Accessible UX Writing – Part 2: Alt Text | Dr. Katharina Grimm | Skillshare

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Accessible UX Writing – Part 2: Alt Text

teacher avatar Dr. Katharina Grimm, Writer & Writing Educator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

9 Lessons (44m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Accessibility & UX Writing

    • 3. About Accessible Alt Text

    • 4. Where To Add Alt Text

    • 5. How To Write Alt Text

    • 6. Keywords & Documentation

    • 7. Further Tips & Tricks

    • 8. Summary & Class Project

    • 9. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

UX Writing is the user communication within digital interfaces. In order for users to complete a certain task when using a website or an app, this communication has to be intuitive and easy to understand – for everybody. It goes without saying that this includes users of all abilities and users in all kinds of situations. 

Therefore, inclusion and accessibility play a major role in UX Writing. 

But how can we make sure our UX Writing is accessible?

If you are interested in UX Writing but still struggle with how to make your UX Writing accessible, this course is the right choice for you!

Who should join

This course is the perfect match for all UX writers, UX designers, UI designers, developers, product managers, and all other kinds of professionals working in the field of digital product development, as well as for everybody else who is interested in UX Writing. 

What you will learn

In this second part of the two-part series, you will learn

  • about accessibility in UX Writing  
  • about the role of alt text in accessibility
  • when to add alt text
  • how to write alt text
  • how to document alt text
  • further tips and tricks about accessible UX Writing in general 

Sounds good? Then join this class and leave it with an eye for non-accessible copy and specific knowledge on how to write inclusive and accessible alt text. 

Please note: If you want to take this class but have no premium account yet, feel free to use my referral link and try free Premium for 14 days:

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Dr. Katharina Grimm

Writer & Writing Educator


I'm passionate about all things writing, language and communication. As an anthropologist, I specialized in the field of effective communication and how we, as humans, can build trust through communication. 

What I do

I had worked as a communication strategist for several years before becoming a full-time writer. Today, I support digital product teams by creating and editing all kinds of writing with them – from tiny microcopy in coffee machine interfaces to essays and blog articles. 

What I teach

My areas of expertise include

UX Writing  Copywriting Content Writing Technical Writing  Personal Writing such as Journaling. 

How I teach

I love making sense of all these forms of writing, discovering their sim... See full profile

