predict if, when and how the person can fully recover. What are the treatments for? Excited his orders? For example, you might have heard the term excited many times in the past. People call themselves as being anxious when they are disip, anticipating or afraid of something that that should happen in the future. Or perhaps you have heard of someone being diagnosed with unexcited disorder unexcited his orders. Covers cover a wide a range of phobias, feelings of worry, tension and fear. I'm excited. Related disorders and conditions may include, for example, generalized excited disorder panic disorder, which is often known as having a regular panic attack, social phobia and separation anxiety. When the treatment is being discussed and arranged, The individual is often made aware that it's impossible to rely on Onley on some type of medication for help or one type of treatment. In most cases, a variety of treatments offer it depending on the person's individual symptoms and circumstances. It is generally accepted that medication alone doesn't address the underlying reasons for development off excited his order. In fact, the use of medication can help to keep the symptoms under control whilst the individual is receiving other forms of treatment medication for excited. His orders can include various anting excited drugs. Also, antidepressants can be used as well, because anxiety and depression related symptoms are often present. I am the person signed by side whilst the person is getting used to taking the medication. Other forms of treatment are arranged, for example, cognitive behavioral therapy, which helps the person to identify the triggers for anxiety and phobias, and to modify the behavioral response to the stressful events that caused the problem. The person may also be offered mindfulness therapy, which can help the patient to focus on the present. Instead of anticipating or dressing the future events, mindfulness can help to control distressing or depressive thoughts and to achieve personal self acceptance. The person can also be taught relaxation techniques and meditation. Ah long signed some physical form of exercise, and they're all effective in reducing and managing stress and feelings of warring. So what is the treatment for schizophrenia? For example, schizophrenia is a serious mental illness, and it is known that 100 people in the UK well experience on episode of this illness at least once in their lifetime. This illness is widespread all over the world and in the U. K. For example, 280,000 people are being treated by energy s at any given time. It is also known that on average, one in 10 people with schizophrenia commits suicide within 10 years off the diagnosis. So what kind of treatments available for the serious mental health problem? Schizophrenia as many other mental health illnesses, require a combination of treatments, typically eight medication and therapy that would be tailored to the individual needs. The treatment would include some form of psychotherapy and all cognitively hero therapy, and some kind of anti psychotic medicine. People with this illness usually received help from a community mental health support workers and can be offered group therapy where they can communicate with others battling with the similar conditions, saying that I would add that to people, both of whom diagnosed discovered schizophrenia may have different symptoms from each other . This is because schizophrenia covers so many symptoms, and it's not necessary to have all of them to be diagnosed. Other parts of treatments for schizophrenia can include, for example, full rehabilitation, where the person is treated in a medical centre or hospital for a certain length of time on family education, where the family off, the sufferer is educated about the symptoms, how to deal with the illness and how to care for the diagnosed family member. Treatments for milder forms of mental health disorders, such as stress related conditions such as burnout or post traumatic stress disorder, can include Onley psychological form of treatment such as counseling, psychotherapy or Corgan to be hero therapy. It is understandable that many practitioners on main individuals with mental health issues I would prefer not to be treated with heavy medications such as antidepressants or antipsychotic drugs simply because they can cause addiction to those drugs and various unwanted side effects. So how do they treat emotional and behavioral disorders than that often diagnosed with within educational institutions? For students, this is what we're discussing in our next lecture. 26. 25. Atypical (Abnormal) Behaviour: Emotional Disorders: As we've mentioned in our previous lecture, it is important to diagnose mental health disorder in the correct order, with the help of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the GSM. We also say that some disorders can be diagnosed with within educational institutions and these are particularly emotional disorders. In reality, it's not that educational establishments have the right to diagnose the students. Instead, they're assessing those students who have difficulty off learning with the aim to provide an additional help and support with the learning. According to the right diagnosis dot com, emotional disorders is not a fully accurate medical term, but it is commonly used in ordinary contacts to refer to those psychological disorders that appear to affect the emotions. Emotional disorders can include many conditions and disorders, for example, at anxiety or depression related disorders, very psychological or psychiatric disorders and behavioral personality disorders. Symptoms off emotional