Academic Writing: Writing Research Papers That Get Results | Eve Williams | Skillshare

Academic Writing: Writing Research Papers That Get Results

Eve Williams, Music: Information and Inspiration

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32 Lessons (1h 35m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:37
    • 2. How Academic Papers Are Marked

      2:54
    • 3. A Structure You Can Make Work

      1:44
    • 4. What Is Your Thesis?

      1:59
    • 5. The Word Count

      2:28
    • 6. An Effective Introduction

      4:26
    • 7. Covering the Major Schools of Thought in Your Topic

      3:00
    • 8. Empirical Data

      2:16
    • 9. Qualitative Data

      2:39
    • 10. Writing a Conclusion

      2:20
    • 11. Abstract

      3:09
    • 12. Introduction to Research Methods

      0:37
    • 13. The University Library

      2:56
    • 14. Online Journals

      1:59
    • 15. Wikipedia

      1:34
    • 16. Primary Sources 1: Interviews

      3:44
    • 17. Primary Sources 2: Surveys

      5:37
    • 18. Primary Sources 3: Televised and Video Interviews

      1:26
    • 19. Secondary Sources

      2:07
    • 20. Sources Lead to Sources

      1:37
    • 21. Why Presentation Is Important

      1:06
    • 22. The Right Language

      6:11
    • 23. Essential Spelling and Grammar

      4:00
    • 24. Formatting

      3:33
    • 25. Quotations

      2:36
    • 26. Footnotes/Endnotes

      3:27
    • 27. Harvard Referencing

      13:44
    • 28. Bibliography/Webliography

      2:10
    • 29. Glossary

      1:35
    • 30. Confirmation Bias

      1:39
    • 31. Gaffes That Lead to Failure

      3:42
    • 32. Conclusion

      0:23
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About This Class

Do you feel overwhelmed at the prospect of beginning or completing your research paper? Are you finding it difficult to find practical, actionable guidance on writing your research paper? This course will help you research, structure and present your research paper for the best possible marks.

This course is suitable for students in all subject areas, but uses a successful humanities Master's/PhD paper as an example in many of the videos. It gives practical examples of all the concepts described. If you have never written a research paper before, I understand how daunting it can be and this course will help you feel more confident about approaching your research.

I was once in your shoes! I hold two Master's degrees , one in English from the Russell International Excellence Group university, The Queen's University of Belfast (where I also completed my undergraduate degree) and one from Bath Spa University. I was awarded PhD credits for my research in my second (MMus) degree and achieved the highest mark ever awarded for a research paper in the history of my course. I want to share with you how I achieved academic success.

What You Will Discover on This Course

  • How to structure a research paper

  • A number of essential research methods including some you may not have used before

  • How to find credible primary and secondary sources

  • How to present a research paper

  • How to use the right language for an academic paper

  • Avoid grammatical and other errors which may cause you to lose marks

  • How to reference a research paper

  • Creating bibliographies, webliographies, notes and glossaries

  • Use your appendices to showcase your methodology and the depth of your research

  • Avoid confirmation bias and show an engagement with the major schools of thought in your field of study

  • Write an effective abstract

  • Writing engaging and convincing introductions and conclusions

If you want to showcase your hard work to the best advantage and achieve the best grade possible, please enroll now and I look forward to seeing you on the course.

Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello. I'm welcome to this course on academic writing. The purpose of this course is to help you to get the best mark that you possibly can and your academic research papers, one that reflects all the hard work that you've done. My name is Dave Williams, and I have taught at further and higher education institutions. I actually hold three degrees. I have a primary degree in English literature. I have a masters in old English, which was my dissertation. Andi. I have a master of music degree, and it so happens that I was awarded pH day credits for my research paper as part of my master of music degree. So I've got about 1/4 of ph day so far, so I am going to be able to help you to structure. I'm present your own academic writing in the way that helps to get you the most marks and is reflected off the work that you've done. So we're going to lick it sort of three key areas in this course. First of all, we're going to look at structuring your paper what should be included in it so that you present a clear linear argument that your papers easy to follow for people who are marking it. And it's evident the high, much work you've done on how much knowledge you have in your failed. Now we're going to look at research methods so both primary and secondary research methods to back up your arguments, but also to show other arguments the land wit to your own academic faces. After that, we're going to look at the practical aspects of how you present your research paper on That's things like formatting. A Panda sees bibliography and Web biographies and notes and footnotes, all those kind of things that show the breadth of your knowledge, the breadth of your rating but also make it easy for an examiner or external examiner to follow the thread off what you're saying on to see how much you really know about your topic. So we are going to look as well just to tow. Add like the kind of language that you use in a research paper because obviously an academic research paper doesn't use the same language that you might use if you were talking about the same topic in the pub with your friends but academic writing Just to make this clear is not about using convoluted language and trying to sign clever academic writing is basically a bite conveying sometimes very complex ideas and information in a way that can be easily understood. So if you're ready to get started, let's get going with the course. 2. How Academic Papers Are Marked: so high are academic papers marked If you're writing a dissertation for a masters, if you're starting into PhD thesis or if you're in your primary degree? No, that will vary from country to country. I'm from institution to institution, but there are several rules that can be applied wherever you are in the world. On whatever subject that you're studying. Usually academic research papers are marked by more than one person. There will be the first Examiner who will award Mark and then an external examiner Make him in on via selection of papers from one course. Are all the papers on one course to make sure that the mark that was originally given as fair on their count sometimes be some discussion between examiners on individual papers? Both the examiners or however many people are who are looking at your paper will be looking for certain things. They are looking for you to be able to present a cogent argument that shows that you have a breadth of knowledge in your field, so you want to use as many sources as you possibly can on you definitely want to know who the key figures are in your field. on what their position on your topic is, they are going to look to see if your paper space if he sticks to the thesis. That or the hypothesis that the strict subject area all of your topic, that it's not going off on tangents on you're not sticking in things that aren't actually relevant and causing the examiner to spend ages reading things that actually don't pretend to your argument in any way. Really, To get a very good mark and an academic paper, you want to advance your subject beyond the research that you've been kind of this part of the paper. So you want to be able to in the completion of your paper to say we're study off. This particular subject might go in the future on to be able to place your research within the framework of existing research in the area. A big thing in academia at the moment is the value to the so called person in the street so high. Will your research have impact on your field, but also high? Might your research have actually have impact on the wider worlds, the wider community, or if not your research per se research in the area high might that influence the wider community. So thinking of these things from the start, this is the way that you're going to get the very best grid that you possibly can. So basically it can all boil down to this. No, as much as you can show that you know as much as you can on show that what you know will impact other people. 3. A Structure You Can Make Work: in this section. We're going to talk a lot A bite structure because you need a structure to work to to bring your research paper together. We're going to start by talking about coming up with your thesis. What is it that your paper is really a bite? And that's not just the general topic. That is about coming up with a really tight idea of what you're working Teoh on that will normally be agreed with your supervisor. Then we're going to look at how you structure your paper to really support that faces until to explore it and as much depth as possible. So I'm showing you here the table of contents from my research paper and I. This is a research paper for my master of music degree, and I was actually awarded PhD credits for this even though it was a master's level paper. So, as you can see here we have an abstract, a one page document that basically sums up your research right at the start. Then naturally, we have an introduction and a little bit of back grind a rind, the topic so that your research is not just coming out of nowhere. to the reader but giving a little bit of background information about it. Then it's split up anti clear, logically sequential sections with a lot of research within them. And of course we have a conclusion, a bibliography, a glossary on appendices. So that would normally be the structure off our search paper in most institutions, and it's the structure that we're going to look at in this section. 