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1. Introduction: So hello everybody and welcome to this course, which is the second course about accessible UX writing. Now this is Part 2 of a two-course series and this course right here will be about alt text. And alt texts are descriptions of visual elements in the interface like images and icons. And for visually impaired users to perceive the meaning of these elements, we need alt text. So basically this is a super important part of the user communications. So it is also an important part of your writing, but it is often overlooked and neglected in practice. Now in this course right here, you will learn what all text is. You will learn what we need it for and of course how to write it and how to document it. So this course is basically the perfect choice for everybody working in UX, UX writers, UX researchers and UX designers and developers. So everybody who works with any form of text in a digital interface. Now as I said, this is the second part of a two-course serious. And even though you don't have to take the first part to understand this part, I would really recommend to take the first course as well because that will give you the full picture of accessible UX writing. And if you're ready to dive into alt text, then I wish you lots and lots of fun with this course. 2. Accessibility & UX Writing: So welcome to the first lesson of this class. And as I said, this course is actually the second part of a two-course series about accessible UX writing. So this first lesson will be a bit of a recap about the basics we learned about accessibility and UX writing in general. Now, I will not go into detail as much as I did in the first course of this series. But if you chose to not attend the first class, I still want to give you the chance to follow this one. So a little groundwork that we do here. Now, if you have taken the first-class on accessibility and UX writing, you can skip this part or you can refresh your memory by, of course, just looking at these things one more time. So first of all, let's visit an old friend. The definition of UX writing that I always work with in my classes. So you might be familiar with it. It's a definition provided by the UX writers collective and I slightly modified it into this. Ux writing is the practice of crafting the user facing and user guiding texts that appears within the design of digital products. This is what UX writing is, and this also implies the purpose of UX writing. It guides the user. Now let's dive a little deeper into the purpose by taking a look at the following quote. This quote is about the goal of UX writing. And it says, the first goal of good UX writing is usability. Before you give digital products personality, those products need to make sense, and that means the words need to work for everyone. And this explains very well why we need to ensure accessibility in our UX writing, the words need to work for everyone. And only then we ensure that everyone can use our products. And this is not only morally important, it also ensures that as many people as possible become our customers, use our services and buy our products much. Ensuring accessibility is also a good choice marketing wise because it speaks well the quality of your work. And as we can see in this quote here, by providing users with a particularly simple and comprehensible application, we usually already stand out from the competition to such an extent that we can largely dispense with fresh texts as a unique selling point. And if that's not enough, there are also a bunch of laws out there in many, many countries that require us to ensure accessibility. And here are some of them. We see that for example, the USA got them, my country, Germany has them, and Australia and Japan also have lost that require digital products to be accessible. And as I said, there are many, many more. So if you want to see a larger list of that, you can head over to the website that I put down here, an article by Adam icon, yummy. And then you see that there are even more countries that actually have these kinds of laws. Now, these are all good reasons to ensure accessibility in our UX writing. But now let's approach what that actually means, accessibility in UX writing. Because what we know is that we need to make our user experiences accessible and enjoyable for users who are affected actually by impairment. And this can be physical impairment, for example, like visual impairment, auditory impairment, or mobility related impairment. And we also got forms of neurological psychological impairment, so-called forms of neurodiversity, such as dyslexia, for example, or ADHD, autism, dyscalculia, or even mental health issues. But another thing that we need to understand about these and other forms of impairment is that impairment doesn't have to be permanent to affect the user experience of users. And this is especially interesting. So this is a very famous image that can be found in the Microsoft inclusive toolkit. And this image gives examples of impairment that can also be situational and temporary. So impairment doesn't even have to be permanent all the time to be relevant for user experiences. For example, when users are in the situation where they carry something on their arms, right, like a baby, as is shown in the example on the upper right. They have situational mobility, impairment. Our users who are in a situation where they're driving a car and they need to interact with a dashboard interface. Of course, they actually need to focus on the road. They can't read long sentences or analyze complex images or icons and so on. Or you're a bartender or just visiting a bar, then that means you are in an extremely noisy situation and loud environment where you can't possibly consume audio content. Or think of yourself as being overly tired because you had a bad night with no sleep, which will make it hard for you to focus and concentrate. So it is very important that we do not only speak of users with permanent impairment, we also have to think about users in situations that can make it hard for them to have a great user experience or even use an interface properly. And that means that this may actually apply to a very, very large part of our target audience. Let that sink in. That is a very, very important fact that we need to be aware about. This is not only about permanent impairment. Now, all of these aspects we have to keep in mind when performing you exciting, and this is it for the recap. Feel free, of course, to pause the video right here. I said, think about this and create some awareness for yourself about this. And if you're ready, let's take a closer look at what kinds of texts elements we need to pay attention to when Ensuring accessibility in our UX writing. And that's also fine. Our focus for this class right here, which is alt text. And if you're ready for that, I'll see you in the next lesson. 