Adobe Photoshop CC - An Introduction | Tunnel Vision LTD | Skillshare

Adobe Photoshop CC - An Introduction

Tunnel Vision LTD, Making Learning Easy

Adobe Photoshop CC - An Introduction

Tunnel Vision LTD, Making Learning Easy

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40 Lessons (3h)
    • 1. 0 Course intro

    • 2. 1 Changing Preferences

    • 3. 2 Workspaces

    • 4. 3 Making Selections 1

    • 5. 4 Making Selections 2

    • 6. 5 Making Selections 3

    • 7. Pen selections

    • 8. 6 Saving selections

    • 9. 7 Levels and History

    • 10. 8 Flattening Layers

    • 11. 9 Curves Adjustments

    • 12. 10 Fixing Colour 1

    • 13. 11 Clone Stamp and Healing Brush

    • 14. 12 Hue and Saturation

    • 15. 13 Sharpening with Unsharp Mask

    • 16. 14 Color to Greyscale

    • 17. 15 Shadow Highlight

    • 18. 16 The Perspective Crop tool

    • 19. 17 Colors and Gradients 1

    • 20. 18 Colors and Gradients 2

    • 21. Text 1

    • 22. Text 2

    • 23. 19 Fixing Crooked Images

    • 24. 20 Layers explained

    • 25. 21 Adjustment Layers

    • 26. 22 Photomerge

    • 27. 23 Smart Objects

    • 28. 24 Combining Images

    • 29. 25 Layer Blending Modes 1

    • 30. 26 Layer Blending Modes 2

    • 31. 27 Masks 1

    • 32. 28 Masks 2

    • 33. 29 Select and Mask 1

    • 34. 30 Select and Mask 2

    • 35. 31 Select and Mask 3

    • 36. 32 Puppet Warp

    • 37. 33 Optimize 1

    • 38. 34 Optimize 2

    • 39. 35 Animated Gifs

    • 40. 36 Slicing an Image

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About This Class

Hi, and welcome to this introduction to Adobe Photoshop CC. Adobe Photoshop is an incredible piece of software that’s not only been one of my main tools for more than 25 years, it’s been downright entertaining as well – jaw-droppingly so. Some of its features are SO good and SO amazing they’ll leave you completely gobsmacked. But, it will eat your life, so be warned. We all take pictures, and we just can’t resist trying to improve, a time will come when you’ll find yourself still sitting in front of your computer at 3 in the morning. You’ve not eaten, you’re not tired, you’re having a great time...and you’ve got to get up for work in the morning.

These videos cover just about everything you need to know to be able to start working professionally. They cover preference changes, setting up a workspace, how to use the Selection tools, things like that. Then there are several videos that deal mostly with fixing some kind of damage: poor tone range, low contrast, colour castes. They’re followed by videos covering more creative things: special effects, working with masks and layers, how to move something from one image into another, how to cut out difficult objects, and more.

Meet Your Teacher

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Tunnel Vision LTD

Making Learning Easy


Hello, I'm Mark Gatter from Tunnel Vision LTD. I've worked in commercial printing, as a freelance graphic designer and software trainer for the last 30 years. I've got 5 books published, three about software and two about growing vegetables – but don't worry, I don't get them mixed up. I've just uploaded a new course, 'Color Theory Essentials', aimed at anyone who needs to create a color theme for a project. Or, if you want to learn about Adobe InDesign I've got another course – Adobe InDesign CC: A Complete Introduction – that will take you from being a total beginner to someone who can work professionally in a commercial graphics studio or become a freelancer, faster than you would have believed possible. I'm happy to respond to everyone who wants to ask a ... See full profile