4. What Is Your Thesis?: a big question to consider What is your thesis night? It so happened that a cheater of mine from the first university where I did a degree take a very long time to do is PhD about 15 years. And he told me that one night he was at a dinner party and a lady asked him, Oh, what's your basis? And he said, Well, my topic is old English on These are the tax that I'm particularly interested in, And the Lady Lipson said No. But what's your thesis on by that? She met? What is your big idea? What is the idea of the question or the query that your paper is answering on? You need to have this clear and your head before you start. That will normally be agreed with your academic supervisor, so you should have someone that you can talk to bypass. For example, I wrote a paper for my master of music research, which was based on music on the Northern Ireland conflict and basically high music deals with trauma. So Ice chose the very specific area off music on mental health, music control. But if I had simply written about music and Irish history. That's far too big a Tobeck. The paper would be massive on. You can't exclude certain material based on that because it is important that you know what you need to include and exclude. Once you have a basis, there'll be a certain amount off reading that just won't be relevant. Remember, you've got a word kind to stick to in this paper and say the word count is 10,000 words. You write 15. You're only gonna be marked for 10 of those thighs and words. So in order to keep everything taking over everything relevant on to have a structure that you can follow, the first thing that you need is a clear faces or hypothesis that you're working. T The word faces may be not the correct word and certain subject areas that is in mind. But basically what is your big idea? 5. The Word Count: you'll normally be given are quite strict word count that you need to adhere to for your research project. And it could be that if you greatly exceed that word, count that the Examiner major stop marking once they get past the limit. So if you're meant to write 10 thighs and words and you write 15 run that past your supervisor Before you submit your paper. There are ways off keeping the word cut done on. We'll talk a little bit about that. If your paper is coming in under the word cunt, it's likely that it's not sufficiently in death. So it's quite easy to discover the word cunt inwards. We just go to review on then two word cut so you can see here. I've written 22,000 663 words, which is way over the and 15,000 words point that I had, but I explained to you why that was okay. Basically, I had put a lot off the interviews on major pieces of information that I needed. For example, I was talking about songs in this document, so I put those interviews on the song lyrics into the appendices because the panda sees don't actually kind towards the word limit to let me just scoot. Don Andi find these. Yes, here is the interview that I did with Juliet Turner, a Northern Irish singer songwriter. So if I had quoted that all the bottom and stuck the whole interview into man body of my research paper, there's another interview. It would have gone way over the limit. So it's important to remember that fantasies don't count. Sometimes going through what you've written on just thinking about Is there a more efficient way? I could have said, That's jointed. Absolutely everywhere that's in this sentence is a good thing today on asking yourself, Is there any repetition of fact? No. Is there anything that you can take quite because it's basically already being said elsewhere? I'm not will keep your word count. Don some institutions that must be added. Don't mind if you go over the word kind limit by, say, 10 or 20%. So just check out what the rules are in your own institution and for your own project. 6. An Effective Introduction: in this section, we're going to talk about writing on effective introduction to your paper, my in the word count section off this course, you find out that this paper was by 22,000 words long and total. And here is the introduction. So, as you can see, it's not long because we don't need to tell the examiner of the reader everything they need to know in the introduction. What we need today is set up your thesis or your hypothesis. The idea that you're working around the methods that you're using to explore your face is, and some idea off your conclusions are what are the themes and topics on issues related to your conclusions, But we don't need to go into very much depth in that yet. So you also hoping to show that you're following academic back past practice on that, you know the key arguments and figures on history off your failed. So you also want to give the idea that you're going toe, add to previous research in your field. So let's look at what I've said here. I've started with a quote. You don't have to do that, but I'm here as a musician, not a politician, because my paper is very much looking at the role of music in the resolution on the conflict in Northern Ireland and music as a wider sort of cultural force. So that's what I want to get cross in my introduction. So I have given this coach on the knife, give a little bit of