3. About Accessible Alt Text: So hello everybody and welcome back. This is the second lesson of this class, and it's the one where we cut right to the chase. We will talk about accessible, I'll text, which is very important for UX writers who want to ensure an accessible user experience. Now, there are actually two forms of texts that we need to take care of an UX writing, and this is not talked about a lot. Now, first of all, we got on-screen text and we got, I'll text. On-screen text is the text that appears in the interface, the texts that users can perceive visually. And this is what we usually call UX writing. And then as I said, second we got I'll texts. I'll text does not appear on screen but in the code and is detected by screen readers. Now what our screen readers, screen readers are kinds of software that allow blind or visually impaired users to read the text that is displayed in the interface, either with a synthesizer or a braille display. So a braille display as well, you can see in the right picture it allows users to feel the words written on the interface with their fingers. Now, when using a screen reader, you don't navigate with a mouse, but with the keyboard, especially with a tab bar and the arrow keys. And tapping these keys usually makes the user jump from element to element, going from top to bottom of a page or from left to right. And when going from element to element, that screen reader identifies these elements. For example, if it's a button or a link, or an image, and then reads the information that it has about that elements. So either what is written on the button or headline all what the inflammation in the alt text says. And I'll text is the text elements that describe visual elements in the screens such as images or icons. So I'll text is actually a text element in an HTML documents. So written in code that gives information about the contents of functional visual elements like an image or an icon, for example. So when you switch on a screen reader, it reads the text that is visually written in the interface like in headlines and links and buttons and labels. And it also reads the alt texts that you put into the code to describe visual elements that have no description in the interface. Such as, for example, the top navigation bar in Facebook, which is basically made up of icons only. So if you hat visual impairment and couldn't see the icons, you would definitely not be able to use this navigation if it didn't have any alt-text. And same goes for this Instagram or a very common example for functional visual elements is also this right here. These classic social media icons for, for Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, and so on. So these as well need to be described an alt text because otherwise they could not be read by people with visual impairment. And this right here is an example for what the alt text for these icons may look like. It clearly describes what happens when the user clicks on it. So it says, go to we work Facebook profile, go to we were Instagram account or go to WeWork Twitter profile. So these are some examples and we will dive deeper into this and into how to write all texts later on. But before that, let's take a look at the purpose of all ticks to get the full picture because this is interesting. Now, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines say that your goal with writing, I'll text should be to provide consent. That's when presented to the user, conveys essentially the same function or purpose as auditory or visual content. So allow users with visual impairment, mainly users of screen readers, to perceive the same information that users with no impairment can perceive. And as a UX brighter, you are responsible for ensuring this. So in the following sections, I will give you some advice on how to do exactly that, right? I'll text. But before we go there, I got an exercise for you and it goes like this. Please open a stock photo or I can website of your choice and switch on your screen reader or voice over as it is called sometimes. And don't worry, I will show you how to do that in a second and flip through the websites, images or icons using the screen reader. What do you notice? And get familiar with the sound of the screen reader and see how your screen read across through the information on the website. And you can even close your eyes to find out how the description of these images and icons help you to create an image in your hat. Now I see what you still need to do this exercise is find out how to switch on your screen reader. Now you can either do that in your browser or on your device. For example, you can use an extension for your Chrome browser, which simply goes by the name screen reader. You can see it here. You can get it by simply searching for Chrome browser extensions and then edit to your Chrome browser and switch it on. And the iPhone also has an integrated screen reader. I show you how to find that button. You can just open the Settings. Scroll down, click on accessibility right here. And then you'll see all the accessibility features. So you'll also find the magnifier here or audio descriptions and so on. But what we want to have is the screen readers. So you click on voice over right here. And then you go to the voice-over function, which is basically this screen reader function. And then you can activate it and also managed a settings like define the speed of reading and so on and so forth. Now, of course, these are just two examples. I'm really sure that there are many Android phones and other web browsers out there, which also have an integrated screen readers. So you might just want to check out your personal device for one, but I'm sure you will find it. I know, for example, that MacBooks, for example, have a voice-over feature, so definitely check your device or your browser. So what else do you need? How about a list of icon and stock photo websites? I got some for you, these examples right here. And you can visit one or even more of these with your screen reader switched on. And you can just go along as you would usually do, search for some random icon or a photo. Click on the photo, click on the icon and click on the details and see how perceiving these descriptions with your screen reader actually fields for you. And of course, if you want to, you can always share your thoughts here on Skillshare and start a discussion with your peers because there is no right or wrong in this exercise. Obviously, this exercise is just here to introduce the screen reader and I'll text to you. So don't be shy. Share your thoughts or ask a question, whatever feels right for you. And if you're done with that, I see you in the next lesson where I will start sharing some advice on how to actually write alt text. So see you there. 