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Graphic Design Creative

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1. 0 Course intro: Hi and welcome to this introduction to Adobe Photo Shop CC. Adobe Photo Shop is an incredible piece of software. It's not only being one of my main tools for more than 25 years, it's bean down, right, entertaining as well, George dropping these so some of its features are so good and so amazing they'll leave you completely gobsmacked, but it will eat your life. We all take pictures when we can't resist trying to improve them, so a time will come when you'll find you're sitting in front of your computer at three in the morning. You've not eaten. You're not tired. You having a great time, and you've got to get up for work in the morning. These videos covered just about everything you need to know to be able to start working professionally, things like preference changes, setting up a workspace, how to use the selection tools. And there are several videos that mostly deal with fixing some kind of damage tone range. Low contrast color casts things like that there, followed by videos covering the more creative stuff, special effects, working with masks and layers, how to move something from one image to another how to cut out difficult objects on more. I've uploaded all the materials used in these videos so you can try out everything yourself . And of course, you're most welcome to give feedback and ask questions. And I sincerely hope you find Photoshopped as useful as I have. If you enjoy this, you may be interested to check out my other courses. There are three on Adobe in design CC, intro level advanced and another dealing with all the interactive tools. Then there's a course on color theory on another one on Adobe Premiere Pro Sisi, and there are more courses coming, so please check back and see what's new. And if you've got any questions or comments or you just want to tell me what you'd like to see next, please get in touch and I'll get back to you, Justus. Soon as I can 2. 1 Changing Preferences: Hi and welcome to these videos on Adobe Photo Shop CC. If you haven't used photo shop before, let me start out by saying photo shop should have a government health warning on it because it will each your life. We've all got cameras either in our phones or we've got cameras and we will take pictures from time to time. And you're going to find your sitting in front of your computer three o'clock in the morning. You haven't eaten yet. You're not tired and you got work tomorrow and that's happened so many times to me. I can't tell you and it's gonna happen to you. It's just one of those things, because the thing is, photo shop is fun. It's a very, very cool, entertaining program. Incredibly powerful. It is the best image editing software ever. So first of all, I'm going to show you what bit of the screen does what, and we're going to change a few preferences and we're gonna set up a workspace. So down the left hand side here, we've got the toolbox very obviously up on the top here. This is called the Options Bar. Now, if I click on the window menu. You see options down the bottom. It's gotta check next to it. That means the options bar is on. So are the tools. Application Frame puts a nice, bland gray background here. You don't even have that on a Windows machine. You get a nice, great background anyway, but on a Mac, you've got to ask for it. There's also a Chetniks, the library's layers and color, and that's because over here on the right, the corner window is active, the library window is active and the layers window was active. So anything that's open that's active will have a check next to it. Okay, I'm too close that down again. This big area here is where we do most of the work. Now I'm going to go change a few preferences on a Windows machine. Preferences are always right at the bottom of the edit menu on a Mac that under the photo shop menu, which doesn't even exist on a Windows machine. So if I click on that, there's preferences and go across to general now, there's a lot of preferences in this list. I'm not actually going to change anything in the General tab. I'm going to go straight down to interface. There's something that Adobe have said in places, a default that I don't actually like And it's this dark gray background. I prefer this one medium light. Now. Some of these preferences will change instantly. Some of them they won't change till the next time you start up the program. My reason for doing this is because if I sit in a movie, theater are then the colors on the screen that bright? But if I turn the lights on, they look kind of washed out. And if I use a dark environment, I will tend to turn the lights down, and the colors are gonna look more vivid on the screen. Then they would look in daylight, and most my work is looked at in daylight. So I prefer this. It's a personal preference, and these are preferences, so it's up to you now. I'm going to go down to a workspace now, even though these air preferences and it's up to you, I strongly recommend that you have a look at these open documents as tabs. I'm gonna one check that and also this one enable floating document window docking and I'll tell you about thes. If you ever used in design, you would know the when you've got a document. Open and in design, it occupies the entire screen area. And if you open up another document that occupies the entire screen area and at the top on the left hand side, you got a tab for each documents you click on the tab, and that document takes precedence. Well, I don't like to do that with photo shop, because I sometimes want to work on more than one image more or less simultaneously. So I need to be able to see them at the same time in their own individual frames. If enable floating document Window docking is checked. It means if I drag one image too close to the frame that another one sitting inside, it might get sort of sucked in. And then I'd have to taps of the top. And I don't to be able to see one image at a time by clicking on the tab. I don't want that either. I want to be able to work on several images simultaneously, each of them in their own frame, without any danger of being sucked into the frame of another. Now I'm going to go down to curses, and basically we have two kinds of cursor. We've got painting curses and other curses. Now the painting curses default. Normal brush tip. I like that. It shows you a circle that tells you how big the brushes that you're using. But for other courses, standard means the curse will look like the tool you've got selected. I prefer precise because it's more precise. I'll just quickly go into units and rulers to show you this. So my rulers are going to be set two millimeters and type is set to points. Points are fairly universal measurement unit for type all over the planet. Print resolution is normally considered to be 300 pixels Branch on my screen resolution. This originally is 72 when the program gets installed, but my screen is 96 so I've changed it. It's not going to make any difference, really, but I like to change it, so I'm going to click OK now. If for some reason Photoshopped crashed, I would lose all those preference settings and I would have to come back and redo them if I worked and then closed Photoshopped down at the end of my work period. At that point, my preference is a saved, so that's how they work. 3. 2 Workspaces: now to the workspace. So over here on the right, we have this sort of configuration of windows, and it takes up a big chunk of the screen. I wanted to take up much less space. If I click on this double arrow at the top, the right hand column closes down toe icons and names, and I can drag these two into that column and that will make the left hand column disappear completely. I could hover over the left hand edge of that column and pull to the right, like so. But let's not do that just yet. Now I'm going to go save this as a workspace. I'll get into the benefits of doing that after I've done it. So pick on this little arrow here, go down to new workspace type in your name, save. I've now got my own named workspace. If for some reason I click on layers, Layers opens. If I click on color, layers closes and color opens. That's how this column of stuff works. So if I had say, layers open and I've dragged that out onto the screen and then for some reason, maybe I'm short of space, I've closed it on. I'll do the same for swatches out. It comes on. I'll close it on then suddenly I think, Oh, I need layers or is it gone on? I panic and there's no need because actually, all I've got to do on, by the way, if you've got a window open, you don't want it. You click on this little double arrow on I've got to do is click on that arrow again and say, Reset mark on there's layers so that will bring it back to exactly how it looked when I saved it. This will not only save you time, this was save you stress. You can do this in pretty much every single adobe program. No, In fact, I don't want my workspace quite like this. I use layers all the time, so I'm gonna open that drag lays out onto the desktop, closed these two, and then I'm gonna position layers somewhere useful. So it's out of the way and now going to save my workspace again by saying new workspace, Mark, click save. And it'll say you've already got one called Mark. Do you wish to replace it? Yes, and that's how you update a saved workspace, so that's got me already for work. The next thing we're going to do is look at selections. That's selections are incredibly important. Images are made up of pixels, the more pixels you've got, the more detail that image can display. If I've got an image where one thing looks good and one part of it, doesn't I maybe want to make a selection of that part of it so I can adjust it without upsetting the good part? And that's what selections of four on there's quite a few different ways to do them. And it's absolutely fundamental to successful use of photo shop, so do pay attention to the next video. 4. 3 Making Selections 1: So now I'm gonna open the image that I want to use to show you how to make selections so ago File open. But look over on the right command. Oh, on a Windows machine. That's control. Oh, that's a short cut. I'm going to use that. Shortcuts are great. Come on. Oh, and that's the image that I want. Fossil Beach. I'll open that. There it is. Now that's what I mean when I say opening up an image. So it appears in its own frame. Usually when I've opened an image, the first thing I do is pull the bottom right hand corner out a little bit. So I get a bit of grey space around it because these tools actually active in that grace space, they can't do anything. There's no image there. But if I want to make a selection that goes right to the edge of an image, I might actually start in the gray area. I'm sure I'll get to show you that. Anyway, this is the rectangular marquee tool, and there's a little dark bottom right and corner and yeah, these will open all the time. If I click and hold the mouse down on that tool. That little dark right and corner means that there's a fly out menu. A lot of these tools that fly out menus. And here we've got the rectangular marquis, the elliptical marquee and a single row of pixels horizontally or vertically, which I don't often use. But these two at the top. Yes, I use those all the time. So I'm going to choose rectangular marquee tool just by letting go on it and then our click and drag on the image. And there is a selection. We call that the marching ants know what that means is all the pixels inside this area are active, and I could change them and all the pixels outside it. I can't change. Not gonna just quickly show you what I mean. I'm gonna come back and show you this tool. This is the brush tool a bit later on, and I'm gonna make the brush a bit bigger. And I guess I'll show you all this stuff later. Now, if I start over here, I'm trying to paint. Nothing's happening. But as soon as I go through that window, you see what I mean now Control or command said, is undo. Very useful. Now I'm gonna go back to the rectangular marquee tool again because the chances of you making the exact selection you want first time are pretty slim. So you need to be able to enter the selection or take away from it. Now, if I hold down the shift key, you see that little plus sign appeared next to the cursor. That means I can add to it. Click drag, and I could either just select an area like this that's separate from the one I had originally. Or I could select an area like this that adds on to what I've already got. So that's how you add to a selection with any of the selection tools. And if I want to take away from it, I hold down the cult key, and now there's little minus sign next to it on with a minus sign. You can cut holes in your selection. You can start outside it and drag into it. Now if I want to get rid of the selection after I finished with it, there are two ways to do it. Ones unsafe ones safe. The unsafe way is clicked somewhere on the image. The trouble is, you may do something by doing that. You might have a tool selected that's going to wreck everything you're working on. So this safe way to do it is command or control D. And if I go out to the select menu, there it is de select command D on that is the safe way to get rid of a selection. 5. 4 Making Selections 2: don't go to get the second tool down, which is the elliptical marquee tool, this one and our click and drag. And there's an elliptical marquee. Ni could flatten it like that. I could make it tall and narrow, and if I held down the shift key, it's a perfect circle. If I had done that with a rectangle marquee tool, I would have had a perfect square. If I want to add to it, it's exactly the same as before. You hold down the shift key, you click and drag. If you want to subtract from it. That's exactly the same as before as well. You hold on the, uh, lke and you click and drag now, obviously enough, you can only have that create a perfect circle with the first click and drag. Subsequently. When you're holding down the shift key, it's an ellipse. It's up to you. How circular that addition is I'm going to do. Come on D again. I'll just show you the horizontal and vertical single row tools. So this is the horizontal tool. If I just go click, that is a single row of pixels horizontally right across the image. Come on, D if I use the vertical tool click that is a single row vertically like I said, they're not that useful to me. You may find them useful. Great. I don't now. The next tool down is also go to flout. This is the last, so tools at the top. We got the free and lasso tool. Then we have the polygon and then the magnetic lasso tool. So I'll start with a free hand. And if I just click and drag on, draw a shape when I let go, it's gonna join up the ends in a straight line. That's important, and I'll show you why. Let's say I want to add this lobe into the selection, and I mistakenly think that if I hold down the shift key and just do this, I've done it. Will know, because when I let go with the mouse, it's going to join up the ends with a straight line. So actually, what I want to do and I'll do come ons it again is start here and then click and drag all the way around so that when it joins it up with a straight line, it still does exactly what I want like that. That's important to know. The old key allows you to click and drag and cut chunks out of that again as before. Okay, that's the Freehand Lasso tool, the polygon lasso tool. A little bit different. I'm going to click on the image. And now I've glued one end of the lion to that point. So the idea with this tool you click, you move, you click, you move, you click, you move, you click. You move, you click. Don't click where you've already, Bean. The line is already there. If you do that, you'll end up tying or not. Now, plenty of people actually do that. They can't find the beginning again, and that would show me this. You're ready to join up the dots icon and they just go back and forth back and forth and end up just making a whole mess of interconnected lines on the screen. All you've got to do if that happens to you, is double click on that joins up the ends with a straight line 6. 5 Making Selections 3: So now go to the magnetic lasso tool, which is not my favorite. I have to say now that little circle is actually 10 pixels wide and I could change it, make it bigger or smaller. Inside that circle, it's gonna look for a contrast difference of 10% which isn't very much, so. It sure should pick up the difference between the cliffs and the sky behind it, and it's going to put down anchor points with a preset frequency of 57. You can change that as well. You can change all this stuff well, What that means is, if I start here on the cliff and I click and drag along the top of it, it's going to figure out where the edge is without me having to tell it. So I'll click and drag along, go down to end the cliff. Here, Woops and I go up in the sky and then back across, and then I'm going to double click, which also ends this one. Now that looks pretty good, doesn't it? What? It's not. I'm gonna hold down command and space spa now and zoom in click and drag. Now these are Coast Guard cottages. They look like Edwardian street houses. They're not. There's no electricity, there's no running water. Must have been kind of bleak. They do have chimneys, but this selection just cut them all off. And it proved these bushes right down to the ground as well. And if I hold down the space bar and then click and drag, that was a World War two pillbox, a machine gun post. And now that's history as well. Now that bit, that's my fault. But this bit well, I'm not sure if the magnetic tool did a very good job there or not, but the thing is, this is not accurate enough for me Now. I could play around with those numbers. Probably make it a lot more accurate, but life is short. I'm gonna do command or control zero to go back to a full image view, and I'm also going to do come onto Control D to get rid of the selection because there's a tool that does a much better job that I don't really have to mess around with. And it's this one, the Magic one tool. Now there's a couple of other tools on the fly out that I'll get to later. But for now, the magic one tool is fantastic. There's a tolerant setting up here on the options bar 15 where I click. It's gonna pick up that pixel and all the pixels adjacent to it that a 15 shades lighter or darker within that range contiguous is checked. It's only going to select pixels that are actually attached to the point that I click on like that. All those pixels are within 15 shades, lighter or darker than where I clicked and you can see where it stopped working. Those pixels go beyond 15. So if I hold down the shift key, which gives me the little plus sign again on I'm not going to click here, I'm going to click here where it stopped working like that. And then I click there and you gradually go through and you sort of clean up and you may end up with a couple little dots like these. But essentially it has a really good job. Now show you what it did up there with the Coast Guard cottages. Our chimneys survived. The Bush survived the World War two pillbox survived. This is great. I'm going to deliberately overdo it, though, so I'm going to click here now. Go. Bunch of the ocean selected. This often happens. You get slightly more than you want. How do you fix it? Well, one of the selection tools is a rectangle. Remember, On the rectangle has a horizontal top edge. If I start down here on the shingle, hold on the old key on our click and drag up into the cliff. And then we're gonna drag right out of the image into the grey area next to it on Dykan dragged down. And you see that selection lines moving down with me. And I can position that right on the horizon of the ocean. And now I'm gonna let go with a mouse first. And there is my selection of the sky. Now I've got it. What do I do with it? I'll show you 7. Pen selections: There's another way of making selections, which I thought I should in fairness show you, even though it's not one that I really use myself. And it's making selections with the pen tool, in other words, drawing around the shape that you want with a vector tool. Now you could then say that as a path of active path. But I prefer to conferred it into a selection, which is pixel based and usually much closer to what I want to do with an image. Anyway, here's a shape. It's on its own layer, and I've got the pencil selected. Now, when you select the pen tool up here on the options by, you've got a choice. Do you want to create a shape or a path or pixels while I'm doing the path, not pixels on? I don't want to create a shape, because if I created shape, it's going ever fill color in a stroke color, and I don't want that. I just wanted to be a a path with no fill or stroke. Now, the way you start with the pen Tal is you just put the cursor, we want to begin and you click. And that puts down a point now. If I want to go around this curve, the fewer points that I have on it, the smoother that curve is going to be. And if I want to curve when I draw, I click and I drag in this case out to the right and you can see the lion assuming the shape of the curve. It's pretty good, but it's not quite accurate. But