background where this quote comes from on I've basically tied it to the thing that I'm researching because I want the reader to know the other people in the past half considered this point of view. So I've said, In essence, this point of view starts that musicians play a role and political events as music is a culture of cultural experiences and expectations, but can also dissociate themselves from politics as artists rather than as politicians. And not something that I go into a Rip Gilmore death a bite letter. But night isn't the space to go into that death. It's just to give the idea that there's a lot of information and a lot of interest, like there on this particular topic. So then I go on to state what the paper will do by actually making a statement. This paper will. So I've said this paper will look at the relationship between music and the peace process in Northern Ireland. Well, that's the crux of it. That's what we're talking about here. You should know that right from the start. And then I said both of music's capacity to send political messages on in its capacity to coalesce a traumatized community. So we're looking at politics, and we're looking at trauma related to music related to the Northern Ireland troubles. That's all there on. I haven't even defined what trauma is. I go on, and as you can see, I give a bit of background in the next section. I go energy that later on, when I talk about political messages, I haven't yet defined what those political messages are because I'm gonna do all the fat letter. So I've my quota. The Campbell News Network CNN article that I've quoted at the start said that Northern Ireland has discovered the par off pop music to heal, So that's sort of a hook there. It's a big statement, something that's gonna require a lot of investigation. So again, I wanna tell the Examiner what paper's gonna dio this paper will accept will assess to what extent this is true and what are the cultural and musical properties of certain songs that promote he like. So I hope that you've got from my introduction we're going to be looking at music and musicians in relation to the Northern Ireland peace process, both in terms of politics and in terms off trauma on mental health and that we're going to be looking at cultural musical properties off certain songs and high. They relate to that. So this is basically what I'm gonna day I've set it up and have done in not too many words so that I can give myself room to expand on it later. 7. Covering the Major Schools of Thought in Your Topic: not really. You want to show a really broad reading in your topic, but you want to start with the really manager skills have thought in your topic on the key figures who have done research on it in the past and who are quoted and a lot of other people's research. So there's some things to consider here. It's quite likely that the key text you need to read will be included on the reading list and your course materials. They may be required texts. And if you go to electricity, which is something you should really do that your lecturers on your cheaters will reference those courses all the time. So those air good text actually start your reading with these may not necessarily be conflicting. It could be that the major schools of thought in your area have some overlap night. If there are conflicting, you want to consider all sides of an argument before drawing your own conclusions. But just to give an example from my own academic work, I hold two master's degrees. I have a master of arts and I have a master of music degree in my master of arts degree, which was in old English medieval English literature. There was quite a lot of conflict on high medieval text should be interpreted. For example, a Philology Point of view, which interprets text vile language, is very different to a new historicism point of view, which looks at the text as part of an ever changing culture. On that mode of thinking, hard superstate superseded the philology skill of thinking at the time that I was studying . But in my second Masters degree, I used work by the music therapist Julie Sutton on work by Ford Town and Hard rusher, who are clinical psychologists. And actually, there was a fair bit of overlap in their work. So it was a bite showing where their work happened to coincide and where it differed. So as you read Rhonda Topic, there will be certain names and ideas in certain texts that just crop up again and again. So if attacks does mentioned all the time goes without saying, you need to read that text or of a certain academic or author is mentioned all the time, you need to become aware of that person's work because there will be a reason that certain text are often quoted by others. No, it could be when you read those text that they've bean superseded. Or you might discern that from other reading that you've done, and you need to expend high why and when that happened. So it's important to know high. Different arguments interact. We talked about that slightly a minute ago when I talked about Julie Satin on for a Town and hard Rusher. So hi have the different arguments and your failed sort of moved each other on and interacted with each other, so show a kind of progression in the arguments and thinking in your field. 