disorders can include depression on exciting poor appetite, disturbed sleep, suicidal ideations, weight related programs, fatigue and so on. As you can see, many psychological disorders and conditions can be related to emotions and emotional disorders. Educational establishments in the assessments of students based the diagnosis criteria on the international classification of diseases. I see D 10 published by the World Health Organization and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Manual of Mental Disorders, or which we've discussed already. GSM five is the latest one, as we've mentioned a lair. The diagnostic criteria for the students can include one of MAWR off the symptoms that last for a certain period of time and noticeably affect the student's academic performance. For example, they might have difficulty in learning that is not caused by health related condition or intellectual capabilities. Difficulty in social functioning, such as forming relationships. With all this functioning in the family, they might have a disruptive behaviour and violence towards a family member. Any existence. Psychological, psychiatry, condition, poor self esteem and excited depressive disorders and behavioral problems. Emotional and behavioral disorders often go alongside each other, and it is often Children and adolescence. Or rather, they parents reports symptoms of both. If the symptoms seriously impact the child's academic performance, family relationships, social life, then the child can be diagnosed with the disorder known US attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which is known as a THD off course. It's the National Institute of Mental Health, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, affect 10 to 15% of Children all over the world. On 3 to 5% of Children get diagnosed with a d. H d more boys than girls affected with a d. H D. It is no that these Children have difficulty in sitting for long periods of time, focusing on the lessons, finishing tasks and general planning on even being aware of what's going on around them. Children with a D H D. A. Typically offer involved medication and therapy sessions and exciting related disorders that we've discussed in our previous lecture also cause emotional problems. And the child can be classified in the educational establishment as having an emotional disorder on excited disorder can cause the feelings of stress being fearful or afraid for no real reason. Autism is a disorder which makes the child to leave in the old World, causing developmental delay in difficulties in learning and regulating own emotions. Bipolar disorder can cause severe mood swings in the child from high, euphoric feelings too deep and severe depressive episodes. The range of emotions experienced is very broad. This, of course, can severely affect the chance performance and can cause many psychological issues later in the under hood. This disorder often gets get a misdiagnosed when it is seen in the child, and instead the child get diagnosed with a THD, sometimes emotional disorders. Ski at referred to US emotional disturbances. But again, this is not an exact, accurate diagnosis, but rather an umbrella off characteristics which we were talking about throughout this lecture. No one really knows the actual causes for emotional disorders, because in each case they may be so many factors attribute into this problem. This could be genetic predisposition, hereditary case, brain related disorder on even diet and stress. All in all, it is known that mental health disorders and conditions can affect any person from any culture and off any age and from any level off society. 27. 26. Research Methods: Techniques : hello and welcome to the final sexual off this course well done for completing most of this course. It's only three lectures to go where we will discuss in research methods. Or how do we conduct research in psychology? What do you need to know? How do we measure? How do we put hypothesis? How do we study some sort of phenomena? This is what will be discussing in the next three lectures on. After that you will be done. And if there is a final quiz after, that's just do it, get your certificates and you will be ready to rock with your advanced level psychology certificates. Okay, let's get down to our first lecture in these final section, which is called research Methods. Researching psychology is a very important area off understanding, individual and group behaviors and experiences. How do you say call? Just learn about various psychological phenomena. Well, the use many research tools or, in other words, methods that differ from one another in the way they're used. Constructed on applied, Mr Georgie can be split simply into two categories. Qualitative and quantitative methods, qualities. Methods are mainly used for studying naturalistic behavior or in other words understanding behavior in natural settings. Qualitative methods can range from observations and conversation analysis, toe open ended questionnaires and structured interviews and surveys. So we can say that qualitative methodology is mainly used for understanding human be here through reported descriptions and themes. Quantitative methods are mainly used for studying social phenomena through gathering and analyzing facts. In this type of methodology, researchers conducted through measuring numerical comparisons and statistical formulations dating this type of her sewage can be conducted through questionnaires where participants have to make a choice in the offer answers. The data can be also collected through experiments and observations. So let's have a look at several research methods that I