Accessible UX Writing – Part 1: On-Screen Text | Dr. Katharina Grimm | Skillshare

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Accessible UX Writing – Part 1: On-Screen Text

teacher avatar Dr. Katharina Grimm, Writer & Writing Educator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (46m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Why Do We Need Accessible UX Writing?

    • 3. Diversity & Abilities

    • 4. Screen Readers

    • 5. Accessible On-Screen Text

    • 6. Context & Clarity

    • 7. The Right Order

    • 8. Clear Buttons & Links

    • 9. Emojis

    • 10. Summary & Class Project

    • 11. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

UX Writing is the user communication within digital interfaces. In order for users to complete a certain task when using a website or an app, this communication has to be intuitive and easy to understand – for everybody. It goes without saying that this includes users of all abilities and users in all kinds of situations. 

Therefore, inclusion and accessibility play a major role in UX Writing. 

But how can we make sure our UX Writing is accessible?

If you are interested in UX Writing but still struggle with how to make your UX Writing accessible, this course is the right choice for you!

Who should join

This course is the perfect match for all UX writers, UX designers, UI designers, developers, product managers, and all other kinds of professionals working in the field of digital product development, as well as for everybody else who is interested in UX Writing. 

What you will learn

In this first part of the two-part series, you will learn

  • about accessibility in user experience 
  • about the role of UX Writing in the accessibility of digital products
  • how to make general on-screen copy such as button text, link text, etc. accessible

Sounds good? Then join this class and leave it with an eye for non-accessible copy and specific knowledge on how to write inclusive and accessible copy. 

Please note: If you want to take this class but have no premium account yet, feel free to use my referral link and try free Premium for 14 days:

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr. Katharina Grimm

Writer & Writing Educator


I'm passionate about all things writing, language and communication. As an anthropologist, I specialized in the field of effective communication and how we, as humans, can build trust through communication. 

What I do

I've worked as a communication strategist for several years before becoming a full-time writer. Today, I support digital product teams by creating and editing all kinds of writing with them – from tiny microcopy in coffee machine interfaces to essays and blog articles. 

What I teach

My areas of expertise include

UX Writing  Copywriting Content Writing Technical Writing  Personal Writing such as Journaling. 

How I teach

I love making sense of all these forms of writing, discovering their simi... See full profile