8. Empirical Data: So let's talk about em. Perico data within your research. So what is meant by the term empirical data? According to study dot com, empirical implies Thean formacion is based on experience. On data is information we gather a bite, something that's the information acquired by scientists. Three. Experimentation and observation is called empirical data gathering. Empirical data is an essential part of the scientific process. So we're talking here are by statistics we're talking about Experiment results were talking about bite information that may have a numerical value, something that is much more concrete than the quality of data that we might use elsewhere in the paper. So where can we find empirical data? There are many different places from your own experiments in your own research, from surveys from journals, online and print journals and, of course, Bix from public records from government on public body. Statistics from voluntary sector compile statistics on from other dissertations and faces. So there are many different places where you can find empirical data that will relate to your research on hide. We present empirical data within the paper. While you can see a little picture of a table here, we can use tables. We can use charts all kinds of charge. Lately linear charts pie charts in text Citation where you, Mick Reference Teoh. The empirical data on then cited will look at that in the Harvard referencing video. Using footnotes and aunt notes is another way you can present empirical data on. You can use empirical data in your appendices. So you want to expand on the data using texts you want to present numbers, but you also want to draw some kind of conclusion from them. Flash the might and say what you think this data means in relation to your thesis. 9. Qualitative Data: So you want to use a certain amount of quality, it of data and your search on By that, I mean any kind of data that pretends to people's real life experiences in the fields that you're talking about. So the kind of thing that you could use here are interviews, news stories, video interviews, information that you blamed from surveys, that kind of thing. No, it's very important that this information it comes from properly qualified people. For example, as part of my research into music on the Troma off the northern out of troubles, I interviewed music therapists. I also interviewed musicians have been active in the 19 seventies on, I had surveys that I used questioning people who have experienced trauma from the conflict . So everybody that I talked to actually had some personal experience of the area that I was talking about. If you put out a general survey on your face, Becker and you won't just random individuals to answer, which may be part of your research that's well and good. But you want to use quotations in your research paper that are really relevant from individuals whose opinion hasam wit and it's gonna have some wit because of their qualifications, are because of their experience, their real lived experience off the topic area. So the best way to present this quality of information is as quotation within the text of your research. But then put the whole interview or the whole of the survey results. Whatever you took, this quality of information from end to the the appendices off your research on, remember that the appendices don't count towards the white kind, so you can do this and not worry a bite going over the work kind. There may be some ethical considerations. And using qualitative data, be sure that you have the express permission off the people being quoted to be used within your researcher. That's a good thing to get that in writing, even if it's only by email, but never use anybody's own personal life story especially very sensitive data unless they given you express permission. And if you're questioning and a group of people who may be slightly vulnerable, be sure that you follow your institutions code of ethics on doing that. And it goes without saying, of course that you never tweak the information that you find that you who'd people verboten 10. Writing a Conclusion: But this is conclusion to my research paper, and what it basically does is it takes the conclusions and findings from each different section of the research, put some all together in one place and then talks about high. That's going to impact on my research in the future. On high. I feel it will impact on my practice as a songwriter generally. So basically, this is what we want to do. You want to take everything that you've learned in every section. I'm talking about high, you're going to move on. So there's some questions that you want. Teoh. Ask yourself on this thing. Was your initial faces or your hypothesis challenged by the research that you did? Did you change your mind in any way, or did you find what you expected to find on very briefly. Why was that? You don't need to go into too much detail because the paper itself has you basically shown us that. Where do you think that more research is needed? I know that you completed your paper. What will the gaps and knowledge that you think that you find and if you were going to keep on writing papers in this area. What would be the next thing you would do? Where do you naturally go from here? A very important question there. If you want funding to go on to do a PhD, this is something you've got to be able to answer. And that is how I can your search. Will it To the so called person on the street. Hypes it real it too. The real world does it. How does it change things for people as well as changing your own failed, you know, what are its wider implications? So these are all things that you've got to consider and your conclusion? Your conclusion doesn't have to be massively long. Let's have a little look at mine here. So again, there's about 22,000 words all together in this research paper, including the appendices. And so this is the beginning of the conclusion. So really, you know, a couple off pages with a nice sort of summarizing sentence to tie it all together. Go on 11. Abstract: so the abstract comes right at the start of the research paper. So why is it that I've chosen to put the video of by abstracts at the end of this section? We'll simply because you can't really write the abstract until you finish the paper, because the abstract basically summarizes what you're going to do in the paper. It covers