4. Where To Add Alt Text: So welcome to the next lesson of this class and we will now start to find out how to actually write accessible all texts, which is a very important part in performing UX writing. And the first thing that we need to keep in mind is we first need to choose which visual elements neat alt-text and which don't. And here we have to watch the following at all texts. So every visual element that has informative value, now, what does that mean? Now I have an image or an icon has informative value at the Holt's important information for the user. And then, and only then it should have all texts that can be read by screen readers. It is very important that not every image and every icon needs. I'll text just those that add value to the experience. And if you put alt text to images and icons that don't need it, you will only create unnecessary cognitive load, especially for icons if they are merely decorate IV or if you have an on-screen description next to an icon, you don't necessarily need alt text because it doesn't provide any additional information. Now let's take a look at some examples to learn more about that. This example right here is from Walmart and they do something a lot of apps and websites do right here. They use the icon off a little shopping cart as a link to the actual virtual shopping cart if the user, so the place where users collect the items they want to buy. Now this is a functional, not a decorated icon, because this is the thing the user needs to click on our tap on in order to see the items they selected for their purchase. And the same goes for these elements that we see in this example from ase A-S-E right here. And I can in the shape of a person's upper body that takes users to their profile, an icon and the shape of a heart that takes users to their wish-list. And an icon and the shape of a back that takes users to the item stay selected for purchase. Now, all of these are functional icons that are actually links to important features of the online shop. So they need all texts. Same goes for these. An example from Gmail also loaded with functional icons right here. And these functional icons definitely need to have all texts. However, let's also look at some examples that don't need all texts like these from YouTube. And we're talking about these icons on the left-hand side right here. And these icons do not need L texts because right next to them, we already have their description. So the informative value is in this description already and the icons on the left side are merely decorative. So we don't need to add alt text to them. We at nothing here, so the screen reader can simply ignore it and just read the descriptions on the right side. Now, the same goes for these icons right here in the bottom navigation of the Apple podcast app. And these icons right here don't need all texts because the description is right below and will be detected by the screen reader. Or last example from booking. These icons right here. Also don't need alt-text because the description that comes with them is enough. Okay. I think you got my point here. Nothing to do for you right now. Take your time to process this inflammation and if you're ready, I'll see you in the next lesson where we will talk about what alt-text should actually look like and how it should be written. So see you there. 5. How To Write Alt Text: So welcome to the next lesson of this class and we are still talking about how to actually write accessible alt-text. And now that we have learned which elements should have alt text, we will now learn how to actually write it. And the first thing we need to know is that we need to use clear and functional descriptions. And that means we should use functional instead of visual descriptions. Let's take a look at an example here. Now, if you use a functional icon like a little house in the upper left corner of your website that users can click to return to home. Then don't provide an alt texts that says house, but tell users with a link in this icon will take them. So it's better to use, go back to home as L texts or take this very specific exemplar right here coming from Mac OS. If you want to check or change the system settings in your MacBook, you click this icon. Clearly, this thing is a cock wheel, but if you add the alt-text cock wheel and the screen reader will read this, users will absolutely not understand what this icon is all about. So don't write cock wheel, but right, go to Settings or system settings. So users know what to do with this. Because basically users do not care what this icon looks like. They care for the function behind that symbol. Now another example to illustrate this is this one right here, the language settings icon. So of course we don't want to give the user a visual description of this because this is not very informative and what's still require a lot of interpretation and thinking. So as alt-text, we don't write flag with outlined globe on it. We write goal to language and religion settings. So this is helpful to users and it helps them to navigate through the interface. Now let's move on. Next piece of advice. Remember that alt-text is not a place to be overly creative and crazy. Just keep things short and concise, faster, read, easy to understand. So be clear and concise at the same time. And I'll show you an example for this. Look at this picture, a market, lots of things going on here. We have a lot of Froude, we have lots of vegetables, boxes, people, buildings, little details, lots of things to see here and to describe. However, Imagine this image pops up on a treble Agency's website as a nice little illustration for a special offer for an all-inclusive trip to Italy. And imagine a user is navigating through this website with a screen reader, scanning the information, the name of the hotel, the price of the author, the number of days included. And then the user gets to this image and is confronted with a large, I'll texts like this market in Italy with different boxes of vegetables and fruit including tomatoes, Atlas red and