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1. Introduction: So hello everybody and welcome to this course, which is called Accessible UX writing. And as you know, as people who create digital experiences, we work user centered. And that means that we take an accept our users as they are. Otherwise it wouldn't be quite accurate to speak of a user-centered approach. Now, that also means that we have to learn and talk about accessibility and inclusion. And that also means that this course right here is long overdue. Now this course right here is the first part of a two course serious about accessible UX writing in this course, the first one is all about on-screen text. So the text elements that you can visually perceive in the digital interface, basically, that is what we mean when we talk about classic UX writing. So the words on the buttons, the placeholder texts, or the error messages that you write. And in this course, you will learn how our users may differ in their physical, neurological abilities and how these differences may affect the user experience. You will also learn why it is important to ensure accessibility in the digital world and how you express it can help to ensure accessibility. But the core of this course is still how to actually write accessible micro copy that is visually perceivable in the interface. And this course is the perfect choice for everybody working in the field of UX. So UX UI designers, UX researchers, of course UX writers, and even developers, basically everybody who works with any form of texts in a digital interface. Now, even though this course is also well suited for beginners, I highly recommend to take first the introductory course about your exploding right here on Skillshare in my profile. Because it will help you to understand the basic quality criteria of UX writing. And it will help you to follow this course. And if you're ready to dive deeply into the topic of accessible UX writing. And if you're ready to go, then I wish you lots and lots of fun with this course. 2. Why Do We Need Accessible UX Writing?: So welcome to the first lesson of this class, which is called Why do we need accessible UX writing? And if you have attended any of my classes before, you know that we always take one step back at this point to do the necessary groundwork to get into the topic. And for this class, we first have to take a very quick look at what UX writing actually is. So let's answer this question first. What is UX writing? Now this is the definition we work with. It's a definition that I already showed you in my previous classes about UX writing right here on Skillshare. It's actually a definition provided by the UX writers collective and I slightly modified it into this. You're exploiting is the practice of crafting the user facing and user guiding texts that appears within the design of digital products. So usually there are several different forms of texts that appear in an interface. It can be text that is produced by copyrighting. It can be texts that is produced by technical writing, but the text that is produced in the process of UX writing is the user facing and user guiding texts. Now let's move further. What does accessibility another thing that we have to get straight in order to really dive into this topic. So let's take a look at a formal definition as well. Now, this definition is provided by the Interaction Design Foundation and it's SAS. Accessibility is concerned with whether all users are able to access an equivalent user experience, however they encounter a product or service. So accessibility means every user has the chance to have an equally great user experience when using a product or service. And of course, we know that UX writing takes a large part in creating great user experiences. So let's see what this is all about. Why do we need accessible UX writing? Let's take a look at this quote by Nick de la yellow in his article he says, And the first goal of good UX writing is usability. Before you give digital products personality, those products need to make sense and that means the words need to work for everyone. This explains very well by we need to ensure accessibility in our UX writing, the words neat to work for everyone, but they are more reasons for ensuring accessibility in our UX writing. And I would like to encourage you to take the time and explored them with me. Okay. Because when doing UX writing and projects, you know, in real life, in the real world, it may happen that your boss or your client won't give you the extra money or time to ensure accessibility in your UX writing. And the following reasons will help you to convince your stakeholders to invest in accessibility. And it's also a little motivation to keep going, but the topic, okay, So let's go. The first group of reasons of why accessibility and UX writing is absolutely necessary can be summarized as ethical reasons. Probably the most important reason is that as people who create user experiences, so experiences most human beings, it is our job to create experiences for everybody. Otherwise, we don't truly work user-centered. Otherwise, we're becoming guilty of giving certain groups of people a hard time in their everyday life. And we discriminate against them and we insult them, which is not fair and which is not morally, okay. But that's not it. Because in order to protect all groups of people, a lot of countries have installed loss about accessibility in the digital world. So there's also a lot of legal reasons. Here are some examples for such loss. In the USA, we got the Americans with Disabilities Act or short ADA. And the ADAAA does not explicitly include web or mobile accessibility. But as I read in an additional source that were a couple of cases where the Department of Justice has stated that the ADA also applies to digital touch points, such as websites and apps. Now, in Germany, we've got the act on equal opportunities for people with disabilities, which also applies to software and digital products. And the same goals for the Disability Discrimination Act of 1990 to in Australia. And very interesting, Japan actually has its own law for website accessibility, which is called the Japan website accessibility law for content and information accessibility. Very long name, very important law. Now, these are just some examples for laws that require digital products to be accessible. You can't find a longer list an atom. It can Yemeni article that I put here as a source and it also put it into my source list that I upload here and the download section. But there are more