all the major aspect. It's of the paper normally, and only a bite. 300 words. So, as you can see, minus very short. So what you want to do with an abstract is talk about the purpose of the study. Why are you carrying like this? Research? What point does it serve? And then look at what are the problems and issues that the paper will investigate? Very important to include your methodology. And during that high, are you actually going to do that and give some indication of what the structure off the paper is going to be? And then you want to talk in very little detail very briefly about the findings and conclusions, but not in too much detail here, because obviously you'll have a conclusion to write later. So I have done that in my abstract. I have said in the following research paper I intend to examine the effect of the Northern Ireland troubles on music written during the unrest enduring the pace process. So, first sentence, this is the topic that we're talking about. It is my am to understand high music from Northern Ireland was affected by the troubles on also the role of music in dealing with the trauma that resulted from the conflict. So this is why I'm doing it. So I talk a little bit more about what I hope to get out of doing the paper on. Then I say later, I hoped best my findings on research carried out in the area of music and psychology by sniff some on town for Drescher and Ira. I will also undertake a simultaneous study off the history of the conflict based on the work of Lachlan and Kennedy Pipes. So I'm talking about high. I'm actually going to go a bite meeting the objectives that I've stated at the start of the off they abstract, you know? Hi. I'm gonna find, like, the things that I want to find out through the paper. Basically so and then I go on a little bit more about my methodology. I'm looking at three songs to different people that interviewed. And then at the end, I say I intend to use the findings of these research methods to establish what the needs, expectations and prejudices of a Northern Irish audience might be on high. They're changing onto Judge High. I might best serve the demographic as a Northern Irish artist and songwriter. So, in other words, at the end of the abstract, I'm telling the reader what I intend to do with this research. So I'm not saying I'm handing in this paper and I'm hoping to get a good mark. I'm saying I'm beginning an ongoing process that this research is this start off and I actually want to carry this research into the future, and it's good to give that sense in your abstract 12. Introduction to Research Methods: in this section, we're going to look up one of the most important skills that anyone develops in an academic career, and that is research on. We're gonna look at research methods like you will need to know about research methods for your academic research. But I know in my own career I was able to use these research methods when I established my own business when I was working in the voluntary sector. Research methods really are skills for life, so we're going to look at both primary and secondary research methods and this section. 13. The University Library: it may seem a bit of a new brand or this, but if you're researching on area, the first place to go to is your university or college library. It's a place where you'll find an awful lot of information in one place on something that people forget is that librarians actually knew an awful lot of research methods. And if you have any questions or queries, they're actually pretty good people to chapter neuen off. A lot of universities use a library of call grass cataloging system, so it should be relatively easy to find what you're looking for. I know when I was at university, people used to Miranda's things, like hiding books in the wrong place so the cat classmates couldn't find them. But most university libraries are well maintained, well cared for on things should pay where it's did it. They're gonna bay. They'll normally baia cataloging system where you can search by a keyword. So do us Thera a search as you can before you hit the shelves on, make sure that you've got a list of a few key texts that you're looking for, so there may be one or two texts that are the most essential that you rate. Start with those and you'll often find you'll read. A text on that text will make reference to other texts. So once you've got the arguments of a certain tax die, you you know what further reading the need to dio So first part of Coal University Library . Of course, it's no only books on shelves that university libraries provide. They often have a catalog of online journals as well. On I would say this that science is simple, but the photocopier is your friend because it's very easy to take books. I leave them sitting there and then the day before they're due back. Oh, all right, I have to have a look at that. I'm not saying that you won't, but you know that can happen whereas actually reading within the library on food, a car being the most essential information that you need so that you then have ah hard copy of it. Just if you do that, be careful. Teoh Job, Dina Proper Harvard reference onto your photocopied material for when you come to quote of be sure that the page numbers are clear on your photocopy so that you can reference what you've written properly. Academic books can be then normally expensive, which is why it's a really good idea to take them out of the library. Although I did find on occasions there was one text that was contained within the special collections off my university library, and I actually find on eBay for five finds. So that is worth doing an Internet search to see if you can actually a purchase a copy of some of the key text that you need quite cheaply. But if not, then the library on the photocopier are your friends. 