used widely within psychology today . The 1st 1 is Case study is a research method that is used for studying a certain event, a person or a group of people in death. It can also be called in depth investigation. This type of research can provide to reach data because case studies can be done over a period of time when the studied person or event closely observed, the investigator can collect data through studying past records off the research person or phenomena, direct observations psychological testings and interviews. One of the well known researchers who used case studies in the past was Sigmund Freud, who studied his patients with this type of methodology. The limitation of this method is that it can take a long time to contact and can be really subjective. It could be based on the water researcher report on the own, but overall, this method can give data that are the methods cannot provide and that can be used for generating hypothesis. The 2nd 1 is surveys. Survey is a very common method of collecting data. Surveys can involve both questionnaires and interviews and can give mixed data mixed in a way that it can give qualitative and quantitative data, which can be complex to analyse, do treats a richness through this type of methodology, it is possible to measure attitudes, understand behaviors and experiences. The received data can be described. A self reported data on it has its own downsides. For example, it is known that participants can give inaccurate responses for various reasons, such as pleasing the researcher, given the answers that they think they are wanted or desired by the researcher failing to understand questions or not giving full answers to the asked questions. But overall, this method is considered to be cheap enough to conduct and is able to provide a lot of data in fairly short period of time. The 3rd 1 is laboratory experiment or laboratory observations. It's the research method that is used for gaining an accurate, mainly quantitative data. This type of experiment can give well controlled data where any interfering factors can be greatly reduced or eliminated. The researcher can use sophisticated equipments and observations for intuition that behavior off the subject. So we can say that the researcher has a great degree of control over the environment. This type of methodology, however, has its own downside or weakness. Even though the environment is controlled in the laboratory settings, the observation of the phenomenon is not conducted naturally. That means that the participant may not behave naturally, given the researcher inaccurate data as a result. But overall, this massive is widely used within academic settings and given data and gives data that is measured and recorded accurately through equipment. I had to find one that it's naturalistic observation. It's a research method that provides information about behavior in a natural environment, The researcher is observing the behavior off the research subjects that occurs in a natural environment or, in other words, it is not manipulated or controlled. The method is designed to be accurate and reliable and can give both qualitative and quantitative data. As with the case studies, it can give data for making generalized hypothesis and reach data, but it can take a longer time to conduct for the amount of data received. Are there known research methods that you might come across include psychological tests, psychometric methods and very Sipes off experiments. 28. 27. Research Methods: Issues: welcome to our next election, where we were discussing a research issues. When research study is taking place, there are certain rules and agreements have to be made between the researchers and the participants. These rules and agreements is what researchers refer to US ethics researchers have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm ethical agreements means certain moral principles and rules have to be put in place and that the participants have the right to be respected and protected from both illegal and the moral standards. How do researchers know what sort of rules must be put in place? The research is full of the guidelines off either the British Psychological Society or American Psychological Association. Some of the most important ethical rules include, for example, getting an informed consent, which means that the participants agreed to take part in the research and that they understand what exactly it involves confidentiality, which means that the participants personal information is concealed, kept anonymous and protected within a certain amount of time. But he spends also should have the right to withdraw from the study, which means that they can leave the research study at any point if they feel uncomfortable or just don't want to continue for any reason. They don't even have to explain their reasons for doing so either, and they can also withdraw all the data from the research. So the feels that research issue is that knowing the ethical writes that the participants can leave the research study at any time on day sees the first potential issue that the researchers would have to deal with. The participants may not agree with the study and may not give the full details or full participation, which in turn can give an accurate data off the data that cannot be used. Another issue is that the research data can be simply unreliable. It is known that research participants may have a subconscious desire to please the researcher and give the answers the belief are wanted or, for example, when feeling in the survey. The participants may take the boxes quickly without giving much thought to the questions. All this