that'll do for now. Then I let go. I'm going to bring the pen down to here and just click. And that curve is actually a little bit too big, so I have to come in a just set later. Then I'm going to come down to here and then click and drag create another curve there. Now, I don't want the next part of the lion to be curved. I want a straight line segment, so I'm gonna hold in the old key and click on the anchor point on that deletes the handle from the next chunk of the parts. So the next piece of the bath will be straight, so I could just go click than are quick and drag here, and they're not just click here pretty good. This part will be straight. This part will be straight. Click and drag again to create the curve. Come up to here and click and wait a second, then drag. If you click on Wait, you can see what you need to create. That's about right now, this is a pretty evenly shaped piece. So if I click there, hopefully it should fit straight away now, Didn't Uppal. There we go, and I'm going to come and join it out now. This isn't going to be right. It's not bad, actually. Okay, so there's my path. No, it's not completely accurate. So now I'd want to edit it and to edit it. I need either of these two tools. This is the path selection tool. This will mean that the whole part is selected and everything will move together. And this is the direct selection tool. So this means if I click away from the past to begin with, nothing is selected. If I click back on it, all those anchor points are now hollow on. That means I can select them individually. The handles appear, and then I can drag on the handles to refine the part, So by shortening that handle, it's put this path off the line. I'll go back to the pen tal, hold on the old key and then click and drag and pull out handles. And I really more interested in the line above this anchor point than the line below it, which I'll come on to in a minute, are usually just go round and one at a time fix the anchor points now to get back to the direct selection tool. I just held down the command key or the control key on that toggles me straight back into it without having to leave the pen tal. That's not gonna be right. So I'm going to just click here where there's no anchor point, an ad one, and that's another feature of the pen tool. If you click where there's no anchor point, it'll create one. If you click where there is an anchor point, it will delete it. No, I'm gonna have to toggle back into the direct selection tool again with control or command . That's pretty good. Now click on this anchor point and shorten this handle. Not bad. This one's OK. This one could use just a little bit off the bottom. I sound like I'm a barber, and that is going to need handles pulled out from it. So alky again. And if you pull in the direction the path was made, you don't tire. Not if you don't pull in the direction the path was made. Guess what you do time? Not so That's pretty good. It's not quite accurate. It'll do the's. Okay, this one not bad. Well, I think I'll just headed down a tiny bit. Here we go. OK, now I've got my part. Let's say it's perfect. It's not. But that's a feature of the pen tal. You spend 10 minutes drawing with a pen tal. You spend the next 20 minutes editing what you just drew. No, I've got the path. What do I do with it? Well, it shows up in the parts panel as a work path. If it's not selected, it's not selected. If I click on that, you can immediately see the path in the image, even though the part isn't selected so I can see the anchor points. Nevertheless, it is selected, so not gonna work path. I can go to the options button here and say make selection. And in this window I can tell it whether out a feathered radius I don't and okay And then I could carry on and save It is a selection and use it in exactly the same way. You can use all of the other selections. And if I want to edit the shape and do it again, I've still got my work path in the paths panel. Some people do all of their selection work using the pen Tal Another's like me. Don't It's entirely up to you whatever works. 8. 6 Saving selections: There are two ways to save a selection in photo shop. I'll show you both of them. So the 1st 1 I'm going to go over to the channels window, not channels refers to the color channels that make up an image. And this image is what's called RGB. There are three kind of channels. Red, green and blue. They're transparent, the overlay each other. So we see all the combinations of the colors. I could click on the channels on their own. So there's the Red Channel. There's the Green Channel. There's the Blue Channel. Do you notice? A sort of characteristic here? The Blue Channel looks like the early morning shot. The Green Channel is maybe midday on the Red Channel is the early evening shot. And if I rented the images grayscale, which I could on maybe did a little adjustment to fix the contrast levels, I could end up with the early morning, the lunchtime or the evening shot or from one image. But I'm going to go to the RGB Channel at the top, which is the Composite Channel shows me the whole thing and down at the bottom is this icon , and if I hover over it. It says Save selection's channel. And if I click on it, that is my selection. No, I don't need to make this visible, because if I do, it does this, which is horrible. And I don't need to click on it to select it, because if I do that, it does this, which is also horrible. What I need to do is use it on the way use it is like this. If I do command or control D to get rid of that selection I wanna have to do is hold down the command or control key and click on the Channel Bang and there's my selection again. So this is a very good way to save selections. Another good way to save selections is in the layers window. Some people find layers very confusing. You're not going to because you're going to get it, because I'm going to try and explain it really well. So this is the image, the background layer background layers, a kind of special. You can't drag something behind them. You can't got holes in them. They are the background, the fundamental bottom layer. But while I've got a selection active of I Do Commander Control J. It copies the selected area into a new layer. No, I'm going to click on the I for the background to turn it off. There is laia, one visible on screen. This checkerboard Patton means it's transparent. So all I've got on that layer is a copy of the sky, and it's identical to the sky on the background layer. I could turn layer one on and off, and you won't see any difference at all because there is no difference. And if I wanted to load that shape as a selection, I could hold down the command of the control key. Now here, you've got to be careful. You got a click on the little thumbnail image with a channel you can click anywhere in the channel with the Commander Control key held down to reload the selection. When you're using a layer, you've got to command click on that little like on. And then your selection reappears. Fantastic. No, I don't actually need this election because in a way, I've already got it 9. 7 Levels and History: So now I could change this sky without affecting anything else in the image. And what I'm gonna do is go to the image menu and down to adjustments and levels. The levels is usually where I start off making adjustments with pretty much every image. And if I click on that, this is what I've got in the Levels window. I'm going to drag it down here so it's out of the way of the sky. This is called a hist a gram, and it tells me where the pixels in my selected layer happened to be. Are they dark? This is the black point. Are they bright? This is the white point or are they in the middle now? This says all the pixels in the layer that I've got selected are to the light side of the midpoint, which is not a surprise. There. The sky. If I want to make the sky brighter, I could grab the white point and drag it towards that pixel pile and you see it gets brighter if I want to make the docks in it. DACA I could grab this one and drag it in towards the pixel pile. I just added contrast. I don't usually mess around with the middle slider until I've made some adjustment with a black and the white slider. If I drag the middle slider to the right, it means more of the pixels are to the left of it, which means darker than the midpoint. And if I drag it to the left more, the pixels are to the right of it, so things get brighter. If you were happy with that, you click. OK, now, if I click on the background layer to select it, because if you want to work on a layer, you've gotta have it selected. If I wanted to do something to the cliffs and the beach in the ocean now, I could open up levels with Commander Control L. And this time I'll drag it up into the sky area, and you can see that there's a much bigger pixel pile in the esta graham and it goes all the way out to black, and it goes all the way out to white, which means I don't mess with them. I leave them, but I will mess with a mid slider if I drag that slightly to the right. It's gonna make the image a bit darker, maybe a bit richer, and I prefer that was before it's got a bit more density. So I'm going to okay that now if I turn the sky off, you'll see a difference. This is the sky on the background layer. This is a sky on layer one. Now, if I wanted, I could go to the history window. And if I scroll right up to the top, you'll see there's a snapshot. This is the image when I opened it. But right now I'm here. This is the last thing I did to the image records, everything you do. And if I want, I could take a snapshot of this state where clicking on the camera. So now, up at the top, there are two snapshots on. I can go back to how the image looked originally and I could go back to how it is now and decide if the adjustment I've made is something I want to keep. Almost any image you open. You'll be able to improve it 10. 8 Flattening Layers: you've got to be careful with the history window that cause if I clicked, say there. I've just gone back to that point of the image. All the states before that point are sort of alive on all the states. After that point, a grade out because if I kept on working now, I would be building on this state on one of these. They would become a timeline. That never happened, and I'd lose them. Similarly, if I save the image and closed it when they opened it back up again, there won't be any history states in history window. So the history window is only active while you're working on an image, try and remember that, because otherwise you're going to get caught out. I'm going to go right back to the top again and click on Snapshot one. That's how I want the image to be. Now I've got two layers. How about if I want to say this as a J pig? You can't have a two layer J pic doesn't work, so I've got to flatten this down into one layer again. Now if I clicked on the options button, which is this guy here in the top right corner. There are three options that relate to the layers in the layers window. I could say Merge Down, which merges the selected layer down into the ones below it. I could say merge Visible, which merges all the layers, but it keeps transparency there around the edge. If you've got it or I could say flattened image now, flatten Image doesn't have a short cut, the other to do. I'm going to choose flatten image on That means now. I've only got one layer. So if I want to now save this A to J. Peg, I could go to the file menu and say Save as which also has a short cut and I'll give it a different name are called it Fossil Beach to because I've already got something called Fossil Beach. The extension it's trying to give it. PSD stands for Photoshopped. Document PST normally means that there's more than one layer now. There used to be a few minutes ago, but now there's only one, so I don't want to PST. I want a J pig great longer to click on save, and then I get the chance to choose a quality level. Now, if I choose 12 maximum, there won't be any degradation to the image. Adul. If I chose anything less than 12 there would be some. Now I'm gonna click, OK, and I'm done. 11. 9 Curves Adjustments: contrast adjustments are one of the two main adjustments you can do to black and white images, and certainly you want to adjust contrast, sometimes in a color image, and it's the same process. But it's easier to demonstrate with black and white. So I'm going to open up the image I want, which is in gray adjustment, and it's cooled. Would you believe low contrast if I open up levels, image adjustments, levels, you'll see that that would be quite easily fixed by putting the black point in and pulling the white point in, and there we would have our image. But I'm going to show you a different method, which you can use when sometimes this is an inappropriate way to proceed. For example, if you've got a pile at the black point, then it comes down into a very low sort of U shape and then up again towards the white point. That kind of adjustment is impossible to do in levels, and you have to do it using the curves window, which is what I'm going to do now. So a council out of this and then go image adjustments, coves. Now there's a shortcut. There is welcome and M so I'm going to use that instead. And you can see that in the background. We have a silhouette off the same history Graham we had in the Levels window. Except here. It's reversed. White is on the left and black is on the right, and there's a diagonal lion running across the entire image. You can work in line mode, or you can work in pencil mode, which means you redraw the line, the shape that you want. I'm going to stay on line mode. Who is? That's the easiest one to work with, and what I normally do is I click in the center, and that puts a dark down in the center. The line will now rotate around that dot when I pull it somewhere else. So I grab it about here and pull down and to the right, you see what's happening to the image. This is the light half of the image, and I just emphasize the lights. If I pull the line up like this, I'm also emphasizing the darks. You see that change? No, I found with the coast window. It's best not to do too much at once. if you think it needs a little more, okay, it try it again. Come on em click in the middle, dragged down into the right to emphasize the lights, drag up until the left to emphasize the dark's. And look at that. I've added contrast. Now, if I wanted to make the image lighter or darker, I could move the midpoint down to the right to make it lighter up to the left to make it darker. This is just like moving the middle. Slater in the Levels window. Normally, you don't need to do that very much at all. The main thing is to pull this line into a sort of an s bend, just a slight expound to emphasize what you've done. Don't flatline it. Don't do this. If you do that, then assuming that each one of these squares represents 10% of the data, I just white it out. The top 30% of the data everything that used to be from 30% greater. Zero is now white, and it's gonna be hard to get it back, so try not to do that. Keep that curve off the bottom, keep the curb off the top, and then you'll end up with a decent image 12. 10 Fixing Colour 1: How about if you've got a color image that's completely bent out of shape and you need to try and fix it? Sometimes it's really easy. Now. Gonna go command. Oh, again to open an image and what I want now is in color adjustment, and it's called River. Clearly, there's something rather wrong. Now that is actually a photo. Doesn't really look like it does it. I'm gonna make that bigger. I could do command plus or control Plus on that zooms me in, but it seems me in a bit too far. If you look down the bottom left hand corner of this image, you see that number 200? Well, just before this, it was 100. Now I can highlight that on Put him whatever number I want. I'm going to say 1 60 then press enter and there's my image 160% to make a color adjustment . Usually I go over to the adjustments panel, which is over here on the right, and I click on that now. An adjustment layer, as it's called, is something that I can turn on and off, and they can come back and adjust it and I can also create a mask on it to protect part of the image and allow the effect to change some other parts of the image. I'll come back and cover these in more that later, but for now I'm going to click on this pair of scales. This is called color balance, and in this window you can see scion and red are opposite ends of that slider. They are, in fact, color opposites, So a magenta in green, so a yellow and blue. Now that's interesting, because here was cyan, magenta and yellow. We've got three components of the four color process cyan, magenta, yellow and black. And over here we got red, green and blue. Now you can get black with red, green and blue because they're made of light on. All you do is turn the lights off, whereas if you got cyan, magenta and yellow, they don't mix together to create black. It's a very dark color, but it's not black, so you have to add black for the deep shadows and definition. Anyway, this image is to green, and it's important to just look at the image and relax and think, What's wrong with this image, and there's no point saying, Oh, it's out of focus or it's over exposed. The main thing is it's too green, and if we can't fix that, we might as well go do something else. So the first thing I'm gonna do is drag this slider over towards Magenta. Well, that was pretty easy, wasn't it? On that sometimes all you have to do if you've got what's called a color cast, where the images to blue or to read or to yellow this is the window to fix it. If you've got an image where only one part of it is affected, that's more difficult and will come back to it. This is what I just added. This is the adjustment layer. I'll close this panelas well if I wanted to adjust the adjustment. This is the adjustment, and if I double click on it, it opens up that window again, and I could carry on making adjustments if I decided that I wanted to only affect part of the image. I would paint a mask on this area and I can turn it on and off. My original image is underneath it unchanged The adjustment layer is on top of it, and I can adjust it until I'm happy now. Assuming that I was happy with this, I would have to combine these two layers into one in order to say that as something other than what's called a PST file PST stands for Photoshopped, document usually means you got more than one layer. But if you want to say that as a J. Peg put it on a website, you've got to flatten those layers down. So what I'll do is click on the options button and say, Flatten image and now they're one. And I could say that now is a J peg or a tiff or any other kind of image that I wanted. 13. 