14. Online Journals: another useful resource your institution may provide, or you may be able to access yourself. Is online journals on really in the digital edge? A lot of respected academic journals are no more likely to be online, although you should still be able to find print journals in your university life, so they're very expensive to subscribe to. So it's better to try and use the journals that your institution is already signed up to, if possible. But if you know that you want career in a certain field on your dedicated to certain topic and it's worthwhile to find item bite subscribing to journal, then you know it might be worth going ahead. Peer reviewed journals are the journals that academics won't to be published in, In other words, their workers assessed by fellow academics. Thes are the ones that have the most kudos, basically, and the ones that you really want to quote in your research. Your university library might also subscribe to professional on individual sector publications, you know, for example, in my field music, Quick is a digital publication that's very useful. Maybe the Times literary supplement various well recognized, respected publications that are not necessarily academic journals per se. So with journals on with other kinds publications, some are more respected than others. So from your wider rating, try and glean which journals are being most quoted, which journalists seem to carry the most wits on which journals are the major figures in your field being published in. So it's important to know which of the key publications in your field, if especially if you're intending to pursue a career in academia and be published yourself . 15. Wikipedia: Ni in your non academic life. If you want to find ICT information by any topic, you might go to Wikipedia on. Here I am on the Wikipedia page off the bottle off. The some know Wikipedia is not going to be accepted as a legitimate academic source because it can basically be edited by anyone. It's too open to abuse. Sometimes it's not properly annotated. We can't really use Wikipedia in the bibliography or Web geography off on academic research paper. But what you can do is this. You can certainly use it to clean the artifact. But if you go die into the notes at the bottom of a Wikipedia page, quite often the texts that are mentioned in the notes are going to pay admissible so you can see here about with the song. There's quite a lot of text listed here on these actually do kind asked legitimate sources so you can still use Wikipedia. You can't quote it, but you can use it to find further reading and to find texts on. It also has external links that you can use battle of the soul in personnel records. So here we go. Although it's inadmissible as a source in itself, it's a great place to find sources basically 16. Primary Sources 1: Interviews: a very useful form off primary source is the interview night. If you're going to include interviews in your research paper, the most obvious thing is to pick the right people to interview on these could be academics who were prominent in the field whose work you have read people with the personal association with the topic or relevant professionals in the field so you can see here in front of us. I have an interview with Sarah Wilson off the core Amelia community on There are voluntary organization helping to promote community relations on reconciliation in Northern Ireland. So I'm telling the reader why this person's input is relevant on valuable, and you can see that I've quoted they interviewed in a block in italics. So I find the easiest way to interview people want to sand questions via email as a word document on Ally them to type the responses because that was much easier than meeting people in person, recording an interview and then having to transcribe it. But that's something you might also dio on the benefits of that would be a that if the conversation happens to go somewhere else, some questions that you haven't thought of a car to you. You know that you can ask those questions on the spot. Where's with email? It takes time, backwards and forwards, but I just find it easier to work with text. So here we have the quotation within the man body off my paper. But I also included, as I've mentioned before, all the interviews I did for my paper as a pan disease, which doesn't count towards the word kind. But it gives the Examiner the fill body off the interview. So let's find the interviews. Yes, here is my interview with Juliet Terna Northern. Our singer songwriter Onda. I've dated the interviews and I've given the website Juliet Turner's website so that there's some background information on the person I'm interviewing and I have several interviews and my appendices here with several very different sources. I had one academic in the field of meeting a law. I have a singer songwriter and I have someone who worked in the field of peace and reconciliation. Haven't and I have someone who had been the victim off troubles related violence, who also waas a singer songwriter and talked about how he used his music to handle that, and that brings me on to another very important issue when it comes to interviews on that is ethics, because I'm dealing with someone who's being traumatized there. So I have to show a certain amount of sensitivity. I'm not ask questions that are going to be unsettling or traumatizing, so the question should always be appropriate and relevant. And you have to give people the option of not answering that they don't want to, not putting people under pressure and showing them to a certain amount of sensitivity. Then there's also GDP. Are the General Data Protection regulations how you handle people's email addresses? You must keep them private. You mustn't share them with third parties. You must get their express permission to use what they have told