can give an inaccurate data in the research. The third issue is gender bias means that most of the past research and theorists often involved either male or female participants. But when the theory was generalized, it extended to both. If I theory sees the people tend to get depressed in winter, we can often see that the first theories could have involved mainly female participants, or the studies related to work and career could have involved male participants. But the research data say's, It's applicable to all people, which is incorrect right today, the psychologist aware off these issues and often reformulate the theories involving both male and female population as and whenever eighties required. The fourth issue is ethnic and cultural buys us with a previous issue. Previous research has been conducted on Western people, often the psychologist themselves. The research has provided various theories but did not account for various ethnic or cultural differences. So the theories of the past seems to be applicable to all people. But if you think about it, they cannot be so. The research of more recent times dacic these issues into account. The feast issue is causation and correlation when their research employs correlation research methods, which means that one variable is correlated with the other. These can also cause an issue. For example, you want to find out the drinking wine causes a feeling off happiness in people. So you have found this is true drinking. A certain amount of wine correlates with high schools off happiness. It is easy enough for the researchers report. A drinking wine causes happiness and that she can happiness contributes to drinking wine. In reality, though, correlation doesn't mean causation if one variable correlates with another, this does not necessarily mean that one is causing the other. They just merely correlates with one another. But it is easy to see how we can fall into the thinking trump off causation than simple correlation. Just remember that correlation is merely a relationship between two variables. So it's about two things go to get a hand in hand. Where is causation is one thing is causing the other, though it doesn't mean that is reversible either. So in our example, if drinking wine causes some feelings of happiness, this does not necessarily mean that happiness contributes to drinkin wine. On a final issue that will discuss in this lecture is generalization from a small sample. Some studies are done taking a small pool off sample because that's what it's available to them at the time. For example, if you research the effect off certain foods on the brain or the best teaching methods the teachers off mathematics can use. You might find only small handful off those participants that are available to you when you get your data. It's easy enough to generalize your findings on report that all people in this category and all the teachers off mathematics do certain things in the way that your findings show. But that is the issue. Generalizing from a small sample leads doing inaccurate findings. The reliability and such studies are reduced, and more studies on the same subject or a study with more participants have to be done again before the final conclusions are made. 29. 28. Research Methods: Data Analysis : hello and welcome to our final lecture off the whole course, where we will discuss a bit about data analysis on what we do, how we analyze data when we conduct research. Ah, hope you've learned quite a bit now about how we conduct researchers, psychologists on as always, I urge you to read a bit more if you're interested in this topic, so let's get down to election. In the previous lectures, we were discussing two main types of research. Qualitative and quantitative. Both of these types give us data, but to obtain the data in a meaningful way for the researcher, we have an important task to analyze it and to report it depending on what kind of methods we use to gather our data on whether these data is qualitative or quantitative in qualitative research way regard the data via a naturalistic methods. For example, through interviews and focus groups, by the way, Focus Group is a discussion of a certain topic by several group members. This could also be an information from diaries on open ended questions from open entity from interviews, observations or diaries. Qualitative data is typically descriptive and can be harder to analyse so whatever method we use for gathering our data, we can end up with a large data in a form of words, phrases or sentences or numerical data. This data needs to be organized, summarized and interpreted. Qualitative data in psychology is typically analyzed by these types of methods. Content analysis. This method involves taking the data, which is in the forms of words, phrases and so on and transforming them into quantitative data, which is numerical data. The researchers uses coding units in the content analysis that she or he is conducting. These units can be, for example, the number of positive or negative words used by the students when they talk about the social experiences in the college. Strength of content analysis is that this technique is fairly straightforward, it's easy to use and it's no too time consuming. It is a reliable way to analyze quantity and quality of data because coding units are not open to interpretation by the researcher, which means any potential buyers. These minimized but weakness of this approach is that this technique describes the data but cannot explain what was causing that. For example, it cannot give us deeper meaning off what's been saved or reported by the participants. The next one. Interpretive