yellow peppers, apples and plums with young, old male female people standing next to these boxes looking at the different kinds of fruit and vegetables, talking to each other and purchasing fruit and vegetables from the vendors. Now, large descriptions like this interrupt the user flow and the user is confronted with a lot of information and we don't know which parts of this information are actually important for us. So the only context in which a large description like this would be okay, is when you're designing the website of a calorie and you shall paintings and photographs. And you want to allow the user to get a clear idea of what this painting of photography looks like and understand the composition and the structure in every detail of it. Okay? But unless you do something like that, image, alt texts should be kept short and clear and efficient and it should give users a quick idea of what is shown and that's it, That's about it. So instead of opting for a launch texts like this, try something like this. Market and a delete with different kinds of vegetables and fruit with several people strolling around and making purchases. As I said, it always depends on the context. But if you imagine this being placed on the website of a travel agency for a trip to Italy. This works fine. If you place this image in another contexts, for example, on a website about markets are vegetables and fruit. You might leave this information right here out. And if you're right about narrow streets and Italy, you can insert different information like this. So generally choose carefully depending on the context, which information you need to involve an envelope, this inflammation only because only then you can keep your all text and formative and efficient at the same time. Now again, that was a lot of information and a lot of texts. So feel free to pause here and take your time to read this if you want to, and if you're ready to go, let's look at another piece of advice that is important for writing L texts. And that is for images, especially. Describe what can be seen, but avoid AIDS-related racial and other personal attributes, except for when this is important to understand the context, let's head over to another example to see what this is about. Take a look at this image. Now let's imagine this is used for an article about creating an interactive and engaging class environment. And how to motivate students to actually take part in class raising their hands and talking to the teacher and so on. Now, imagine you would now provide an all texts that looks like this in order to give the user a very detailed idea of what to see here. Middle aged woman standing in a classroom in front of a blackboard looking at class of male and female students of different skin types. While a dark haired student races hands and dark Harut and blonde female student look at him. Now, there's a lot of information going on about the appearance of the teacher and the students, which is actually irrelevant. So again, unnecessary cognitive load right here. But there's another thing going on here that is closely related to how our brain is wired. I mean, we explain what's going on in this image and details. So we think we give users an accurate idea of what's going on. But look at the description again, at some point that kind of pushes us to interpret the H and the sender of the teacher and the appearance of the students. And we try to figure out why we were given this information. So for example, are the two girls discriminating against the boy who raises his hand? Or is it important that the teacher is middle aged and a female? We immediately start checking our knowledge about these groups of people and might even connect these inflammation to our very own prejudices. And in most cases this does more harm than good except for when you write about prejudices. And you want to use this photo to illustrate a certain point that is connected to that. For a context like the one that I described right here, an article about interactive classroom concepts. This description right here would be far better. Teacher standing in a classroom in front of a blackboard looking at a class of students while one student races hint. Now, if gender, ethnicity, and age do not play any role for understanding the meaning of the image or of the contexts that is placed in, then you can leave the information out completely because otherwise it would just create unnecessary cognitive load. If clouds our hats with unnecessary information and it triggers prejudices and stereotypes. So just explain everything in a very easy and simple way, like it is done here. If that's all that people have to know to understand the context. So I hope I managed to make my point clear to you. I think it's not very easy to talk about this and it's kind of complicated. But again, you can always pause here and watch everything again. And if that doesn't help, you can of course, always asked me questions or start a discussion on our discussion board. Now, that's it for this lesson. And if you're ready for the next one, I see you there where we will talk about keywords and documentation. 6. Keywords & Documentation: So hello everybody and welcome back. In this lesson of our class, we will talk about the last pieces of advice that I have for you concerning accessible, I'll texts and they will all be about more practical aspects. To be more precise, we will talk about keywords and documentation. Let's start with keywords. Because first of all, what we really need to do is avoid keyword stuffing. Now, some years ago, keywords and our content were everything, everything. Many content writers put as many relevant keywords and to their texts because that would mean that their texts was ranked very high in the search results of search engines, especially Google. So imagine you are a UX design agency and you put the keyword UX design agency, agency a zillion times on your website. That back in the day would mean that you would rank very high when people were searching for UX design agency. Now, at some point, content writers realized that their texts would lack readability when they put these zillion keywords into them. So people started to put these keywords into the alt text of websites because they thought that this way the keywords were hidden but somehow still recognizable for the other rhythm. So I'll texts often used to look a little bit like this. An example I found in an article and this alt text, sass, HubSpot offers wall, Singapore, inbound marketing, workplace merozoites, orange, waltz, ship it. Just putting some random