11 Clone Stamp and Healing Brush: next, we're going to look at the clone stamp tool, which is amazingly good for fixing damage to images. So I'm going to use command O as before, and I want the image called Temple that says PST. There's more than one layer and I'm going to open it. And sure enough, there are two layers. This is a photo of the mob body temple in India, and this isn't actually the original picture. I fixed the top layer. The bottom layer is the original picture, so watch in the bottom, right, an area of this image on. I'll turn this layer off and there's a blue bin Now that bin had to go. Nobody asked me to take it away, but I decided I had to move it because it really got in the way of the image. So I'm going to zoom in. And if you hold down command or control and the space bar the curse, it turns into a zoom tool. Now the way they use it is to just click and drag slightly and then let go when you want to stop, and if you want to move the image, you just hold down the space bar on its own. On that turns the cursor into a grab a hand. Then you can click and drag on. Move the image to where you want it to be. If I turn on that top layer, you'll see what I did to fix the image, and it took quite a while. I showed this image to a bunch of students, and pretty much before I had finished explaining what I was going to do. One of them said they done it, so I asked him to show me and I'll show you what they did because I think it's fantastic. So I'll turn off this image again. There's the Blue Bin on. I'll select the background layer. You can't work on a layer unless it's both visible and selected. Now this is the clone stamp tool. It shares its flout with a patent stamp tool, which I'm not going to use. But the clone stamp tool is really good. First of all, that is a brush that circle. My brush is huge, so I want to make it much smaller. No, I could come up to the options by here. That's the size of my brush. The slightly soft edge to that, blob says. It's a soft edged brush. If I click on that little arrow, it tells me the size. There's a slider, the hardness. There's a slider. Well, there's a better way than using this. Just put that circle where you can see it on. Then tap on the bracket keys to the right of the letter P on the keyboard. The left bracket key makes it smaller. The right bracket key makes it bigger brush size of 40 pixels. If I want to make it harder yourself dry, hold down the shift key and then tap on the left bracket key to make it softer on the right bracket key To make it harder, there are only four steps between zero and 100. And with the clone stamp tool, you almost always wanted to be at zero. Not gonna make it 20 pixels wide and totally soft. There's the circle now, in order to tell photo shop which part of the image I want to copy You hold on the whole key and click so holding the bulky and I'm going to click just there at the top of that bevel. Now there's a battle and a flat plane and this sort of round area. And over here we've got around area and a flat plane and a bevel. So the shape of those two pillars is identical. The coloring is not on. That's what stopped me from using this method. When I did it, I thought the color was two different, but it didn't stop this student. You put the cursor exactly on top of where you want to start painting, and a little ghost image of where you old clicked appears within that circle. So it's easy to line it up, then uses click and start dragging, and I'm not letting go. And if you look over to the right, you will see that there's a little white cross following me around, and that's telling me where it's picking up the data from, and it's just painting this whole thing out. How about that? Now? These round areas are identical, and they shouldn't be. All the others are different. So if I know, go all click in the middle of this one top riot Ault click and come back down. I can paint that one into this one. Like that problem solved. The clone stamp tool is a really, really, really good, too now for the next tool. I'm going to open up this other image, which is called healing Brush. That's a bit of a giveaway, and this represents a red car in the sun, so part of its illuminated by the sun part of it's in the shadow. If you want the healing brush tool, you'll find it under this fly out there. It is the healing brush tool. Now it works in a very similar way to the clone stamp tool. I'm gonna make the brush of its smaller, but you can have a completely hard edge. Rusher doesn't matter, and I'm gonna old click here in the top right corner. So Ault click. So it's picked up that shade of red, but not gonna hover over this and click and drag and I painted the whole thing out, and I can paint out all the damage on this picture without having to redefine the point that I want to copy from. And it doesn't seem to make any difference that I picked the color in the deep shadow area . How come it's kind of magic? There are some images that you could not fix with a clone stamp tool, for instance, a car with a scratch on it. Every pixel is a different color, and what this is actually doing is not picking up the color at all. It's picking up the light and the texture. The Connor is being picked up around the edge of the circle that you've defined as your brush size. Now, if I let go, there's white at one point on the edge of that brush and when I let go. But there's a sort of spray of white, so I don't want that. I'm going to paint the whole thing out again. Like so, the two together, the healing brush tool in the clone stamp tool. I mean that you can fix just about any damage to any image or you're going to need is time and patience. 14. 12 Hue and Saturation: Here's a picture of some organic shallots on one of them, clearly is the wrong color. Now there's only one layer. However, If I go to the channels window, the shape has been saved as a channel, and if I command or control click on the channel somewhere it loads that shape is a selection. So now what I do would affect what's inside. That selection on what's outside it will remain unaffected. There are two ways to approach fixing this using hue and saturation. One is to look under the image adjustments menu. If I use this, I'm actually changing the pixels on this layer. So if I made a mistake, I'd have to come back and fix it, which may be quite laborious. The other way to deal with it is to use an adjustment layer. So if I go to adjustments on that one's hue and saturation, it tells you at the top of the panel what each one of these is. So if I click on that, there's my hue and saturation window. Now it's going to make an adjustment layer, which I could delete and do something else if it didn't work out. So this is a much less destructive way of making changes to images. No I three sliders here hue, saturation, lightness and the hue slider would affect everything in the image. No, in this case, I've only got one area selected, and it's starting is red. If I drag the slider slightly to the right, it should become orange, which is exactly what I wanted to be. So I'll try it. And sure enough, that fixed the image beautifully, so it's easy enough to do. But let's try it with a more difficult image. Both these people have read faces. Unfortunately, he's also got a red coat and she's got a pink dress. If I made a hue and saturation adjustment to the entire image, it would affect both those as well and probably lots of other things, too. So I need to select their faces and put them on a separate layer and work on them there. Now you might think, Oh, that's tricky. It's not. I'm going to be very loose about it, So I'm going to get the free hand lasso tool and I'll start drawing around his face, and I'm not going to close to it now for her face. I'm starting out in the gray area. You remember I said, I always pull the bottom right hand corner of the frame out. This is why, if I hold down the shift key, a little plus sign appears next to the cursor. Now there's nothing actually here for it to select. But it's in the right mode, and if I drag it into the image up the lace on the left round through her here, down through the lace, the other side, and back out into the grey area. Now I'm gonna let go with a mouse first, and now my selection goes right to the edge of the image. Now that's a fairly hard edge selection. I want to soften it a bit, because then the effect of what I do is going to be even harder to see. So I'm going to go up to the select and mosque button up here on the options bar, and that opens the selector mass window. There are a variety of different views you can choose from onion skin marching ants overlay on black on white, lots of different choices. If you choose on why it you can change the opacity of the background. This shows me my selection area pretty clearly, and I want to feather it. So I'm going to drag the further slider over until that number reads close to 10. It doesn't have to be exact 9.9. That'll do it. No, If I click OK, I'm back to my original picture. But now this election has a soft edge. And to copy that selected area to new layer, you hold on commando control and press J. And there it is on the new layer, and I'll prove it. I'll turn the background layer off, and there's my selection with a fuzzy edge. Usually when I make changes to images, I don't leave it like this and make the changes. I turn on the background because that gives me contacts, the whole thing. Now, this last selected the faces. I'm going to go to adjustments, hue and saturation. Now, if I drag the huse later on, I want read to go orange. So again I'm going to drag it to the right. Her hair goes green, so that's not gonna work. So what I'll do instead is tell the master list up here that I only want to effect reds on that brackets off an area down here, which tells me I'm only going to be changing this kind of color. I'm not going to be affecting greens or blues or purples at all. So now if I drag the slider, it will only affect reds and her head doesn't go green, and now their faces are exactly how they should be. 15. 13 Sharpening with Unsharp Mask: Sometimes you need to sharpen an image because it's too blurry. In fact, most images benefit from a little bit of sharpening, but I'm gonna give you a fairly severe example. So I'll go to sharpening and open up bluebells, which is a nice little picture. But little is what it is. I'll zoom in a bit with Commander Control Plus, and you can see that image is kind of soft now. Photoshopped can't really sharpen it. To really sharpen an image means you're showing more detail than you used to show. Or how can photo shop do that? It's not a camera. It's not pointing at the bluebells in the words the pictures already being taken, and here it is in photo shop. So Photoshopped has to cheat on the way it cheats is. It looks for edges, and it boosts the contrast along the edges by a certain amount. So the amount is the amount of sharpening. Then you've got a pixel value for how far away from the edges that effects spreads. That's called the Radius. And then you got a threshold, which determines what range of colors in the image is affected. So I'm going to go to filter sharpen uncharted mask, which is a very strange name for a sharpening filter. But there you go. And there are those three values amount, radius and threshold. Now these are the default settings. You've got a preview button so you can turn that on and off. And if I put the amount up to say, 100 did you see that? And we turned the preview on and off. What does look sharp? It isn't it, but actually, all it's doing is boosting the contrast along edges. And it's a very small radius, one pixel, so you can barely see it. But you do see the result. If I had an image which needed a lot more sharpening than this, I might run into a problem because you can't sharpen an image too far before those edges. That radius becomes clearly visible, and if you can see it here on the screen, you're going to see it way mawr in print, for example, so that wouldn't work. But let me show you a cheat. I'm going to cancel out of this. I'll zoom in a bit more. I'm going to make a rectangular selection of the left hand half of the image roughly on. I'm going to sharpen the heck out of that filter sharpen uncharged mosque. But instead of 50 I'm going to put that up to 250 on instead of one. I'm gonna put that up to 10 zero for threshold means every color, every pixel in the image is being affected. And as you can see, I have totally destroyed the image because this is an RGB image and all the channels red, green and blue contained color information on the old just got bent. Nevertheless, I'm going toe okay, that now I can reverse the polarity of this selection by saying in verse, That's command or control shift and I are now the right hand. Hard for the images selected. The left hand isn't in verse, incidentally, is a command you'll find underneath the select menu. Almost anything to do with selections is under the select menu. Now, in this one, I'm going to do the same adjustment. But first I'm going to switch the color mode of this image from being RGB two being lab lab color L. A B stands for lightness A and B. Don't mess with the channels because your park your image upper tree faster than you can believe. Possible image mode. A lab color. Nothing changed I didn't expect it to. Lab is actually slightly wider color range than RGB, so every color in an RGB image is already a member of the lab color group, so I didn't expect any changes. But if I go over to the channels panel No, I've got lightness A and B. Now the A channel is everything that was green or magenta. If it's green, it's a darker gray of its magenta. It's a lighter grey, and the B channel does the same, but for blue and orange, so all the counter in the image is contained within those two. But there's no lightness at all. If I go to the Lightness channel, you can see it's just a great scale picture. There's no color, so I could sharpen it without bending the color. So while the Lightness Channel is selected, I'll go back up to filter back down to sharpen back to Owen Sharpe Mask, and it's remembered the values look, they're a match, but I'm gonna click OK, and I'm going to click on the lab channel at the top. That's the composite channel of everything, and you can see the colors on the right did not get blown out. So even though it's a very stylized image, I could conceivably use It was on the left. Now that's gone a little bit too far. So lab mode will sometimes allow you to sharpen an image mawr than you otherwise would be able to, and that's one of its main purpose is in photo shop. 16. 14 Color to Greyscale: If you want to convert a color image to gray scale, there's a couple of different ways to do it, and photo shop is okay with one of them. But it will try and warn you away from the other one. I'll show you what I mean. I'll open up in image, and it's going to be squares PST not going to enlarge that Commander Control. Plus, did you notice that the frame expanded as well? And that's because I've got a preference checked. If I go and find it, Photoshopped preferences and I'm going to click on tools. Zoom resize is Windows not? That's unchecked. Then, as I zoom in, the image would increase in size, but the frame will stay. Heart Waas and I would have to expand or contract that manually. But if you've got this box checked, the frame would expand or contract as you zoom in or zoom out of the image. Now, the way that photo shop is not keen on is this damage mode gray scale, and you get this message saying to control the conversion, use image adjustments, black and white. That particular address is for a destructive adjustment. If I want to do it non destructively. I could use a black and white adjustment layer over here. Anyone going to say, discard, which just ignores this and turns the image into gray scale? And there's not much else I can do with it to change it. So I'm going to show the other way now, so I'll undo all this with Come on, the controls, ed. Now it's back into being color, and I'm not going to use the destructive method. I'll use the adjustment layer, and it's this one black and white, and they're sliders for lots of different colors. So, for example, if I thought well, the Yellow Square needs to be brighter. That square was yellow. Okay, read and you see that two of the squares air changing now. That's because one of them was red and the other one was magenta. So I can change the values from a gente I can change the values for red. I've got scion here. I've got a blue slider. If this had been a color image of something else, like a landscape scene, then I could adjust the grayscale values of the different colors in the original image to create something closer to what I'd want. That's the benefit of using the adjustment layer to do it. So now that you've got the idea, I'll close this and I'll close this. So here's a practical example. I'll open up the image. Cold, bright dog. Cute little guy, huh? No, I'm gonna zoom out, and I've already set the frame to move along with the image When I zoom out. So, like that, not going to create a duplicate image defecate. And I'm just going to say OK, and I'll put the new one next to it. And I'll also zoom out of that so they're more or less the same size now, the one on the left. I'm just going to convert that into gray scale without any kind of adjustment to begin with . So image mode, gray scale. And of course, Photoshopped doesn't really want me to do it this way. And I'm just going to ignore that and say Discard. And there it is, Grace Girl. Often when you convert a color image to gray scale contrast is something you lose because the visual contrast is actually provided by color a lot of the time. So in grayscale it's lost that. So I'm going to use Commander Control L toe open up levels and you can see there's this huge pile of stuff in the middle. That's the floor. There's a tapering off of data. There's hardly any pixels of any of these shades of gray. I'm just going to drag that in a bit. That'll brighten the highlights a little. The shadows go right out to the black end, so I'm going to grab the middle, Slater, and drag it slightly till the left. Next, the floor brighter tried dragon, its nightly to the right, makes the floor darker. Adds a bit of contrast. Good. Okay, now, if I open up curves Commander control M for Mother. There's the same hissed a gram in reverse that I just had in Devil's. I'll click in the middle and I'll drag this down a little bit, and that's going to add a little more contrast. I think that'll over do it somehow. So I'm just going to click OK, and that's about as far as I could take it with a straight conversion to gray scale. Now I'm going to convert the image on the right using a black and white adjustment layer, which is what Photoshopped recommends. So first I'm going to drag the layers window over here so we can see it. Then I'll open up adjustments and choose black and white. So now I've got a black and white adjustment layer and I've also got all the sliders here. So how about first of all, I can change the color of the floor? Ah, whole lot, Much more than I could. Any image on the left side, under the dark in the floor. Then here is the yellow slider. That's the yellow part. I could make this brighter or darker, entirely up to me. Green. Let's turn that too dark. No, I've got a totally different appearance in this image than I do on the image on the left where I got very limited control. Now, once you've got this, if you wanted, you could just merge down with Commander Control. E. On the selected layer is emerging down into the background. If I wanted to put this image on a website, now would be the time to save. It is a J pick. I would keep it as rgb if I turn it to gray scale like this one on the left, you cannot put it on a website. A website is an RGB environment. It would look great, but it wouldn't be. It's actually still a color image. It will still support color. If I wanted to save it as a grayscale image and print it, I would have to converted to grayscale. Then I could just go image mode, gray scale and say, Yeah, I know, discard, And it doesn't change it a tool in appearance. But now it says it's gray and the eight refers to the bit depth of each pixel. It means there are 256 shades of gray in that image, and that's usually plenty. 17. 15 Shadow Highlight: Have you ever taken a photo where the foreground is too dark and kind of silhouetted against a bright background, and you've wished that you could have illuminated the foreground, maybe with what's called a fill flash a low level of flash that happens as you take the shot, and it just gives the foreground a bit of extra illumination. Well, that's a kind of substitute for fill. Flash in photo shop, I'll show you Commander Control. Oh, and I want this image is called to dark. You'll see why. No, I want to add a little bit of light to the full ground on. What I can do is go image adjustments because, alas, there is no adjustment layer for this particular effect yet on I'll go down to Shadows highlights. Now it's automatically set to brighten the shadows by 35%. It's not darkening the highlights it all. Yet I can change that level. If I think that looks a little bit strange, I could maybe turn it down a little bit. I could dark in the highlights a little. Let's bring up the sky some more. If I click on show more options, there's actually quite a range of options here, as well as the amount for shadows and highlights. I've got a tone range and I've got a radius. If you darken the highlights too much, you might end up with a kind of a halo around them that looks a little disturbing. It's not really happening in this picture, but you can turn the radius down. It's happening a little bit on the right. You see how that's darker in the center, but lighter on the edges. That's the kind of thing. I mean, if I turn the radio down, it'll even it out around the whole thing. Then you have color adjustments. No, this is basically saturation. If I turn it up, everything gets more colorful. If I turn it down, it becomes effectively gray scale. We're not quite. There's a little hint of color, but not very much. And I can also change whereabouts. I want the mid tones to be calculated. If I want, I can save the settings that I've created here and apply them by loading them on another image. That's kind of a batch process. Usually, though, images are different enough to where I want to adjust them manually myself rather than relying on the batch process. But sometimes if you got a lot of images that are very similar, that can save you a lot of time. So I'm going to okay that Then I could perhaps open curves, Commander Control, end for mother, click in the center, drag that into a slight s spend. And I've added a little bit of drama to it by increasing the contrast, I could drag that up slightly as well. That'll brighten the highlights, which isn't going to do very much for me is this could have burned out the sky. So I think I'll leave that on, Okay, And that's how you get shadows and highlights to work for you. If I click on history and I make a snapshot of how it looks now, now the top we've got two states. This is the original. If I click on it, that's how the image looked to begin with on. That's how it looks now. Which do you prefer 18. 