Finn Immunological analysis i p. Eight. His approach that is used widely in today's qualitative research. Through the analysis, it is an understanding on interpretation of the phenomena is taking place. It's the phenomenon that relates to the experiences off the participants experiences that have some personal significance. For example, the development off a relationship between the mother and the child, or a certain life events such as moving abroad for work. They are discussed. These topics discussed that I pay is a more complex analysis that involves several steps on a mixture of psychological, interpretive and content analysis. To a certain degree, the researcher has to read the transcript several times, thus immersing themselves into data he was. She's making notes focusing on contents, language, used context on additional comments. Then the emerging themes are identified, which are later made into clusters. Each team needs to be described and exemplified with extracts from the pizza. Then this data can be either analyzed that using certain software that is designed for qualitative type of data or can be filled. Analyzed interpretive and reporters by the researcher through themes sub themes, texts and descriptions in their quantitative methodology. We got the data that this new miracle or can be made into new miracle or statistical data categories or any other measured units, which can be used for constructing graphs and tables to analyse thes type of data. Researchers use computerized programs for statistical analysis, for example, SP SS First, SPS is you need to have prepare raw data from your study, choose the appropriate tool for analysis within the program. Or usually there's more than one and then conduct the analysis. Those program tools can be, for example, analysis for any potential correlation between the variables. But the way variable is a unit of data or the relationship between several variables. This can show us any potential frequency off certain conditions, in particular groups of people. Be hero trends all partners over a period of time, a prevalence off a specific condition or any data that can be used for reporting statistics and generalizing possible hypothesis. Another type of data analysis is mixed methods research. So, as we say daily, a quality of data comes from, for example, observational or interviewed dater, whereas quantitative data comes in the form of new miracle or statistical data and in the mixed methodology means we combine both types of data. Typically, research in psychology heavily relies on quantity of data and its analysis, but it is clear that mixed method is what could give us the Regis data on the best interpretation and analysis. Integration of mixed methods can be complex and lengthy, however, even when there is a strong reason for using this type of methodology in the mixed method, you would take some part of data and use it as a statistical data analyzing with computerized statistical program and other part of the data. You would analyze it us a qualitative data using, for example, thematic analysis or I p. A. When you conduct research in psychology, this is what else you need to consider. Keep up to date your knowledge about the latest research methods, techniques, software textbooks, man manuals, etcetera. Consider techniques that I used within other areas of research. Think outside of box. Choose the appropriate methodology for your study and which is suitable for your hypothesis and consider the limitations off your research design 30. 29. Thank You & Good Bye!: So this is it. You have finished the course, and I would like to congratulate you for getting so far for completing it for finishing it . Now you're ready to just receive your certificates and go into the world using the your knowledge of psychology in your career or in your day to day life, or both, as I do. In any case, don't stop here because psychology is my passion on if it's yours, I urge you to continue reading books on educating yourself or not Onley on psychology from textbooks that I can understand That can be boring when you're reading only textbooks. But there are so many books that are available now on the market place on Amazon, for example, that's are applicable to today's sigh. Coach to your daily life psychology. How to believe with exciting depression may be necessary for you, but for your general knowledge, the thing is, when you become psychologist that you will have a lot of people your friends, for example, asking you all sort of questions on mental health disorders or on coping with stress or depression. On unexciting on, they feel as if you you become some sort of doctor for them that you know the questions, whether you are doctor or not. So even though you cannot, obviously you cannot make the diagnosis or, you know, even the best of all, probably to send them to the doctor. If if it's pretty serious, however there are shouldn't things that you can tell them that I said they re certain advice that you can all always give them on. It sounds really good when you actually you've done your homework. You learned some sort of research, statistics and facts, and you give them that. It's not only sounds pretty cool for you on credible, but also it shows that how serious you are about being psychologist. So good luck with your career on with your future on I'm here. If you need me, contact mint at any time. Please do check my other courses. I'm constantly grazing courses on psychology related topics. On. If you enjoyed this course, you will enjoy Alice. So do check them out on. I hope to see you in one of my classes very soon again. Thank you for watching and Caesar