reasons why we should ensure accessibility in UX writing apart from all these lost, another group of reasons consists of. Seo related reasons, as you might know, as the o means search engine optimization and that means that your content is written and designed in a way that makes it rank high in search results when someone searches for your kind of service or your kind of organization. And mainly we're talking about Google search here. Now, making your writing accessible can enhance your SEO performance because while back in the day, see you. Whitman's, we're mainly focused on such things as keywords. The current search algorithms are super, super smart and they're focused on great user experiences. So if you got clear headlines, clear buttons, clear links, and clear and easy to understand navigation, short and easy to understand sentences that will help you as E 0 wise. Now, let's look at more reasons. Let's be very, very clear here. Marketing related reasons should not be your number one motivation to make your writing accessible, but providing accessible UX writing and communication in your digital product will show that you care for your customers and in that sense, it makes your brand more attractive. Here's a quote that is pretty on point, I think coming from Yulia Gilboa, another fellow German, you express her and she SAS by providing users with a particularly simple and comprehensible application, we usually already stand out from the competition to such an extent that we can largely dispense with fresh texts as a unique selling point. I love this quote. This is so much on point because unfortunately, there are still many non accessible websites and apps out there, especially in terms of writing. So ensuring accessibility in your UX writing will indeed make you stand out of the crowd. Now, let's take a look at the last group of reasons. To close this chapter, we're quickly going to talk about sales related reasons to ensure accessibility. You know, this as well is not the number one reason that should be your motivation to ensure accessibility in your UX writing. But it is quite a good reason, okay? Because excluding certain rooms of people means excluding potential customers, readers, followers, clients, simple as that. So make sure that your content is accessible to as many people as possible because only then you can make the best out of your service and business. Okay. Now, let's move on to the next lesson, which will help us to understand accessibility and inclusion even better, which is very, very important when talking about how we can ensure accessibility in our UX writing. And if you're ready for that, I'll see you in the next lesson. 3. Diversity & Abilities: Now welcome to the next lesson of this class, which will help us to understand accessibility and inclusion and little better. Before we learn about accessibility and inclusion, we will talk about impairment and abilities because that is important to understand how to provide great services to our users. And we will start with learning about the diversity in physical abilities of our users. And to give you an idea, I would like to show you some examples for physical impairment that can affect the user experiences of users. Now, I found this list on the website of the Interaction Design Foundation, which I already mentioned in the first lesson in which some of you might be familiar with, it's a great institution with lots of resources, so definitely worth a visit. Now, these are just some examples, but of course, we got visual impairment. For example, colorblindness. We got mobility related forms of impairments such as limited finger or hand movement. And we got auditory impairments, so deafness or hearing difficulties. As I said, these are only examples, three very important because samples for physical impairment. Let's take a look at another important subcategory of diversity, which is very important for us UX writers. It's called neurodiversity. Neurodiversity can be easily defined as the differences in our brains. So of course, we all don't have the same brain structure. Some of us have it easier to focus, some habit harder. Sophists have it easier to read texts or calculate, and some of us have it harder. That is completely normal, a normal variety in our human population. But we asked UX writers have to take this into account of course. And here are some examples for that as well. We got, for example, dyslexia, where it is difficult for people to read and interpret words and sentences. We got ADHD, or also called ADD. Where is it? It is difficult for people to focus and concentrate. We got, for example, autism, where it can be hard for people to interpret social behavior and social patterns. There is dyscalculia where people have a hard time to get numbers or recognize patterns and numbers. And we have several forms of mental health issues like anxiety disorders, nervousness, fear, panic. Now of course, these were very short explanations by myself. So please note that not only are there more forms of neurodiversity, but they're also more complex than my short explanation may suggest. Okay, and this applies especially for autism and mental health issues, where there's actually a large variety of form. So please don't misunderstand this. As, you know, all of these forms of neurodiversity and being very simple to understand, they're not, they're complex, but this is not the time to dive too deeply into this. Okay? Now that we've seen in which ways are users can be diverse in terms of their abilities. Let's take a look at something very, very interesting. Because when we talk about impairment, we often think of people who have a permanent impairment, but that is not the only form of impairment that we need to take into account when performing UX writing. There are also temporary reforms of impairment and situational forums of impairment. So let's create some awareness here. This is a very famous image that can be found in the Microsoft inclusive toolkit. And this image right here, gifts examples on all three categories of impairment, permanent, temporary, and situational. So for example, when users are in a situation where they carry something in their arms like a baby, as it is shown here in the example on the upper right. They have situational mobility impairment, right? Or users who are in a situation where they're driving a car and need to interact with a dashboard interface. Of course, they actually need to focus on the road. They can't read long sentences or analyze complex images or icons. Or if you are a bartender or just visiting