16 The Perspective Crop tool: I'm going to show you the perspective Crop tool, which should you need It is a really, really useful tool. So Commander control. Oh, and it's cool painting. So there's a painting on the wall and it's angled away from us. The perspective crop tool is on the same flout as the crop tool, and there it is, the 2nd 1 down, and then you click roughly where you want to start and then move across. So I'm going to draw essentially a grid across the top of this painting. No, I'm zoomed out quite a bit when I've clicked, so I don't know if we're a position. Those handles is accurate. So I'm gonna find out. I'll hold on Command and Space bar or controlled in Space bar on a Windows machine. There's my zoom, tool, click and drag, and I can zoom in and check I Congrats that handle and drag it away, which allows me to see exactly where I want to put it on. Then drag it back in. I can scroll across maybe down of it, grab that handle and drag it away. I don't want any of that shadow, so I'm gonna put the handle right there. Then I'll scroll down. Don't drag that away. And again, I don't want any of the shadow. Then I scrolled across and well, I can snake that bit of the painting. There we go. And then, Commander control zero to come back out to full screen view. I've now designated the area that I want. Then you just press enter. How about that? I've got a little bit of a light area down the left hand side. The right side looks pretty good. So I'm going to get the regular crop tool and just drag that handled in a little bit on them. Press enter. Cool. Now I've got rid of that light area. Now I'm gonna bevel the edges and hang it on a wall. I'm going to go up to the image menu and down to canvas size. And here's a grid of nine squares and my image currently is in the middle. Now, if I wanted to enlarge this, I could say Tell me what the actual measurements are or give me a relative adjustment, in which case I could say, Well, I'm going to increase the with by whatever on the hide by whatever and then it can position the image where I want. So if I wanted to add all the extra height at the bottom, I'd move the image up to the top. If I gave this extra with, it would add half on the left and half on the right. But it would add all the additional light of the bottom similar. If I click there, it'll still out half the width on the left and half on the right. But it would now have all the additional height at the top. So I'm going to say, Let's put the image right in the middle and if I extend it, I could tell it what I wanted to extend with. However, I wanted to extend with transparency and right now it doesn't give me that option. So I'm going to cancel out of here, get out of the corrupt, too, and make a new layer and I can make a new layer by clicking on that icon at the bottom of the layers panel. So it's there, it's empty and it's selected. No, I don't want this to be the background anymore. I want to pull this one down below it because this is going to be the wall on. We're gonna paint on the wall using a Grady int, so I gotto unlock the background layer. Fortunately, it's easy. All you have to do is double click and then say, OK, on it unlocked. I can drag this one down below it. No problem on because there's nothing on this layer. When I go to image canvas size, it doesn't give me an option for an extension color. It's just going to extend what I've already got. So this tells me the size that my images right now if I switch two centimeters 81.99 93.98 OK, so I'm going to add a relative amount off, Ah, 100 centimeters for with which means 50 on each side and 100 centimeters for height, which means 50 about 50 below. Okay, and there's my image. And if I choose command or control zero, there's the whole thing. Normally, the visual center is higher than the actual center, so the painting, if it's dead center, which it is, may look fractionally too low. So I'm going to select the painting layer and then get the move tool, and then move it up a little bit. If I tap on the up arrow key, it moves up very slowly. If I hold down the shift key in tap on the up arrow key, it moves up a little bit faster. So that's good. Now I'm going to give it a slightly beveled edge, so I'll go to effects. And she was Beverly in in Boss. And I'm going to choose a chisel hard bevel, an increase the size of it quite a lot. And the depth is okay. Now, this is whereabouts. The light is hitting it from. I'm gonna move that over to the top left corner. There we go. So now we've got a light source hitting the beveled edge of the painting from the top left . I'm gonna drag that round a little bit further, I think. Okay, I'm happy with that. 19. 17 Colors and Gradients 1: I'm about ready to paint the wall behind the painting. But before I do, let me just explain to you a little bit about these sort of sub layers. Effects that you've added will be listed here. You can turn them all off if you just click on the I for effects, or you can turn off individual effects. If you want to close down these sub layers, you can do that, too. You can also easily copy any one of these or all of them to a new layer. So I show you that if I click on the painting layer and then click on the new layer icon, the new layer comes in directly above the painting layer. Now I'm going to get the elliptical selection tool and draw a smaller lips appear in the top, left no one to choose a color, so I'm going to click on the foreground Color chip, the black chip that opens the color picker window. You can use any one of four methods to numerically identify your color. HSB, which is hue, saturation and brightness. RGB CME. Like a and lab. You've also got Hexi decimal down here. If you're creating a color for a website. The idea is that you click in the rainbow to determine the blue or the green, or the red or whatever you want. So if I click on green, then you click in the big square toe. Identify the exact color. Now this big square shows you increasing saturation going from left to right and increasing gray go from top to bottom. So the top left corner we have white at the bottom left corner. We have black. If I click up near the top right hand corner, that is going to be an RGB color. I couldn't print that. That's too bright to print. It's brighter than the white of the paper. Nevertheless, it seems to say, Oh, yeah, you could print that thes air, the tents you need. You could do that. No, you couldn't. This little warning thing tells me I couldn't. Now it's hard to see. But inside that little squares the color right, actually get if I click on that pretty driving comparison, huh? That's unfortunately what usually happens when you go from RGB two c m i k. It looks kind of dull and washed out. Anyone going to pick a fairly dense forest green and click OK, and there's my color if I want to fill the selection with a foreground color. Ault Backspace is the short cut. If I wanted to fill it with a background color, command or control, backspace is the short cut. So I'm gonna fill it with the foreground color old backspace, and I'm going to de selected Commander Control D. Now, if I want to apply exactly the same bevel in In Boss to that ellipse, I hold on the old key and then drag and drop. I could have picked up any number of effects. If I wanted the whole lot. I would have dragged the effects layer up. If I wanted an individual effect. I would've dragged bevel and emboss up and you can see it's got exactly the same. Bevel is the painting and the same light source, but I didn't actually want that. I just wanted to show you about it, so I'm going to drag it into the trash and delete it 20. 18 Colors and Gradients 2: So now I am ready to paint the wall and I'm going to choose the Grady int tool on. There are five different brushes I could use. Now the left one is linear. To show you these, I'm gonna turn off the painting layers so it doesn't get in the way, and I'll select the wall layer. So currently I've got a greedy int of green toe white that's my foreground to background colors and the linear brush. And if I click and drag right click to begin with, it will paint the green on. That will gradually changed the white, which is where I let go like this. If I didn't like that, I wanted to try another angle. I could just click and drag and do it again because both of my colors are solid colors. I'm completely repainting the entire image area when I click and drag now, if I chose the radio brush instead. Currently, if I click and drag, it will paint the foreground color into the center of the circle, which would be focused on where I started to drag. If I switch the colors around, which I can do by pressing X and then click and drag again. Now it's got white in the center. The 3rd 1 I call it really weird. It is. I very rarely found any use for that at all. I have, but it's rare. The 4th 1 is called reflected. Now that's pretty useful. I'm going to click and drag just a little bit. It's going to reflect that. So where I started, it'll be white. Where it finished. It'll be green, and it's going to repeat that in the opposite direction, to the same degree like this. That could be pretty handy. The last one diamond, because I've got two solid colors set for foreground and background every time I click and drag its repainting the entire area. How about if I want to pay lots of these little diamonds, then what I'd have to do is change the Grady int from white to green to white to transparent. So it just painted the white, and then it faded out and it didn't paint in the green. And if I click on that little arrow, there's white to transparent. Now, if I click and drag, I can build up a whole array of these little diamonds if I want, but I didn't want to do that. I just want to paint a simple Grady Int to act as a wall. If I wanted, I could either pick colors by clicking on the color chips or I could pick colors from the painting. I'm going to do that, so I'm gonna turn the painting back on again. If I get the eyedropper tool and click on, say, this green, the foreground color just became that color. If I want to also pick a background color, I'll have to press X to flip those two around. And now I can click on a background color. Maybe this pink, and there are my two colors. Now I could paint the Grady Int so I get the Grady Int tool. I'm gonna choose the linear Grady int. I'm going to go back to foreground to background and then I'll click and drag. It's a bit pastel, isn't it? I think I'll pick some more colors and I'm going to click on the color chip and pick a dark red. And for the other trip, I'm going to pick for the other color chip. I'm gonna pick Ah, light red like so no, I'm going to choose the radio brush and I'll flip the colors around. So I'm painting the light color first on our click and drag like that. This a bit of voice over. I added later, I decided I hated these colors and I tried to play around and find some that I liked. And I was running out of time on Life is too short anyway, So in the end, I just went with these and I hope that's OK. Now I'm gonna add a drop shadow to the painting as well to make it stand away from the wall a little bit. So I select the painting layer, click on effects again and scroll down to drop shadow. It immediately puts a drop shadow into the picture, and I'm actually pretty happy with that. I could change the opacity of it. I can change the distance. I can change spread and size. There's all kinds of things you can bring to a drop shadow, but I'm happy without so okay 21. Text 1: So while Photoshopped is really a program that works with pixels, you can also do text in Photoshopped quite well. And most people are under the impression that the only kind of multiple layer file you can have in photo showbiz a PST, a Photoshopped document on. That's not strictly true. You can also add additional layers to tiff files so long as their text. If they're text and you can put them into a print, documents say in Adobe in design. No problem. Then, when it prints, that text will print out to the highest possible capability off the printer, regardless of the dp I the image in the background. Otherwise, of course, you have to rast arise your text. If you want to put an image on a website that's got text on it, and you've created that text in photo shop, you have to rast arise the layer first. I'll show you about that, but first I've got here a new document, and I've got the text was selected now appear on the control bar. There's a white color block there, and down here in the bottom of the toolbox, it's red now, which do you think controls the text. It's this one. Sometimes those two color blocks will be the same. But don't be fooled. This one is the one that you need to click on. If you want to change the color of your text, it will probably also change the swatch of the bottom of the toolbox. But still, this is where you need to go to change the color of your text. Now I'm just going to click now. Laura, um, Epsom. And you can only see part of it here has steamed interview. It's all highlighted, meaning it's edible. I could change it on right now. It's aerial. It's bold. It's 60 points. This is anti alias ing. This means it's gonna have a pretty Chris clean edge. But if it's against an image, it won't look like it's being cut out and pasted on. There will be a little bit. A little bit of smoothing around the edges is the basic alignment. Now, if I want anything else, I click on this icon here. This will open up the paragraph and the character style panels. There they are. There's paragraph, there's character. Let's look at character first. It's got a lot of the choices that I could already make up on the options bar. Choice of front sighs style. This is leading space between the lines. This is Kerney rather than the three different types of turning. You have an adobe in design here it's New Miracle. And here it assumes that I'm going to click between two letters, for example, between the S and the U and then these wake up on. I can tell it whether I want to contract that space or in large it. So if I wanted to enlarge it by 50 units, that's the result. It didn't change it by much. These units are really tiny. I'm going to put that back to zero now, the curses flashing away inside the text. There's a baseline here. All of this indicates the text is still creditable. There's a text layer down in the layers window with a capital T where the thumbnail would normally go if it was an image that also indicates this is edit herbal text. While that's live while the curses inside it, I could do control or command A to select the whole thing and type something, and I'm going to do command a again and highlight it, and I'm going to change the size from 60 points down to 24 and then I'll get the move to and I can drag it wherever I want in the document and its independent of the background, because right now it's on a separate layer. Now, if they get the type tool again and click inside it to wake it up, and that's important if you quick elsewhere, you won't be selecting the type player. You'll be creating a new one. This one's now showing the word that I've typed. It's no longer Laura MIPs, um is trying to give me an indication off which layer in the image I might want to select to work on particular blocks of text, and I can highlight bits of it, and I could change the color. I can change the size, and it's still completely edit herbal text 22. Text 2: the color chip now is showing a question mark because it doesn't know what to tell me. There's more than one color here. I don't have to have any of the text selected in the image. And then I click on this icon, the warp icon, and choose a warp. And I think today will have Arch on these sliders will change how it's arching and it's still edit herbal type. If I decided that I wanted to render that as part of the image, which means it will no longer be edit herbal type, it will just become pixels. Then I would go to type Ross tries type player, and then a thumbnail of that text appears inside the layer. It's no longer edit herbal type. I can still move it around with the move tool, but it's made of pixels. I'm gonna undo that for a second. I'm going to go back into history to before I rast arised it so I can show you something about the paragraph styles. But first I'm going to go back to the type tool back to the warp menu, and I'll switch this off. So if I clicked and dragged, then instead of getting a single line of text, I can have paragraph text that's all highlighted that it says up here. It's aerial, but it's 2.88 points. Well, that's changed that to 10 on 12. That's more like it, and I'll change the alignment from center toe left Hyphenation is currently on. You can see if I turn that off. It won't allow toe hyphenate anything that's also completely edit herbal type. I can highlight it. Change the color, changed the style, change the funt, change the size and so on. If I do click on the walk panel and I choose award, huh? It's gonna walk the entire paragraph. So there's a lot that you can do with type in the W photo shop that you can't do easily. Anywhere else. I'm going toe. Okay, that and I'm going to zoom in now. Look at the edge of the lettering that doesn't look like vector. To me, it looks like pixels. And yet the two type players indicate no. This is still vector type, and it's a problem with the display, and photo shop has a hard time showing you vector shapes. It's much easier for it to work in pixels all the time. So in this case, you just have to remember the pixels aren't really there. The outline of the type is crisp, smooth, clean vector shapes and not pixels. Regardless of what you see in photo shop. If you do Rasta Rosa type player, it will then take on the same resolution as the image on the layer in the background behind it. That can mean if it's small type, you might not be able to read it if you're then going to put that image on a website, so you have to be careful and check where it's going to go, what it needs to be and then decide what you have to do. 23. 19 Fixing Crooked Images: Sometimes you want to straighten an image because the horizon is not horizontal. This particularly bugs me when I see a photograph of the ocean or a lake and it's tilted, and I see that in newspapers and magazines, as if people just do not remember how things actually look. It's very easy to fix a swell, so it's doubly irritating. So I've got some examples here of how you can fix tilted images. I'll open the 1st 1 up Commander Control. Oh, and it's cooled crooked one. So clearly this image has a horizon on the horizon is tilted sharply down to the left. If I get the crop tool, which is here, one of the options is to straighten a crooked image. This is the icon you wanna click on, and then you start a one side of the image and you drag right the way across it to the other side, and you drop a line where you want the horizon to be, and then you let go easy, huh? Then you can drag on these handles to change the crop of the image. You can drag them out beyond the image if you want. I don't want this white air in the bottom left corner, so I'm going to drag that up very slightly. I guess there may be a white area in one of the top corners, but, hey, I can't see it. So I'm fairly happy with that and toe okay at you. Press enter, and there's my image for the straightened. That's easy. That kind of straightening is very easy. That's try another. So I'm gonna open the other image. Commander Control. Oh, and it's cool. Crooked, too. This is the gateway into the Taj Mahal complex in Agra, in India. And as you can see, it's really quite crooked. The camera is actually tilted, sort of in two directions, down into the rights and angled towards the left a little bit. So we've got a crooked arising. But also the building on the right side is much shorter than the building on the left side . So you cannot fix this with a simple rotation of the image will not work. The first thing I'm going to do is create a copy of the Layer Commander Control J. Because the background layer is restricted, you can't drag something below it. You can't cut holes in it. It's padlocked for a lot of things you might want to do to it. You can't use any transform tools on it, either, which is why I have made a duplicate. The transform tools all live underneath the edit menu. There they are. There's transform, which has lots of different options. And there's free transform, which is what I'm gonna use now on the shortcut for it is command or control. T. Here we go. The free transform frame is similar to the crop tool in that you can't do anything else the image until you finish dealing with it. If you did decide, you don't want to do a trend. So when you want to go back, the only way out is to press the escape key order, press enter, which means you're going to apply the transform that you've done. Now, before I turn on the transform, I'm going to go to Preferences and then down to tools on going to de select zoom resize windows. I don't want the window to resize as I change the size of the image. I want the frame to say this big. No, I'm gonna turn on transform Come on, T. Now I'm gonna zoom out of it. Commander. Control minus You need a lot of space around the image for this one. If I hold down the command of the control key, I can grab one of these corners and pull. And only that corner moves so I could drag this one up. So the right side, the building is about as big as the left side. And then I could grab the top left corner on, dragged that out till the left, which was straight now the gate somewhat. Then they could drag the bottom left corner down a tiny bit to fix the horizon along the courtyard of the front. Then you sort of fine tune it. You look at the image, decide what it needs and then pull these handles accordingly. Like so, then a press enter to assign the transformation. Now there's some other things that I could do Here is well, for example, that I'm going to zoom in on the minaret. It's kind of crooked, isn't it? I'll get the rectangular marquee tool and click and drag an drawer of frame around the top of that town. Now, I'm not going to drag this down into the brickwork as you have just sitting on top of the bricks there. Then I compress Commander Control J. On that cop is just this little area into a new layer. No, if I do, come on T I get a frame around just that little area. But in fact I don't want the free transform tool. I want one of the others. Now I'm going to move the image down a bit. I'll hold down the space spy. There's my grab a hand pulled down a little bit. That's a bit better. Then I can go at it. Transform and I won't walk. You can go straight into any one of these on the walk. Transform Tool gives me handles that are attached to the corners. Now, if I drag this handle up a little bit, it tips the whole thing, and I can drag that out a little bit and it stretches it. I could drag this one down a little bit. No, I can't perfectly fix this. That's not possible, but I could improve it a bit, so if I said OK, that's good enough in out enter. And then I turned that their on and off you can see what's underneath it now. I haven't straightened it completely, but I've certainly improved it. If I thought that was good, I'm happy with that. I could merge this layer down into this one using command or control E on. That is a command called Merge Down, which will see underneath the options menu. There it is, Commander Control E. Now zoom out again would come on to control minus and again And I can turn this layer off and you can see the difference between the original What I've got now it's not perfect, but it sure is better than what we started with. 24. 