key hertz into there and somehow they match the image. But first of all, this is not a description that can be understood by users who don't see the image, since these are just randomly paired keywords. And second, we got stuff like inbound marketing in here, which is obviously a search relevant keyboard, but has nothing to do with what can be seen in this image. So the thing is, algorithms have changed. They have become smarter over the past years. So a great user experience is everything and keyword stuffing, your alt text or your code just doesn't work anymore. And above, an overall, I'll text is here to help visually impaired users to perceive an image. It is not our place to misuse for visibility in search results. So please avoid keyword stuffing at all costs. Instead, try something like this. Orange Moureau that says ship it on the wall at hotspots Singapore office. So a very clear description that connects relevant keywords to a sentence so that it actually is a useful description while avoiding keywords that are not relevant. Now as often, feel free to pause and go back and forth to read that yourself. And if you're done, we can move forward. Because next up, we want to talk about how to document our alt-text properly. Because if you have watched this class until now and ask yourself, Okay, now I know what I'll text is and I know how to write it and what to avoid. But if it should be in the code that our developers, right, where do I, as a writer, put it? Where do I write it? Or in other words, how do I document all text properly? Now let's check this out. Very personal advice from myself. I personally use a Google Sheet and I have three columns here. And the first one on the left, this one, I paste a screenshot up the visual element that I want to write all texts for it. In this case, it's all about icons. And in the middle column, this one, I write the name of the visual elements. So I give each element a name. So when we use this icon in another place, developers know that this is the same element. Now you can skip this column if you like. But I found that very helpful to give these visual elements actual names because it's easier for developers to deal with them. So now on the right column, this one, I finally put the alt text for the developers. So what I do is I put the copy in this Google Sheet and then I give access to the developers so they can leave me commons are asked me questions or whatever. Now, these were my final pieces of advice on how to write all texts. I know there might be a lot more things to say about proper accessible all texts, but these things, you're good to go. And I also hope that the examples that I showed you, we'll help you. So in the next lesson, I will give you some final tips and tricks on accessible UX writing in general. And here I will connect the dots between this class right here and the previous class. But if you haven't taken my last class, don't worry, these tips and tricks will still be very helpful to you. So if you're ready for that, I'll see you there. 7. Further Tips & Tricks: So hello everybody and welcome to this lesson, which is almost the last one. And then this one, I will give you some final tips and tricks about accessible UX writing in general. So let's go. The first one is no Meta. If you write onscreen texts, are all texts. Read your text out loud. This will help you to detect arrows and you can also check if your text is conversational, intuitive, and easy to understand. And finally, and very importantly, it will help you to see how your texts will sound with the help of a screen reader. And next up. And this is also very crucial when creating inclusive microscopy. Be aware of unconscious bias. Now, we all are affected by phenomenon called unconscious bias, which means that our perception of the world is shaped by how we experience it. So if we don't have an impairment of whatever kind, it might be hard to naturally consider things that are relevant for people who have an impairment. This is completely normal, but we, as people who create user experiences, need to go the extra mile to make sure we keep these things in mind. So instead of asking for gender, for example, ask for pronouns and avoid discriminatory language and ableism. What's your language when you speak of different groups of people? So instead of saying, for example, disabled people choose to say people who have a disability or people who have an impairment to make fully, fully clear that their abilities do not define their identity. Now next, of course, test properly. Now when inviting participants to a user tests for your website or your app, make sure your group of participants is diverse concerning their gender, their educational backgrounds, and of course, their abilities in order to see if your product is accessible. And last one, be empathetic to what's different situations. Now, as we have seen here, most of the time, when we think of the abilities and the impairments of our users, we think of permanent impairment, but as you can see here, and I already showed you this before, We also got temporary and situational impairment. So a user's mobility might be limited because of an arm injury or because they are a new parent and carry their babies on their arm and therefore can't use two hands to navigate through a product. And by the way, this also applies to all text. For example, think of when you're in the place where the internet connection is really, really bad and the images on a website or an app are not loading properly, so you don't see the image. You can only see the description, which is the alt-text. Now, I want to close this lesson with a quote. This one right here, coming from, wrote him big-time and Canada Defra. And in their 2018 article about accessible Mike recopied they save. Ever since I've learned the principles of accessibility written here, I've overcome a big challenge and writing micro copy at large. I got a clear answer to my questions of how clever I should be when writing microscopy. I imagined the screen reader reading the text or a user with a cognitive impairment reading it. And I immediately arrive at where and how much cleverness I can use and where to draw the line. My writing has become simpler and clearer with witty wording only in the right places. Very on point. And a lot, a lot, a lot, a lot of respect and gratitude for these two authors for their amazing work. So definitely read that article and check out their work because it is really, really insightful. So, okay, this is it for this lesson and all that we got left in this class as the last lesson where I will give you a brief summary of this course. And I will also give you more information about your class project. And if you're ready for that, I'll see you there. 