apart, then that means you are in an extremely loud and noisy situations where you can consume audio content very well. Or think of yourself as being overly tired because you had a bad night with no sleep, which will make it hard for you to focus and concentrate. So it is very important that we do not only speak about users with permanent impairment, we also need to speak about users and situations that can make it hard for them to have a great user experience or even use an interface properly. And that means that this may actually apply to a very, very large part of our target audience. Now, let's move a little further from here. While temporary and situational impairment often means that people simply won't use an app or a website if it's not accessible for them in that situation, permanent impairment actually leads users to using tools like a hearing aid or other tools that helps, that helped them to access certain interfaces. And one of the most important tools I would like to introduce to you in the next lesson of this class, where we will talk about screen readers. So if you're ready for a deep dive into this topic and your first exercise of this class, I'll see you there. 4. Screen Readers: So welcome to the next lesson of this class where we will talk about screen readers. Now, what our screen readers, screen readers are software programs that allow blind or visually impaired users to read the text that is displayed on the interface, either with a synthesizer or a braille display. So a braille display is what you can see in the right picture here. It allows users to feel the words written on the interface with their fingers. Now, when using a screen reader, you don't navigate with a mouse, but with the keyboard, especially with a tab bar and with arrow keys. And tapping these keys usually makes the user jump from element to element, going from top all the way down to the bottom of a page off from left to right. And when moving from element to element, the screen reader identifies these elements. For example, if it's a button or a link or an image, and then reads the information that it has about that elements. So either what is written on the button or a headline, all what the inflammation in the alt text says. Now, there are several providers for a professional screen readers softwares out there, just like jaws for example. But many devices and browsers have their own screen reading feature, like this one right here, which simply goes by the name screen reader. And this is a browser extension for Chrome. You can get it by simply searching for Chrome browser extensions and then edit to your Chrome browser and simply activate it. Now, the iPhone also has an integrated screen reader and I'll show you how to find it. I illustrate this with the iPhone X, but I'm sure it works like this on most iPhones. You can just open the settings. Scroll down, click on accessibility right here. And then you'll see all the accessibility features that the iPhone has. So you will find the magnifier here or audio descriptions and so on. But what we want to have is the screen readers. So you click on voiceover right here. And then you'll get to the voice all the function, which is basically the screen reader function. And then you can activate it and also manage the settings like define the speed of reading and so on and so forth. Now, of course, these are just two examples. I'm really sure there are many, many on Android phones, web browsers out there that also have an integrated screen readers. So you might just want to check out your personal device for that. I know, for example, that MacBooks also have an integrated Voice Over feature. So yeah, just check out your personal device for something like that, voiceover or a screen reader and you will find it, I'm sure. So why am I showing you all of this? Of course, because we want to finish this lesson with an exercise. And it goes like this. Open one of your favorite websites and switch on your screen reader or voice over as it seems to be called sometimes. And see for yourself, what do you notice? How well can you understand the websites or apps structure and communication? And if it helps, you can also close your eyes and tested without visual context. This will help us to understand how navigating with a screen reader actually works, which is very, very important for learning how to write accessible copy. Of course, feel free to share your experiences with the community by, for example, sharing your results are starting a discussion. And if you're done with this exercise, I see you in the next lesson where we will talk about how to write accessible micro copy and copy on screen. And I will share some advice with you. So see you there. 5. Accessible On-Screen Text: So welcome to the next lesson of this class where we will start talking about accessible on screen text. So let's find out what exactly that is and why we call it like that. There are several forms of texts that we need to take a look at in detail when we want to discuss accessible you. Writing. The first one is on-screen text. So the text elements that visually appear on the interface. And then we got, I'll text which is not visible in the interface, but which is read by a screen reader as well. Now in the next course we will talk about alt-text, but in this course right here, we will talk about on-screen text. And basically this type of copy is what we usually write when we say we do UX writing. So to give you a formal definition, onscreen texts can be defined as all visible, long copy and micro copy elements that are written in the interface. So the text on buttons, headlines, input field, placeholders, error messages, and so on and so forth. Now, there are basic rules, basic quality criteria that we need to keep in mind when performing your exciting. And if you want to know about them, you can head over to my introductory course about UX writing right here on Skillshare. But right now, what we wanna do is we dive deeper to see how we can ensure accessibility and accessible you're writing in particular. So I brought you some aspects that you should keep in mind to ensure that your text elements actually accessible. And that's what we start in the next lesson. So see you there. 