20 Layers explained: I figured it was about time I told you Maura, about layers, because it's possible. Some of you kind of confused about thumb layers are really a concept, and it took me a while to get my head around them. It's worth it. Layers are just so incredibly useful. I hope this example will show you what I mean. Some years ago, I wrote a book about gardening in Pawnee tunnels and not going to get into that now. But anyway, the publisher called in February and said, We're just about to go to press. Do you have a nice picture of a poly tunnel for the front cover? Now? I had loads of photos taken inside the Poly Tunnel. I didn't have any off a poly tunnel, so I flailed around a bit and online. There's a company I found called first tunnels, and they were kind enough to send me a photo for me to use. Well, what they sent me was this, and I thought, Well, that's great, but it looks kind of block, So I played around with it for a while, and a few hours later I had that and I send it back to them, and they used it in their catalog. So obviously they liked it, too. Now I show you what I've done. First of all, I'm gonna turn a bunch of these layers off. There's my original with a path added, This is a layer group inside it. We've got three sub layers. There's the border above and below, and there's the gravel Now. I had lots of gravel paths in my garden. I could just run outside and take a photo, which is what I did. The order of these borders makes a big difference, so at the moment, the lower border can't be seen at all. Because it's behind the gravel. It's below it. If I drag that above the gravel, there's the lower border. Now we can see rather a lot of it, but that's because the potatoes aren't turned on. So if I turn them potato row sorted now, I had rows of potatoes growing outside in my garden. I didn't have any in Nepal eternal, so I had to take a photo and then twist it, bend it and make it fit. The correct angle, the correct size. And it's easy enough to do with the transform tools. So I put the potatoes in the Politan. Soon I've got potatoes and the path. Then I took photos of a view. Veg is like Swiss charge lettuce. A zucchini on that filled up the other side Pretty well, then I needed to add some grass because I think you'll agree this grass sticks kind of burned out. How about that? Now, I want people to be able to look at my work and say Now, I don't believe that. I think he painted that grass in Let's go check and find out. So I'm gonna zoom right in to this area here and you can see the individual bits of grass poking up on top of the frame So people might then think, Oh, no, actually, that grass must be there. Look, look at the detail. Well, maybe it's just cause I'm over careful, but no, that's all painted on. That's soon back out again. The sky is another interesting feature. I thought this guy was kind of blood, so I took a photograph of the sky outside and I dropped it in. How did I get it to fit all around the hedge and the roof? the building. I'll show you if I select the sky layer, I've got what's called a blending mode of darken on it, and that means anything darker than the sky shows through and replaces it. But if there's anything lighter than the sky, my new sky replaces it. My new sky is darker than the old sky behind it, so it replaced it. But it's not darker than the hedge and the roof, so it didn't replace those. We're gonna be looking at blending modes shortly. Finally, I had to put all this stuff inside the Poly Tunnel cause it looks like it's kind of outside the polit Ana right now there's no cover in the way. So what I did was this. Taking my original image, I carefully made a selection of the plastic of the front, the door on the sides. And in fact, this is the selection I made. I'm going to command or control click on this thumbnail of the cover, and that's the selection I made on this layer. Then I confident with commando control J. On that gave me this layer. Then I turned down the opacity so that layer is in place. But it's only gonna pass ity off 60%. So it looks translucent like we can see through it on that. So I turned this into this, and if layers hadn't been available to me, there's no way I could have done it Lay as a great 25. 21 Adjustment Layers: No. I'm going to show you about adjustment layers. So will open an image. Faded trees. That's not a bad picture, but it's kind of light on the right, isn't it? So I'm gonna bring the densely back on the right hand side of the image without darkening the left side of the image a tool because that's basically where I want it to be. Not to do that, I'm going to make a duplicate of the layer with Commander Control J. And then I'm going to apply a levels adjustment to that layer with commander Control L. If I drag the middle Snyder over to the right, it won't only make the right inside the image darker. It makes everything darker, and that's gonna actually change the pixels all over the image. So I don't want to do it this way. I'm going to cancel out of this, and instead I'm going to apply an adjustment layer of levels. I don't make the same kind of adjustment, but this time it's something they can come back and turn on and off. So I'm gonna crank this later over to the right, and I'm gonna take it too far. That's the key. So there's my adjustment layer and there's a mosque. The mosque is white, which means currently it's showing me a totally unadjusted layers adjustment right across the image. But if I paint on the mask with a Grady Int white will mean, I can still see the layers adjustment without any change. Black would mean I see through to the original layer underneath it. So I'm going to get the radiant tool. Make sure foreground to background is selected as the Grady int choose Linear. No, white is a foreground color fading to black. So if I start over here on the right, I'm going to click and drag. And as I do, I'm gonna hold down the shift key, which means the regardless of where the cursor goes, the line on drawing is horizontal, and then I'm going to let go. As you can see, the left side of the image is now unaffected by the levels. Adjustment on the right side is still very strongly affected, but now I can turned out of the A pass ity of this entire layer until hopefully they match and I can turn that adjustment there on and off and see what it was before compared to how it looks now, which is definitely an improvement. Let's try another being meets Snow Bean was a wonderful dog I had when I lived in Wales, where the weather was terrible and, of course, one day it snowed and being had never seen snow before. So I went and opened the door to let her out, camera in hand and she went rushing office. She normally did, and then did a sudden sort of U turn and came skidding back to the door with this. Are you coming out to play right now? Because this stuff is amazing. Look on her face, But at the same time, I got a light bounce off the door. There's a big, blurry light area that I really don't want, so I'm going to try and fix it with an adjustment layer. So once again, I'll make a copy of the layer with Commander Control J. Then I'll go back to the adjustments. I'm going to use levels again. I could use any off them but levels of work, and I'll crank the middle Slater across too far. That's the key to far. Then I want the Grady into it again. But in this case, I want a radio brush. There's a dark in that image. The light area closed back down. It was sort of a circular shape. Now we have to think about it. I want to paint on the mask so that the area where the light at the door is affected. But the rest of the picture isn't so. The rest of the picture has got to be painted with black on the area where the light hit the door has got to be painted in white. That's the area. I still want to see my levels adjustment the rest of the image. I don't I wanted to return to what it was before, so I want Why does my foreground color and I'll click about their at the center? And I'll try and estimate where beans knows wise and then let go. And there's a result. And again I can turn down the A pass ity of this layer a little bit. And that's what I've just fixed adjustment layers are seriously useful and can allow you to fix an image that otherwise you might no be able to use 26. 22 Photomerge: a while ago, Adobe seriously improved a method called photo merge, which up until then, really had to be done by hand. And then they automated it and they turned it into something wonderful. And it saved me a huge amount of time. So I'm gonna open up the images. I want Commander Control. Oh, and I want all of these now these air three pictures taken at a place called the kind of locale sh up in Scotland and I couldn't fit the whole view into the camera, so I took three shots on. The work is a kind of panorama. Now, you don't need to set him up like this. They could be in any order in any position on the screen. It won't matter. It is useful to have them be the only things that are open as you'll see. And they also have to be in a saved state. So if you don't anything to any of the images, you can't use them in photo merge. No, I'm going to choose file, automate photo much. And in this window, first of all, I can say add open files. That's why it's handy note of anything else open, and I'm going to choose cylindrical purely because this method gives you a photo merge with his little cropping as necessary. This method will give you may be a more accurate merge where they overlap, but you have a lot of cropping to do. So this one, it's about the best. Now I'm going to click OK and then sit back while Photoshopped does the work. How about that now, in the layers window, it's kept the layers separate on opposite each layer is a black and white mosque on the mass. Determines which part of that image we can see if the mosque is black. We don't see that part of the image. If it's white, we do. If I turn off the layer in the middle, this white area is the only part of this image that we're seeing. And if I turn it off now, it's gone so you can see photo shop had to really figure out how to match these images together, and it's taken care of any lighting differences. It's fantastic. There is a bit of curve it around the edge of the images you can see, and there's a little bit of transparency beyond that. Now, that doesn't bother me too much. What bothers me much more is that the horizon is not horizontal. It tilts down to the right. So the first thing I'm going to do is merge the three layers together, but do so in order to maintain the transparent areas on. For that, you click on the options button and to choose merge visible? No, I have one last. Then I'm going to use the crop tool to straighten it. First. I'll zoom out of it, Then I get the crop tool. And I want this straighten icon up here and I'm going to click and drag along the top of what is currently the horizon. I want to let go. It's going to rotate it slightly to straighten it like that. Now, I congrats these handles and pull. And you think I was gonna pull in? Wouldn't you know? I'm gonna pull out even beyond the original size of the image. And that's gonna give me Maura the transparent border all the way around, and you'll see why in a second No, I'm gonna press enter. I'm going to get the magic one tool which uses a tolerance. And if I set the tolerance to zero and then click on the transparent areas, it will only make a selection of the transparent areas. Anything else will not be zero that goes right up to the edge of the image, but it doesn't go beyond. I want to extend it a couple of pixels onto the image, so that when I tell this transparent area to fill with something, it's got a little bit of context all the way around to help it figure out what to fill it with. It's called content aware fill, and it is truly amazing. So I'll go to the select menu down to modify and expand two pixels is plenty. Okay, no funds. Assume in on the edge of the image anywhere you'll see that where the selection frame is now is slightly in from the edge of the image. If I undo that, that's where it was before, right on the edge of the data. But that's where it is now. Now I'm going to go to the edit menu and shoes. Phil content aware. Okay. And then Commander control D what do you think? Isn't that incredible? Can you see the join. There is a joint, but you've got a really look for it, and it didn't just pick stuff at random. It's actually picked stuff from all over the image to create what we've just seen. Have a look over here on the left, there's a light area up in the hills. Here it is repeated. Every part of that transparent area has been filled with a repetition of what was already in the picture up here in the sky. You can see that quite clearly, this area here that is a repeat of that, no question. But of course, with a clone stamp tool, you could just set a soft brush, get in there and do a little bit of cloning. And two minutes later, even if you blew this out to be quite large, nobody would be able to tell where the real image ended. On where the Photoshopped created border began. Its amazing 27. 23 Smart Objects: you can create an image that may be convincing but is actually a total fake. So I'm gonna open up Charlie and cleverly, both of them cleverly is a village in North Devon where they don't allow cars. So all the supplies are brought in by wooden sleds drawn by donkeys, which in icy conditions, may make living at the bottom of a steep street like this. A bit of a hazard, especially, is right at the bottom is the harbor. Charlie was another one of my dogs. He never went to cleverly. But today he's going to go. Quite often, people want to drag something from one image into another. This is how you do it. You make the image you want to drag from the active image. You can only have one image active at the time. All it means is, did you click on the bar at the top so that these little blobs were in color something similar on a Windows machine. So now Charlie's image is active, So to drag Charlie in, I need the move tool right at the top of the tool box, and then you just click and you drag and you drop on this warning tells me that the color profile attached to each of these two images is different. They don't quite match, not profiles, A really meant to make the image behave properly at the next stage, whether it's a printing machine or a website. Whatever. In this case, I'm not bothered. So I'm just gonna click. OK, and there's Charlie. If I put him at the top of the street, he looks huge. If I put him right down to the bottom, he's about the size of a fairly small bird. So I might think, Oh, I need to increase his size command or controlled T. There's a transform frame. I'll drag this up and make him much, much bigger and press enter to apply it. Now. I think he's too big. OK, Commander Control T drag that down again. I'm gonna make him really, really, really, really, really tiny on press enter. Oh, he's definitely too small. That's making bigger again. Come on, T on our drag. You see how pixelated that images even before press center, Charlie is now looking extremely fuzzy, and that's a disadvantage of doing multiple transforms because each one of them effects the actual pixels. Now there is a way around it. I'm going to temporarily turn that layer off. Then I'll click on Charlie's image again and drag him in once more. Same warning. There he is. I put him right down near the bottom. But before I apply a transformed frame to him, I'm going to click on the options button in the layers panel and choose Convert to Smart Object. Now I've got this little icon in the bottom right hand corner, the thumbnail that's going to protect the detail if I do. Commander Control team. Now you see there's a diagonal in that frame and I'll drag the top left corner, making much, much bigger Press enter. Okay, he's too big. Let's make in smaller again. Commander controlled tea. And again, I'm going to Dragon on Make him seriously seriously tiny press center. Then I'm making bigger again. Come on, T drag Press enter doesn't look so soft and pixelated, does he? And I'll turn the original they're back on so we can compare. That is the benefit of turning an object into a smart object you can do multiple transforms lots of things, in fact, and they don't affect the original. Now, if I wanted, I could blur this image of Charlie. That's the one on the right. While that layers selected, I could go filter, blur Gaussian blur and blur the heck out of him like that. A soft, fuzzy blob, most of which you can see through. And those sub layers have been added to the layer. Smart filters. If you apply filter to a smart object, it's automatically considered a smart filter. And, of course, you can turn them off if I did the same thing to this layer, so I'll hold down the old key and I'll drag those down on dropped them onto this layer. Can't do it. That isn't a smart object. If I select the Slayer on apply Gaussian Blur and it's the same blur it. Remember the number I chose. Okay, Well, unfortunately, I just blurred this Charlie pretty much out of existence. So again, another benefit of smart objects is you decide on when you've decided. Then you tell it not to be a smart object anymore. So how would you convert it back into being a regular part of the image that you could merge down with everything else. You make a new layer, you drag it down below the smart object layer. Then you click on the smart layer and say, Merge down on the shortcut. For that, his commander control E. On that turns it back into your regular dumb common or garden layer. It's no longer a smart object, though, so be careful because you can affect the pixels. Anyway, this is a long way around. I'm going to delete that blurred layer of Charlie, and this one are going to make him smaller because he's far too big, because what I want to do is sitting behind this part. So maybe about that size, so a press enter. 28. 