8. Summary & Class Project: So hello everybody and welcome to this last lesson of this class where I will give you a brief summary and we will also talk about your class project. But let's take a look back. First. The first thing that we learned was that there are two forms of relevant text and then interface. The first one is onscreen texts. So the text that we can see in the interface. And the other one is alt text, which is hidden in the coat. And we made it very clear that we don't want to talk about onscreen texts right here because that's what we talked about in the previous class. And in this class, we wanted to talk about texts. Then we quickly dove into my pieces of advice for you about how to write accessible all texts. And the first piece of advice that I had for you was that we need to carefully decide which visual elements need alt text. And basically, we learned that we need to add alt text to every visual element that has informative value. And we looked at some examples like this one from a basis. Well, we saw these icons up here and realize that behind each one of these icons, there is a function because they take us to a profile, our wishlist, and our shopping back. And we also met this example from YouTube, where right here on the left, we got some icons, but we realized that they don't need alt-text because right next to them we already got the description of what these icons mean. And if we added alt-text SEA, we would write the same thing twice. So we learned that when Vishal elements are merely decorate IV, we don't need alt texts. So right here we learned when to read a text, and after that we learned how to write alt texts because we learned that we need to use functional instead of visual descriptions. So when we see something like this, the settings icon on macOS from Apple, we don't write cock wheel, but we write, go to settings or system settings. So the user knows what to do with this. And I know this actually very important point. I know this seems kind of obvious, but this is just because this is a very striking, very obvious example. And there are examples that are far less obvious where you have to keep this in mind. And the next thing we learned, kind of related. And it's all about that we need to be clear and concise with our descriptions so we don't go crazy with the tonality. And we also don't just write as much information in it as we have about a certain thing. Like in this example right here, where the author of the alt-text just put every little piece of information into the all text that the image was providing us with. Because he or she thought that this would be a good idea. Instead, we learned that it is important to know the context in which the image or icon is placed so that we know which information will be important for the user, which won't. Yeah, next to that we learned that we should definitely avoid keyword stuffing because people used to put a lot of relevant keywords in there, alt text, which looked something like this. And this is actually only very confusing and doesn't help the user experience. So we need to write it in a very clear way and, you know, have a conversational tone to it. So people who use a screen reader can actually understand what this image is all about. And last but not least, I showed you how you can document your alt text properly because in most cases that developers have to put the text into the code. So we need to find a way to hand these text elements over to them. And I showed you this and I explained to you that when I document the alt-text for icons, I do it in Google Sheets. You can also use other forms of spreadsheet like Microsoft excellent or whatever. Anything that is a spreadsheet is fine. And then I paste an image of the icon right here into the left column. And then I get this visual element names. So the Deaf snow when we use the same element or when we use a different visual element that only looks the same. For example, we use the same icon for edit address as we use for edit username. So the alt-text is different while the visual element looks the same. So this is it. That's it about all texts and a bounce accessible UX writing. A general, congratulations if you've stuck around like this long. This is it for the summary up next, I promised we will talk about your class project. Let's take a look at what to do. Please take a look at the following three examples. And based on what you learn in this course, decide which elements need alt text and write all texts for them. And if you want to, of course, you can also document your all text in a spreadsheet just to find your way into this. And as always, feel free to upload your results here on the discussion board or if you have any questions or you would just like to share your thoughts on the topic, feel free to start a discussion. So here are your examples. Two of them are coming from Walmart and the third one is from Bed Bath and Beyond. Now this selection contains many different visual elements that need alt text and some that don't. So you really can work your way through these and learn a lot about alt texts. So other than that, everything that's left to say for me is, thank you so much for being here, especially if you have taken this course and the last course. I hope it gave you some valuable information that you can actually use in your everyday writing practice. And if you want to, as always, you can join me on some final remarks and my altro. And if not, I wish you all the best and I hope to see you soon. 9. Final Thoughts: So this is a congratulations on completing this class and thank you so much for joining me in this class. I hope that you learned a lot of things that are valuable for you and your writing practice. Now I think if you have attended this course and the last course about accessible UX writing, I think that you're good to go, that you're ready and that you have a really, really good awareness about how to write accessible micro copy for digital interfaces. However, if there are any open questions left, if there's anything else that you would like to know about the topic, or if you just want to share a thought about the topic, feel free to start a discussion in our discussion board. And of course, as always, feel free to leave a review for this course if you like. Now, there's nothing else to say for me except for, as always, enjoy writing, enjoy the process. And I hope to see you sometime soon.