6. Context & Clarity: So welcome back. As I said, I brought you some aspects that you should keep in mind to ensure accessibility in your UX writing. And this is the aspect that we start with, its context and clarity. And the first thing that you should keep in mind here is don't prefer to visual elements in your text, like in this example right here from Webflow, which might be familiar to you because I already use it in another course here on Skillshare. This writing for an empty states, SAS, this blue button must be important. This gifts cutter, blank colorblind users. A really hard time to figure out what button this mean guys talking about, especially because he is looking at three buttons on the upper right. But I mean, imagine if you can't even see the screen all. So imagine you're using a screen reader and navigate through an interface like this. There is little to no chance that this interface can be understood properly if you are temporarily or permanently visually impaired. The same goals for other visual references. So generally, don't use words such as below, above right, and left or color related references. The next good piece of advice I can give you is, of course, clarity over everything. And here's a great example that causes mixed feelings in the UX writing community. I know that. And I also showed it to you in another course already, but it really is a perfect example for non accessible UX writing. And that is this empty state by slack, which is so random that it might be funny for experienced users, but it can be confusing, misleading, and intimidating for other users. And just imagine how this would sound to someone using a screen reader. It would literally read tractor. All right, Here's the tractor. Not so cool anymore, right? So another example is this one, which I found in an article from Bruton been Heim and kin Iraqi frog, where the headline says, let's take our relationship to the next level. So if you are an experienced user, you might know what this means. And if you are able to visually perceive the whole screen at once, which is not possible for users who use a screen reader. Then you may conclude that this is about signing up, right? Because on the button it says sign up. But if you use a screen reader, you jump from element to element top two button. And you won't know what this is, that this is about signing up until you reach this button. But either way, with funny things like this, you risk that many people won't sign up because they're not 100 percent sure What about what's going on, right? So it is very important to avoid jargon and to note that metaphors and workplace can be a problem for the user experience. Keep in mind that it's okay to be a little funny, but that headlines that make people stop and stare and wonder belong to copywriting and not necessarily to UX writing. And if you want to know what the difference is, you can check out my first course here on Skillshare about UX writing because there I explain everything that is different between those two disciplines. Now let's move on. Next piece of advice in this category. Explained formal procedures and a clear and understandable way. I brought you this example right here. Paypal asking their users to click this CAPTA bucks, calling it a security challenge. So for people who deal with these things on a daily basis, it is absolutely clear what's happening here, but Everybody knew to this probably has to identify what this is even about because it sounds like kind of an error message, even with no instruction being given. And again, think of users who might be in a hurry or who forgot about where they're coming from and what the next step is. Or think of when you have anxiety and don't know what's going on here and you get irritated by that. Now here's an example on how to do it better. Mailchimp giving some extract contexts here by saying confirm humanity. We're assuming you are a real living person, but just to be safe, Here's a simple test. Check the box below and then click Confirm, sign-up. So, and then of course you have this button which reminds the user of what we're actually doing here. Very, very nice. So these examples show why it is so important to be clear and give users the right contexts. It is not only helpful for people with visual impairment, it also helps non-text savvy users and users who are neurodiverse. And the next lesson, I will show you another aspect that will help you to ensure accessibility just like that. So see you, there. 7. The Right Order: So welcome back. In this lesson, we will put the focus on this aspect right here. The right order, the right order of design elements, texts elements, and information in general. So as I said earlier in this course, a screen reader reads the website from top to bottom and from left to right. And therefore, we need to make sure to bring design elements and text elements into the right order in regard to there and formative value. So let's take a look at an example of that I created myself to illustrate this point. You see the labels are positioned below the input fields. So when users use a screen reader and navigate through the screen from top to bottom, users will be confronted with the input field before knowing what to actually put in there. And then when the label is read by the screen reader, users won't know if they have to put their full name into the preceding or the following input field. So very confusing. If you do it like that. This one's right here is better or this one. But make sure that if the user starts typing here, the placeholder does not disappear but moves upwards like this. The same goals for putting additional important information below the input fields like this. When it comes to mandatory fields, it must be always made very, very clear which fields are optional and which ones are required to fill in. Without users who use screen readers needing to go back and forth. So what you might want to do is something like this, because that helps users to immediately understand which fields are required to fill in. And here's another bad example that I often see used in practice. Password requirements. It is better to put information like this, just like information about the right format or whatever into a tooltip next to the input field. Never be low the input field. And I also got another real life example, this one from medium, which illustrates another problematic practice. Because what they do here is they put important information below a CTA, below a button. So users click or tap on, sign up with Google or Facebook or e-mail or whatever. And they can sign in with this link and be load that they get the information that with tapping or clicking on these, users automatically agree to the terms and conditions of medium. So never ever put important information below a CTA, be it a button or a link, because users who use screen readers probably don't get the information before clicking on the CTA elements. So I hope this made it clear why it is important to put the information you want to display in the right logical order. Now, we still got two more aspects to go. The next one will be about buttons and links. And if you're ready for that, I'll see you in the next lesson. 