24 Combining Images: so he's far too big. Come on, T click and drag. Let's put him out of it so I can see he's still too big to go by in the pot. That's about right. Enter, Then I'm going to zoom in Commander Control, Space bar, click and drag space for on its own. There's the pot. I'm going to use the Pentagon lasso tool, and I'm going to start right here. Now, even though this is a curve, a curved line could be made up of lots of very, very short, straight lines. I want to get to this pebble. I'm going to include the pebble. Then I could just go across to here up to about here and double click. There we go Now, when I copy this to a new layer, I've got to make sure I'm copying from the layer where the part actually exists. On the layer of Got selected is Charlie's Layer, which is not where the pot lives. The part lives on the background layer, so I select that then to Commander Control J. There's the part that's rename it Double click on the name punts. I'll rename Charlie as well. Double click on the name Charlie. Then I'll zoom out again. I'll drag the part up above Charlie and then a construct the Charlie Layer and with the move tool, drag him until he's sitting behind the pot. We need a shadow. Okay, What color is a shadow? No, I bet some of you thought gray. Now it's not shatters on gray. Imagine a shadow on the moon where there's no diffusing light, so a shadow is a perfect absence of lights. There's no light getting into it. A tool light doesn't bounce around off. Other stuff. A perfect shadow is a complete absence of light. It's black. There's nothing there. We see diffuse shadows. Light bounces around of all kinds of stuff. There fuzzy. They are black, but they're transparent and their blurred. So a shadow is transparent. Black. I'm gonna paint a shadow that isn't transparent black. To begin with, I'll get the paintbrush. Let's see how big my brushes. It's pretty big. I showed you a method earlier for changing the size of the brush by tapping on the left and the right bracket. He's just the right of the letter P and hold down the shift key while you did it to make it harder or softer, although that's only 25% increments. Or here's another way, you old Arnault and control. And that's regardless of whether you're on Windows on Mac. And if you drag left, the rush gets smaller. If you drag right, the rush gets bigger. If you drag straight down, the rush gets harder on you drag up and it gets softer. In this case, I want a fairly small brush. So about that big, Okay, now Black has already said is my foreground color. Now we need a new layer. So I go to the layers window. Click on the new layer icon. The shadows live above the objects that cast them. Know they're beneath. Um, so I drag it down below Charlie, double click on the name type in shadow and tow. No, I'm ready. This is gonna look horrible. I told you, no, I'm going to go filter Blur. Gaussian Blur. That's okay, but now it's too strong. Let's turn down the opacity of it. That's pretty good. Now if I do Come on. T. I've got this frame which is right around the shadow. And if I hold down the command key and the bulky on drag on the bottom handle there. I can squish it from the top of the bottom. Simultaneously like that, enter and there's my shadow, which means I've now got a fairly convincing picture of a dog on a street in North Devon that he never visited. 29. 25 Layer Blending Modes 1: layer. Blending modes are fairly astounding now. I showed you won in the previous video about layers, right? Applied a blending mode of darken to the sky and that allowed the sky to show through over the top of the light areas of the original sky behind it. But it didn't obscure anything in the photo that was darker than it. So Darken is one of the very useful blending modes. There are some, which you'll probably use more than any of the others. There are others which you may never use unopened up in image, and this one's cooled red con. It's a PST file, as you'll see, and there it is. I guess most of us would probably not object too much to being able to drive home in this once in a while. But maybe we wouldn't like the color. No, I've got another layer here. It's not turned on. You can't see it, and it's based on a selection that I made of the red areas on the car. I can turn on the selection by Commander Control clicking on that thumbnail, and there's the selection, and I filled it with a green, a sort of a dark green. I don't need to see the selection anymore because I've got the shape I can load this at any time I want. But if I turn that layer on, you'll see that there's no highlights. There's no shadows, is just flat color. This is where the blending modes come in now. At the moment, the blending mode is normal, which means you see what you'd expect to see flat green. But if I choose instead, Hugh, how about that? No, there's a choice here. Hue and color color tends to be a little more dull. Hugh tends to be a bit brighter on the highlights, but the main difference between them is Hugh will not affect anything that's neutral. So if you got black and white there neutral, they won't be affected at all. But if you've got a neutral gray, it won't be affected either, Where his color will effect graze. It won't affect black and white, but it will affect any shade of gray. There are one or two other useful blending modes here is well, overlay is often worth a look, never quite sure what it's gonna do also multiply. How about that? That's kind of sharp, isn't it? And darken. Both of those are also good options. But if you want to color something and if you've ever bean on a website, you want to buy a shirt and there's a picture of the shirt you want. And it's the same picture five times in each one. The shirts a different color. Well, Hugh is probably how it's being done. Now, how about if I decided? Yeah, OK, that's fair enough. But give me some more choices. How about something in a blue? Okay, what we'll do first is will load that selection by control or command clicking on it. Then I'll make a new layer. So now the selection is active on the new layer. No, I'm going to pick a new color. So go to the color chips and we'll have a blue and maybe like that. Okay. Now, in order to fill the selection with the foreground color, I just do ault backspace. And there it is, filled with color. Now I don't need the selection so control or command d to turn the selection off. Then again, we'll have a blending mode of Hue and now I've got a blue car and underneath it a green car . And underneath that, a red car. They don't fight with each other. You can have as many different variations as you want all in the same image. Here's another cool example. Will open up. Hubris is color. I've already been playing around with this image a bit. I've got a selection of the entire floor. If I command or control, click on this, you'll see it, and I've changed the floor to gray scale as well. So if I turn this layer off, you can see that this layer says grave floor. So I made that selection. I loaded it. I completely de saturated the floor. The floor and the original image looks like this. So there it is, De saturated. No this'll a ER, which has got a painted area. It's just a flat brown. I'll show you that by choosing a blending mode off normal. If I play blending mode off Hue to that, they won't have any effect on that grave floor. Adul the grief lawyers neutral. Whereas if I apply blending mode of color to it, suddenly it has an effect, and I can change that to any color. I want a swell. I can open up hue and saturation with commander control you. Let's put it up here. The area selected only has the floor in it. I can change the saturation level by dragging this slider to the right or the left if I drag it to the right of it so we can see the color really clearly now. I contract the hue slider around now. Currently, the color is over here somewhere. It's an orange. So if I drag the huse later to the right, it's going to go green than blue and so on like that. So I could choose any color I wanted and any level of tent of it that I wanted. So there are all kinds of possibilities for the interior designers inside us. 30. 26 Layer Blending Modes 2: Here's an image that got left out in the sun. Commander Control J gives me a duplicate. If I apply blending mode of multiply to that, it boosts the pixel density. Now all I have to do is duplicate that a whole bunch of times with Commander Control JJ, JJ, JJ J. Then I can flatten the whole thing and using levels. I could close up that gap and then dragged the mid slightest, slightly to the left on Bright in the midterms a little. And there I've got a new image. There's one of the image in here which you may get a kick out of its in a photo called Line Drawing, and it's called Poly Tunnel to now that looks like a line drawing, doesn't it? It's not. It's generated from this image. I'll tell me how I did it. I made a duplicate of that layer, and then I d saturated it, and the easiest way to de saturate it was the press commander control you on, then dragged the saturation slider all the way to the left, and every shade of color in the image becomes a shade of gray. Then you copy the late again and you inverse it, I'll show you. I'll do a copy of this one, Commander Control J. And then you inverse. It turned it into a negative image with Commander Control I. Then you apply blending mode of color dodge, and the whole thing goes white. Then you apply a little bit of a blur. Filter blur, and I found the best blur is Gaussian blur, and you can adjust that to whatever level you want, And that's what makes it look like a drawing isn't that neat. If I want to bring some color back into that, I could make a copy of the original layer Commando Control J. Drag it up above the inverted layer and then apply a black layer mask. You see a white layer mask allows everything that shares this layer with it to show. But if I feel that mask with black, it means it doesn't show. So to fill that with black, as I've got black as my background color command or control backspace and that layer effectively disappeared. But if I now get a soft brush, so I select the brush tool and I'll get a bigger brush than that on I want a low opacity. 19% probably okay, And it is a soft brush. A nun gonna paint on the layer mask using white. So why does my foreground color on? I'll paint on the image and you can see that the background is starting to come through. It's very light because I've only got 19% selected. But if I let go on, then repaint that area is getting double strength, and I'll do it again. Triple strength and again like so. It's a very nice technique, and it saves an awful lot of time with a pencil. 31. 27 Masks 1: Now we're gonna have a look at masks. I've used masks a couple of times in previous videos, but this is the more sort of traditional way of using them where you've got one image and you brought it into another and you're using a Mass to create a sort of montage between the two, where one fades into the other. So I'll open up these two pictures. It's called Beach One and Beach, too. There's nothing very spectacular about either of these pictures. My wife and I walked down onto a beach near Swan Ege Town on the south coast of England, and she and my dog, Charlie, turned right and I turned left and I took this picture on. Then they turned right and took this picture, which means both pictures are exactly the same size, which is kind of handy if what I'm going to do now. In order to bring this image into the frame of this one, I get the move to click on this image to make sure it's active and drag. But as I drag, I'm gonna hold down the shift. Key on The result is the incoming image fits exactly in the frame. In fact, what happens is it's centered now. If I hadn't held down the shift key, if I just dragged and dropped, it could have landed anywhere. But if you hold down the shift key, the incoming image is centered in the target frame, which is great. So I'm going to close this one now. No, I've got both images in the same frame. This top one, I'm going to apply a layer mask to it. Currently, the layer mask is white, which means I can see the image that shares its layer in its entirety. But if I paint on that mask in black or shades of gray, I'll be able to see through it either completely or partially. So I'm gonna paint on it with a Grady Int going from white to black. So I get the Grady int tool on. I want a linear Grady int and I want black to white. Now if I start with black, I'm going to start down here where it's going to be transparent and then drag upto about there. If I started with white, I would start here and dragged down to there so it really doesn't matter and because you can drag again and again and again to redefine the mask as often as you want. It really doesn't matter, so don't be put off by masks. I know a lot of people who think they're too complicated and they won't use them. Well, look, it's this easy click drag drop. Tricky, huh? And if I wanted to a good read or it as many times as I wanted. But let's face it, that's pretty much what I want straight away. The trick with mosques is not actually applying them. It's finding images that work. I'll give you another example. This time I'm going to open up the image Cold Mountain and also the one called Old Chapel. So the mountain picture is a pretty spectacular image on its own, but I'm going to drag it into the frame of the old chapel. So a click on the mountain to make it the active image, get the move to again, hold down the shift key and drag onto the image of the chapel and drop. Now, obviously, it's too big, so I'm going to close down the mountain image focus on the chapel image. I'll zoom out a bit with commando control minus. And then I'll press commander controlled T. And that shows me the size of the mountain image because that's the layer that selected. If I want to reduce this inside all the way around simultaneously, I hold down the old key on, then drag on a corner. You see that? No. Zoom back in again. Come on, plus plus and our press enter to assign that transformation. Now I'm going to turn the opacity down, partly because I can't see where the chapel is behind it. But now I can. Okay, so if I drag from roughly here up to the top, that should work. So I'll turn the opacity back up, get the Grady in tool. It's still set for Alinea, going from black to white. Now, before I paint, I've got to add a layer mask. So click on the lam are sky con. There it is a white lamb musk. Another click and drag from about here, up to the top, like so and now we have mountains in the back of the chapel. Now I'm going to switch to our foreground to transparent brush and painting some or of the clouds on the chapel image because they're quite spectacular. So I'll start up here, dragged out about there and let go. And there they are. So again, it's seeing the potential between the combination of two images rather than any difficulty with the mosque itself. Now, if I wanted to, I could hold on the old key and click on the mask, and it will become the active image. If I click back on the image. I see the combination of the image working with the mosque. This little link I come between them says that if I use the move tool to move the image around, the mosque would move with it. But I can unlinked hit, which means I could move the image around on the mask stays put. 32. 28 Masks 2: This is a pathway just outside the town of Dorchester on. I used to walk the dogs along there pretty much every day, and it's a beautiful little walk, and in summer there'd be this lovely glow at the end, and it was kind of magical. I wanted to take a photo that made your eye goes zinging off down the path, and I couldn't really do it. But in photo shop, I could. Now what I want to do is create a blurred effect that's on a Grady int. I use quick masks to apply ingredient toe. In effect on, I use layer masks to apply transparency. So this is Quick Mosque. I want to create a mask that protects the central area the image, while allowing me to create an effect on the outside edges. And to do that, you press the letter Q. And the layer goes pink on. What's happened in the Channels window is that we now have a new channel called Quick Mask and it's white, so I'm going to switch to a black and white Grady int. But I want the radio brush, not linear, and I'm going to click on the light spot right at the end of the path and drag all the way down to the edge of the image. If I held down the shift key, that line would be held to being vertical or horizontal or 45 degrees butts. In this case, it doesn't really matter now. In the wonderful world of printing, red is used as a mask to protect plates and film. I think Adobe selected red just to make printers feel at home. Now I want a load that mosque as a selection on. Then get rid of it. I won't need it anymore. And it sounds complex and only have to do is press the letter Q again on that stunned it all for me. In fact, I've got two selections here. I've got one around the edge of the image on one around this circle. Now, what that tells me is that between the two is actually the area that's going to be affected inside the circle is gradually less and less affected towards the center. Selections can't really show you the Grady int. They only show you this sort of on off thing, but so long as you can interpret it you know what it means? No. I'm going to go to Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur. I think that's maybe a little too much. Let's bring it down to four. Okay? Control or command D to get rid of the selection. And now there is nothing satisfying to the I for it to rest on. In the foreground. It's all too soft and blurry. So you're I go zinging off down the path because down there, it's still shop. 33. 29 Select and Mask 1: something else that people very often want to do with. Photo shop is cut out a tricky part of an image. Imagine a portrait shot of somebody, and you've gotta somehow lift them and their hair without making them look like they were cut out with scissors. There are actually some very cool tools in Photoshopped to help, so I'm going to open an image called downtown. It's a PST file, and it's a sort of Marilyn look alike, I guess. So I'll show you the background. Now we're gonna cut her out of that picture so that she appears against the background and we're not going to lose very much of a here in the process. How the first thing I do is get the quick selection tool, which I have to say is not a great tool. In some ways, I don't normally use it if I can avoid it. But for something like this, it's perfect. I want to select the background because it's much easier than selecting her. There's very little variation on the background, and I know that this tool is going to roughly do it. But roughly is the word. So with a small brush. I'm going to click up here into the top left corner and dragged down towards her, and I've got all of that side. Now I've got some here that I didn't really want, So I'm gonna hold on the old key one click and drag through this. I'll click up here. You don't have to hold down the shift key with this brush. You can just carry on selecting. Okay, That pretty much does it. No, I'm gonna inverse the selection because actually, what I want is her selected, not the background. So command or control shift, I in verses it. Now you can see I've left some of the here outside the selection and some inside the selection. So in terms of an accurate selection, it could be better. Nevertheless, when you got a selection, you can always go click on this button selected mask on That opens the image up in a different interface. Over here, you've got a list of views. Currently, I've got that set toe on layers, which means I can see the layers underneath. But I could choose on black on white, many different choices. But on layers is the one I want then you click on that little grey bar on that closes this down again. No, I'm going to set a radius on. I want a radius off 60. 60 usually works pretty well then, over here. I've got some tools. Now, this is the one that I want. This is called a refined edge brush tool, and you can change the size of the brush by tapping on the left and the right bracket Keys to the right of the letter p. And then I'm going to click and drag on work around her head. Now look at that. The black background disappeared. Any little frizzy bits that were previously left out have now returned. I'll go all the way around her head down this side. There we go. The magic, however, comes in a second scroll down to the bottom. Click on decontaminate colors. How about that? And then you can choose how you want this to be generated. A new layer with a layer mask is a pretty good option. So I click. OK, And there she is on the background on this layer is not even turned on. No, If I wanted to, I could delete that one. Create a new layer, drag it down beneath this one, select this layer and then control or command E merges it down on, absorbs the mosque, and I've just got her on her own layer. With a background like that, that's actually a pretty straightforward example. Now I'm going to do one that's a little trickier. 34. 30 Select and Mask 2: So I'm gonna open Charlie and Sherman Shervin, High Street, Lovely town. And Charlie. This was a second before he collided with me. He's running down a steep hill. I was lying flat on my stomach and we ended up rolling to the bottom. I was laughing my air of he was barking his head off. We had a great afternoon. So I'm gonna lift him out of here and drop him into Shervin High Street and try to make a reasonably convincing picture of a dog racing down the street towards the person with the camera. His feet are hidden in the grass. We're not going to be able to get his feet back, unfortunately, but we can get the rest of them. So I've got a quick selection tool on our click and drag like this. I'm being careful not to go over into the blue or the green background, just trying to select him, and I can tell that I selected the grass between his front legs. So if I make the brush quite a bit smaller, I can hold on the old key and then get rid of that and I'll scroll up a little bit that patch of sky above his head. I don't want that either. So old click and here, old click. Okay, now you can see that a lot of this frizzy tale has been excluded from the selection will probably be able to get that back. So now go to selected mask and I'll scroll up to the top and I'll give this a radius of 60 again and then I'll get the refining brush to I think that brushes a little big. Let's make it smaller and then just start to go around his tail to begin with and back comes, his tail will go down this side. These little hairy bits that had been excluded are coming back in now. I'm not going to bother to go down any further than this, and I'll go up his right side. There we go. Now I can tell that there's some areas that are quite transparent. So for those are going to switch to the brush tool and then paint those back in gonna make this brush a little bit bigger and make it softer. You can make the brush softer in exactly the same way that you would have the normal brush . You hold down the shift key and then you tap on the right or the left bracket keys. The left bracket. He makes it softer. The right bracket key will make it harder. So course operations like this depend on how good you are, the mouse or whatever you happen to be using. My personal favorite is a wacko mart tablet much, much better than a mouse and never going to cause you grief with repetitive strain injury in your wrist because they use your whole hand. Okay, that's pretty good. No, I'm going to scroll down again and choose decontaminate colors. I'll generate a new layer with a layer mask. Then I'm gonna merge that down into an ordinary layer and then dragon into Sherman on Drop him and there he is. Now we've got some problems. I'll turn off the picture, Charlie, and I'm going to zoom in on this so we can see it a bit better. 