8. Clear Buttons & Links: So welcome back. And as promised, we will talk about another important aspect when it comes to ensuring accessibility and our UX writing. And that is, use clear buttons and links. Now why is this important? Well, screen readers either go from top to bottom, left to right, or users can, for example, navigate between links and buttons only. This helps visually impaired users to not having to take a detailed look at each and every section, but instead quickly jumped to the section they are interested in. Now for this case, it is super important to use unambiguous, clear, and easy to understand copy for your links and your buttons. But not only for this case, but also for example, because for non tech savvy or neurodiverse users, ambiguous or unclear button descriptions might also be confusing and intimidating, so they will probably just leave the product. Now, let's take a look at some examples to illustrate this point. It actually already starts here. Delete draft, no and yes. Because if you only navigate between buttons, this is not very helpful. This right here is better. Keep draft and delete draft absolutely unambiguous. Now let's look at another example and remember, you can always press pause in this course. Take a little break from my talking. Go back and forth. Enjoy the benefits of an online course and take your time, okay? And if you're ready, we'll head over to the next example. This 11 to get regular updates on our latest offers and hottest deals. And then the two buttons go, count me in and not, um, lane. Absolutely not clear what this is all about. And this text might sound funny and witty, but Nolan booklet ACTA, if it's not clear what's going to happen. So be very clear. This one's better saying yes, I subscribe and know things. And by the way, it's totally okay if the right button does not say anything about the subscription, because no matter what, users will either see the left button or users with screen readers will read the left button first. But of course, if we really want to do a perfect job, I will also suggest to change the copy of the headline here and make really clear that this is about subscribing to a newsletter like this. Want to get regular updates on our latest offers in our newsletter. And now that's it for buttons. Let's take a look at how to write clear links as well and walk over to this example. Here you can see some previews for longer block articles. These are short summaries of blog articles. And at the end, there is this link users can click to read the full article. And now, if you navigate a screen with your keyboard and you choose to navigate between links and buttons only. Then your screen reader goes read article, read the article, read article. So for this case, it is helpful to use a description for links that is more informative. Like here. In this example. The link will tell users what the article is about, which is actually helpful for everybody. Again, feel free to pause and read this for you own. And if you're ready, let's head over to the last piece of advice for accessible onscreen texts for today, which will be about emojis, and that is what we will talk about in the next lesson. So if you're ready for that, I'll see you there. 9. Emojis: So welcome back. As I told you, this is the last aspect we wanna talk about when looking at how to ensure accessible on-screen text emojis. Now, emojis have gained significance for onscreen texts, but there are hardly any guidelines on how to involve emojis in a way that still allows your copy to be accessible and inclusive. So let's take a look at some examples to learn about exactly that. Now in this example, there are no words at all on the buttons. We just got the thumbs up and thumbs down. So a screen reader would read once it get regular updates on our latest offers and our newsletter, thumbs up, thumbs down. Now, this is pretty much on the edge of being understandable. But imagine again, if users use a screen reader and navigate between links and buttons only, this would not be very informative. Let's take a look at another example. Again, I won't to get regular updates on our latest offers in our newsletter. And then we got yes, with three flames and know with 3 SAT grumpy faces. Now the screen reader reads the emojis exactly like they appear on screen. So users with no visual impairment would look at this and get the basic idea of this. But users who use a screen reader would get, Yes, fire, fire, fire and no, on amused face, on amused phase, on amused phase. This is funny. So somehow this might be okay to understand, but basically it's just unnecessary cognitive load that doesn't do anything for the user experience. But some examples are even worse. For example, this one right here, speaking of unnecessary cognitive load, I use this because I know that this happens a lot in practice. Long copy text filled with lots and lots of emojis to make the text more appealing and entertaining. But imagine how screen reader would read this. It would go gut problems with organizing your work day exploding, had time to relax, relieved face, crazy list. Got you. Being an entrepreneur can be tough. Face with steam from nose and so on and so forth. So you see where this is going. So please don't load your long copy it with emojis to make it appear more entertaining or funny or lighter. Because for uses, using a screen reader and for neurodiverse users, this can cause distraction and unnecessary cognitive load. And to be honest, I would actually encourage you to not work with emojis and UX writing at all because it just doesn't do anything for the user experience and goals against important quality criteria of UX writing such as clarity, conciseness, and usefulness. So really think about whether or not you really need emojis in your texts. And if you really need them, you can check out websites like emoji pedia, because here you can check the description of emojis and these will tell you what a screen reader would read to users if a certain image is used in a text. Now, this is it. These are my major pieces of advice for accessible onscreen texts. Of course, there is more than that that could be set, but with these tips and tricks, you're good to go for onscreen texts. Now if you're ready, we should hit over to the next and last lesson of this course in which I will give you a brief summary of what we've just learned and it will also tell you about your class project. So see you there. 10. Summary & Class Project: So welcome to the last lesson of this class. And in this last lesson, I will give you a brief summary of what we've just learned here. And you will also meet your class project. But first, Let's take a look back at what we've discussed. The first thing that we've talked about was a set of examples for physical impairment that our users might have and how these farms of impairment may affect the user experience for them. And we also looked at some examples for neurological impairment and talked about different forms of neurodiversity. We then learn that impairment can be permanent, temporary, or situational. So users are not only affected by permanent forms of impairment, but sometimes it is just a stressful situation or a situation in which our mobility, o a visual or our auditive capacity is limited. And after that, we learned about a very important tool that we need to keep in mind when aiming to make our UX writing accessible. The screen reader. And I also showed you how to switch on your screen reader, for example, on your phone or in your browser to test it. Then we put a focus on onscreen texts and I shared with you some advice on what to keep in mind when writing accessible onscreen texts. So the visual text elements in your interface. And here we learned that we should not refer to a visual elements like in this example, where the text makes a reference to an image that a screen reader cannot recognize. And we learned that we should prioritize clarity over everything. So we do not go with funny headlines like this right here. Let's take our relationship to the next level, which non-tech savvy people might not understand, but we choose clear and unambiguous copy. We also learned that we need to explain formal procedures follow the exact same reason, like the classic capture process right here. Because we learned that it can be hard for non-text savvy or neurodiverse users to fully grasp and follow this process if we don't communicate what this is about in a clear way. Next up, We learned how important the right order of inflammation is. And we learned that screen readers read from top to bottom and left to right. So this right here doesn't really work well because users have to fill in an input field before the screen reader can actually read what the label says. And after that, we learned about how important it is to choose Clear descriptions for buttons and links. And we looked at some examples for unclear buttons which might be confusing or even scary to some users because we cannot be a 100 percent sure what happens when we click or tap them. We also looked at another very common mistake UX writers and copywriters make when writing links, like right here in the links at the end of these little snippet texts that say read article, which is not specific enough to function for a screen reader. Now last piece of advice I shared was use emojis in a thoughtful way because it can be irritating to neurodiverse and visually impaired users because it causes unnecessary cognitive load to understand what these images actually mean. And it doesn't really work for screen readers. And then we took a look at some examples to explore this a little bit like this one. And we also took a look at long copy because some writers love to use emojis here because they make a longer texts, see more exciting and more entertaining. But as I said, this can give you visually impaired users and neurodiverse users a hard time. Now, this is almost it. There are just two things left for me to say. The first thing is that I already told you in the beginning that I split this course into two parts. And as you've seen in this course, we took a look at onscreen texts, and in the next course, which I will publish next up, we will talk about alt texts, which is also very important. So to get the full picture of accessible UX writing, I would really recommend you taking the next class as well. It will be very short and very helpful because many writers don't know how to properly in both alt texts, in their writings. So this will definitely be a benefit. So second thing that is left to say for me is it's time to meet your final exercise, your class project. Let's take a look at what's to do. Please take a look at the following example. Now, based on what you've learned in this course, write down which texts elements are not accessible and y. And if you want to, you can also redesign and rewrite the screen to make it more accessible. You actually don't even need to work with Sketch or Figma to do that because concerning my own examples in this course, I just build them right here in Keynote and you can do the same thing in PowerPoint or Google presentations with just shapes and text boxes. So this is the example I would like you to analyze. You can just make a list of things that are wrong here and how to improve them. Rsi set. You can also rebuilt this in a better way. Whatever you choose. Feel free to share it with the community. Don't be shy. This is a safe space for learners. I cannot emphasize this enough. You're safe here your ideas are saved with us and no one will judge you. And I will also give you feedback which may help you. So this is it. Thank you so much for being here. This topic is very important for me, very close to my heart, and I'm very honored that you took the time to take this class. Okay. And if you want to, you can join me on some final remarks and my outro. And if not, I wish you all the best and hope to see you sometime soon. 11. Final Thoughts: So that's it. Congratulations on completing this class and thank you so much for sharing this class with me. As I said, this is a topic that is very close to my heart and I appreciated that you took the time to attend this class. Now, as I said, this is the first part of a two core serious and to get the full picture of accessible UX writing, I highly recommend to take the second course as well. It will be about alt-text. And alt-text is a very important part of accessible UX writing, but it is often neglected. So if you are really interested in accessible UX writing, I highly recommend to take this course as well. It will be published next up, so very, very soon. And of course I hope to see you there now except for that, there's nothing left to say for me except for keyboard writing. Keep on learning. Enjoy what you do and I hope to see you sometime soon.