35. 31 Select and Mask 3: Let's make this 1 60 That's better. OK, so the move tool, I could now move him around wherever I want. Look at that tail. That tail came through pretty well. But if I put in there, a lot of the problem areas caused by the grass are left behind. Now there's still some problems. I can see a lot of highlights on him. Green blue, Not good. So I need to get rid of those. So I'm going to go to adjustments and hue and saturation and I'm going to click on Master and choose blues now to see if there are any blues that are a problem. You grab the saturation slider and drag it all the way to the right. Oh, yes, there is some blues will now if we drag him all the way to the left They've turned into shades of Cray. I'll do the same with Scion. Are there problems? Definitely. But now there aren't. How about yellows? Yeah, So we got a black and white dog with a red tongue. Well, that works now. He's looking a little bit light. I quite like how light is faces, but I think around the edges he needs to be a bit darker. There's an old darkroom technique that's built into Photoshopped that works really well, and it's called Dodge Burn and Sponge. No, I'm going to use the Dodge in the bone here. I don't need the sponge tool. The Dodge tool was used when you're making a print from a negative, and if an area needed to be lighter, you'd basically hold a stick with a bit of cardboard tape to the end of it in the beam of light as you made the exposure. You wiggled it around while you made the exposure, so you didn't end up with a defiant edge, and the burn tool was actually your hands you'd hold your hands. So there was a sort of whole around your thumbs that the light could go through, giving addition that exposure to part of the print while protecting the rest of it. So this makes things darker, and the Dodge tool makes things lighter, so I want the burn tool over the top on the options bar. I can choose whether I want to affect highlights, shadows or mid tones. Well, I think these counters mid tones and the exposure level. Don't put it up too high, because otherwise you're going to go too far too fast. So 19% will probably work pretty well, right? Let's start. I want a bigger brush and I'm going to go over this area first, so I start clicking. Now you see that I'll go round his tail a little bit down this side. If I do, Commander controls Ed, which is undo. You'll be able to see what I did, Commander Control Shift said. It will redo it again, so that really helped. And if I wanted, I could have a little bit more here and there just to make him a little bit dark, a little bit better to find what I felt. He was missing out like so Now I've got a reasonably convincing image of a dog tearing down the high street towards the person wielding the camera. 36. 32 Puppet Warp: this video is about a feature called Puppet Warp. If you have a need for something like this, well, you just won't be able to believe how good it is. I'll open up the image I want, which is called Puppet Warp. Now, there are several different layers in here, and I'm going to start with this one. This is just a background. This is a piece of chain mail, jewelry, gold and silver and I believe rhodium plated links. Now I'm gonna go click on edit Puppet warp. Now, if I wanted, I could see the mesh. That's the mesh. The mesh usually gets in my way, so I'm going to turn it off. Then I'm going to click in the center of this and here and here and finally here. No, I'm going to select this one and drag it like that. Now, that was a static image. Isn't that amazing? If you want to say yeah, that's what I want. You press enter and after a couple of seconds, it resolves, and that's now what you've got. So that's one of the things you can do with puppet warp. No. Turn on this layer and turn this one off. You can also use it to make things rotate. So again, if I choose Edit Puppet Warp No, I'm going to click in the center and then I'm going to click a couple of times on this piece. These pens, actors, anchors, and they will prevent it from moving. Now I'm going to click on this spin to make it active and hold down the old key, which gives me a rotate icon. And I can click and drag and rotate that top piece, which doesn't have anything anchoring it in position without distorting it. If I wanted to get rid of a pin, I'd hold down the old key on. Then the curse. It turns into a little pair of scissors. You click on that pins history. Okay, I'll press enter and there will go on to the third layer to static objects on the layer. I'll go to edit puppet warp. Then I'm going to click on the top of this blue bar and on the bottom on, then roughly in the middle and then roughly in the middle again on either side of that on down here. Now, if you'd asked me to divide that into approximately eight reasonably equal pieces, starting from one end. Forget it. But I found dividing it up like this. I've got a chance of having it work. I'm going to grab this pin and drag. No, I don't create corners if I can help it. But I think I'm going to. I'm not very good with this stuff. Sometimes. Don't tell anyone. Well, it's not a smooth as I wanted, but it will be okay. Now I'm going to click on this pin and then up here in the options bar. I've gotten an up arrow and a down arrow. I'm going to click on the down arrow. How about that? It went behind the gold bar. I want this one to go in front. I want this one to go behind it again, like that presente, and that's what you got. Until I saw a puppet warp in action, I would have said No, This is impossible. It's not. That's a wonderful thing about Adobe Photoshopped. It makes the impossible quite easy. 37. 33 Optimize 1: Every time you put an image on a website, you're slowing it down because it's going to take a little bit of time for that image to load now. This is not as much of a problem is. It used to be. But it used to be a big problem, and there is still some things that you should know about. So I give you an example. I'll open up this image called Cathedral View. Now the moment that says it's a J pig. It's 311 kilobytes. Remember that. That's the image at full screen view. So there it is. Now, if I wanted to put that on a website. 311 K B is not too big a deal for modern broadband speeds. But if I've got several 100 images to put on a website, that's a lot of data, and that is going to take a while to load. So the thing about websites is if somebody visits your website and it takes just a little bit longer than they have the patience for and they don't have much patients, broadband speed increases patients goes down, and the first thing they do is go somewhere else. So unless your images are properly optimized and load really fast, you might be losing business. Now what I'll do with this I'll go to file export. Safer Web. Now look, it says legacy Now that usually means when you see that that Adobe have come up with something better to replace it, and it's not going to be around too much longer. Well, that would be nice. But this has actually had the word legacy after it for years now, and they haven't come up with anything else yet, so I'm going to click on it. So on the left, I've got my original image. Now it's not really 628 K I think it might be that if I saved It is a tiff file, which is not compressed but is a J pic. I know it's 311 over here. I've got the copy that I'm working on now. Appear I've got choices. J Pig is one of them. There's also PNG 8 p.m. g 24 Windows bit map, which I'm not even going to bother with. And gift. No gift file has got a maximum of 256 colors. The good thing about them is you can using for animations, which I'm going to do another little video. One P and G is a great format for Web, but PNG eight is the same number of colors as a GIF. PNG 24 on the other hand, is as many colors is a J pic. So up to 16.8 million. And it also supports full AL for transparency, which means of fade from a solid image on one side to a completely transparent image. On the other, that's full Alfa on. That's 256 different levels of transparency. Neither of these any good for print J pegs. You can use them for print as well. No, I'm going to choose J pick. And so long as I choose a quality level off 60 I shouldn't see any difference between the image on the right and the image on the left, and I consume in with Commander Control zero. I could also, if I wanted to. Seymour Variations Click up here where it says four up, and I got four different versions, my original on the Left, my J peg next to it. I could try GIF format on the 3rd 1 I could try PNG on the one on the right and compare the different sizes of the image down here along the bottom. No, I don't need that. I'm just going to go with two up for now, so I'm comparing quality. Can you see any differences between the one on the left and the one on the right? You shouldn't be able to, but look at the difference in size. I know the original J Peg is actually 311. Well, this says 89.93 so it's a whole lot smaller. It's less than 1/3 of the size of the original, and yet the quality is the same. No, I could save this now. I could click on save, put it in optimizing images. I'll call a cathedral view. Opt Now I'm gonna click save So nights in the same folder is the original. Now close this one down and I'm going to open up the original again. That one come on to control zero file save as because remember, A J peg is a compressible format. There are 13 different levels of quality 0 to 12. So actually, there's 13. Now I'm going to call this cathedral view zero Jay Peak is a format. No, I'm going to click on Save and it asks me what quality level do I want? What? I'm going to run their back to zero and then quickly click. OK, so hopefully you didn't see what happened to it, but it looks great, doesn't it just fine? And so it should, because this is actually the original image. Still, even though it says at the top that its cathedral view zero No, this is cathedral view 12. It didn't change the view. But if I close it and then reopen all three, then we should see some differences. So this one is the original cathedral view. 12. This one is the optimized one is hardly any differences between those two. But this one over here is Cathedral view zero. I'm just going to click on that to make it the active image control. Come on, zero on. Let's have a look. I'll zoom right in. What do you think? Pretty bad. Now you can probably see these sort of rectangular blocks. That's what saving is a J pig does. It divides the image up into blocks of pixels measuring eight by eight. And each one of those blocks has got an algorithm which determines the detail. Now, if there's a little bit of detail on one side like there is in this block, a simple algorithm will tend to sort of reflect it right through the block, Which is why you've got this sort of disturbance is not a nice flat color on that schooled artifact ing. And once you got it, you can't easily get rid of it. So if you save a J pick at a lower quality level, you will have some artifact ing, and there's nothing you can do about it. The only way you can avoid it is to save the image at quality level 12 and I'll zoom in again. No artifact. 38. 34 Optimize 2: Let's have a look at the size of the different images, so cathedral view the original is 311. Cathedral of You Opt is 93 and cathedral views. Zero is 50 so it is quite a bit smaller than Cathedral view Oct. But I'll put cathedral View. Opt up here so we can compare these two. You see, there is a tiny little bit of artifact ing. There's a little bit of disturbance, almost like a sort of a heat haze rising off the building, but hardly any, and you don't really notice it from a distance for this, you're going to notice it our whole lot more easily. One other factor that's coming to play, which may have something to do with this being marked his legacy is that quite a lot of websites that do a lot of the work for you, like WordPress, have got built in compression algorithms themselves. And if you put an image onto the site, it will immediately squish it, using its own algorithm. Unfortunately, the result is it usually looks really soft, no matter what quality level. You saved the J peg as it's gonna look like rubbish on your site. However, if you save it as a PNG, it's gonna look pretty good. I'm going to open up the original again. This one and I'm going to save it is a PNG so we can see the difference in file size. So file save as PNG. Okay, and here it is. So there's zero. There's the original. There's optimized. Remember, the original was 311. Okay, well, the PNG is 467 and not compressible. So though PNG's gonna look really nice and sharp on the website, there is a downside. So then it's up to you. But if you're using J pegs, optimize thumb. 39. 35 Animated Gifs: although a gift file is limited in terms of the number of colors it can display, they can be pretty good. And I see a lot of them these days and Facebook and YouTube, and you can also put him on websites and you can make your own and this is how you do it. So I'm going to open up in image and it's called Boom PST. It's a multiple layer file. That's the background. And then we got a countdown. 54321 on both these layers together. Boom! That's it. Now I can turn this into an animated GIF with a one second delay between each number showing on. This is how I do it. Window timeline. Now the timeline appears right across the bottom of the screen. Quite often it will open in video mode, which looks like this. You don't really want that to make an animated GIF. So if you get a button in the middle saying open and video mode, click on it to get you going on, then come over here and click on this little strip. This is supposed to represent a filmstrip, and the film strip is made up of frames. So this is frame one, though. I want more frames. So if I want the background on its own than 5432 ones that six total on, then these two together, that seven. So I want six more frames. So into click on the new icon six times. 123456 Then I could select frame to and turn on layer five, then frame three and turn on layer four and so on. And then for this last one, I'm going to turn both these boom frames on. Okay, now I've got the order, right. However, all of these frames are set to run for five seconds. Well, that's no good. So if this last one's selected on, I hold down the shift key and click on the 1st 1 that's like the beginning of the end of a list of its elects. Everything else in between, Then I can click on this timing, like on down here, and choose one on. It'll put it in place for all of them. I'll make this bigger so we can see it better, and I'll click on the play icon now if I put it on a website. It'll just run once like that or I could change this. It says Once here, either to three times or forever or something different. I'll set it 23 times and thats what it will do. No, I need to turn it into a gift because this is still a pierced e file, and I can't put that on a website. So the next thing I'll do is file export. Safer Web legacy. There's my original and it tells me the size of the PST, which is quite chunky. 1.33 megs and then over here it's currently showing what it would be a zj pick. What? I don't want a J peg. I want a GIF, and I want to start with a maximum number of colors. This color table shows me 256 colors. I could select any one of them and delete it. So instead of 2 56 side after 55 2 54 and so on, Or I can shortcut that by saying, Yeah, I don't think I need to 56. How about I try 1 28? Now watch the image carefully when I do this, because that's where any change is gonna happen. But 256 it's 81.27 kilobytes, and at 128 it's 63.42 Interesting. How about we try 64 and now it's 50.45 So the size of the file is going down dramatically. The number of colors in the farm's going down dramatically, but still looks pretty much the same to me. No, if I thought all these two are basically the same, I'm going to get rid of that one. Click on the Ben and it's gone. And if I didn't see any adverse effect over here, Hey, I got away with it. How about these two? I think I'll get rid of that. And again, I didn't see any problem. Now it's a 62 color gift on the size has gone down to 50.39 No, I could try and whittle it down even further. Let's try 32. I still don't see a problem. 16. No one is starting to see a slight problem. This fuzzy edge around it is not as fuzzy as it used to be. I can see banding there now. Now it says that the dither is said it zero and dither is kind of mixing up the pixels to get rid of stuff like banding. Okay, 34.82 is the size of the file with Did this edit? Zero? Let's try and dither at 100%. Abandoned goes away, but now the file size has gone back up to 61.59 So there's quite a few variables here. If I wanted to say that and put it on a website, I would just click on Save. I've got some choices here. Images, HTML and images. HTML Only images is fine. You don't need any code for an animated GIF on our quick an animated GIF and put it in there. Save. Now I can go to a browser on his chrome and I'll say, file open file and go find it. Boom GIF on that will run three times, cause that's what I saved it for 40. 36 Slicing an Image: If you want to put a really large image on a website, may be in the background, then there's a better alternative than just putting it up. There is one single thing, because that one single thing is going to start to load from the top down, and people may get bored while it's loading and decide to go somewhere else. So this method allows you to break it up into chunks, optimize each chunk separately and then tie the whole thing together in an automatically generated HTML table, which the viewer doesn't even see. This image was given to me by my friend Arjuna Moreau. He's the abbot of a Thai Buddhist monastery near Northampton, and he went to Egypt a few years ago, and this is one of the pictures he took. And it's ideal for what I've got in mind. No, If I click and hold on the crop tool, there's the slice tool, and with a slice tool, I could start in the gray area and click and drag, and I'm gonna make a slice that pretty much includes all the sky like that. And it says up here, 01 And down here in a slightly different color. It says, 02 We're not going to make another slice of the water like this. Sen. Oh, God. Oh, on 0203 the ones that I've made a blue the ones have been generated automatically are not? No. I'm going to go file export, save her Web legacy. I can click on the individual slices on the left on that can click on the individual slices on the right And when I've got a slice selected, I can optimize it over here and then go in, select another slice and optimize it in a completely different way. Effectively, this has now become three separate images. So for the sky, I'd want that to be maybe a J peg. Quite high quality. I'm gonna put that up to 80. I don't want any artifact ing. No, I'm going to select the land. I think there I can get away with a slightly lower quality Jay paid maybe 60 but down here , the water Well, I'm going to save that as a J pick as well. But you can hammer stuff like water. I'm not going to save it at what is that? Six. I'm going to save it at 20 32.57 kilobytes for the water. 52 for the land, 67 for the sky. Okay, no, I'm going to save that, and I put it in slicing an image. But this time I'm going to say HTML and images. Otherwise it won't automatically generate the table, and then I'll click save, So I wonder how these compare Let's go have a look. His finder. Here's the original Rev. In Ill, and that is 776 kilobytes. Here's the HTML document it's created. That's not even one kilobyte here. The images that I've just saved Regional 12 and three. Okay, one. The sky is 70 to the land is 55 3 The water is 34 70 55 34 about 160 kilobytes, compared to 776 kilobytes. Let's load it up in a browser and see how it looks, and I'm gonna load that in the browser. The HTML code already links the appropriate image to the appropriate part of the table, so I'll click on chrome down here and then I'll go file open file, slicing an image riven. I'll html open. How about that? Not only is it seamless, not only is it really quite large, I mean it's nearly filling the screen here. It's a much, much, much smaller file than the original, and you can tell.