you in your paper, unexplained to them properly. What the paper is a bite. You know why you're doing the paper? Is it part of your monsters? Research is a part of Ph. D. Research. Is it likely to be published in any other journals? Is it being Mark? So the person completely understands what it is they've agreed to become involved in 17. Primary Sources 2: Surveys: surveys are a great way off gathering data for your research project. You can, of course, choose to print ICT surveys on youth, um, in the appropriate places, you know, maybe around your university campus. But the chief way that people creates surveys is online. On the most popular service for doing this is surveymonkey dot com. And as you can see, I'm on my account on surveymonkey eight. So it gives you different options of you know, what type of survey you want to create. I'm going to click on academic research. Okay, so you can see here you can have a free plan. There are some plans that you do. You have to pay for it, but you probably should get away with having a free one. So let's create your first survey. Like the big thing about any survey is asking the right questions on surveymonkey gives you multiple options. Sort of. ABC answers tick boxes, text answers on. Depending on your topic, you're going to want to ally people the scope to give you quality it of data, in other words, to write a personal response. But then you might want to collect empirical data as Well, that purely be about the numbers. So it's totally going to depend on your own topic and subject area what your survey looks like, like, but I'm going to create one here, so I'm going to call this experiences off music, education, survey category. So again, it's giving us, um, a number. All choices. So I'm gonna go with education for this. That is creating a new survey. Okay, because I've used my academic email. You can see my university logo coming up. So Design survey. Oh, we find colors that suit your brand. Well, that's nice of them, isn't it? I'm just gonna click on Kate, so you can see here. We have a choice off. Um, multiple choice check boxes drop dying all kinds off. A comment box of single textbooks. Um, so I could write a question. Something like this. Why would you describe your experiences? Music education? No, that is a way, way. Open question. And you might want to ask Answer Something were specific on that, but I won't. Back to have Hey, tax box scenario out designed a question that is maybe more a Basie. So why would you writ well, the choice all instruments on offer. So oh, predicting it says star reading. Okay, that's quite good. So it could give the star reading five out of five stars. So that's just a little example of the kind of things that you can dio. I'm not gonna waste your time by doing too many questions. This gives you the idea, and then you can you know, we've got the top here for collecting responses on for analysing results on it will also help you to present results so you can see these tops across the top here very, very useful tool that you might want to go and have some fun with. My obviously survey results are not going to pay that much of a contribution to your research paper. If you don't get that many responses or you get inappropriate responses, you don't target the right people. So it's a bite finding where the people you need to survey are hanging on online night. That could be specialized respect groups. You could have an email list for targeting those people that could be specialized forums right there for you to use something to think about it. You might also want to ask the people who feel like your survey to share it and pass it on to other relevant respondents. But generally you would want to get, I would say, in the field of A by 100 responses to your survey in order for the doctor that you collect really have any bearing. You know, 25 people feel like it's not really going to make much of a contribution, but you might still get some great qualitative data, and it's important to lie space on your survey for that. 18. Primary Sources 3: Televised and Video Interviews: So we've been talking about primary sources. On another primary source is an interview you can see in the screen here. Very famous interview with Princess Diana in 1995 on so an interview cunts as a primary source because it is the person in their own words. There's just something that you have to remember and that is it's the person in their own words. But it has Bean edited on DSO. It has perhaps being slanted, whether particular point of view when you reference uh, interview. There is a way to do this in your Web Viagra fee, and you want to include the time point that you've taken any quotations from. So we'll talk about that in the section on on Harvard referencing. It's kind of a good idea to find out. He edited the interview, if you can, and see if they have any particular interests, or there's any way that they might have slighted the interview. Of course, the price place to go for interviews is YouTube. I also used in my research interviews that were included as special features on TV days as well. And of course, you can use television news interviews as well in your research 19. Secondary Sources: So let's talk about some secondary sources that you could include in your paper on. Remember when you have the bibliography in Web biography at the end of your research paper , you want to show the greatest depth of rating that you possibly can to try and include as many different sources on as many different types of sources as you can and your research. That's really quite important. We're going to talk a little bit later about confirmation bias. You want to be sure that all your sources don't follow the same argument that you are actually presenting various arguments on your topic. Be careful to quote unr f. Rinse each source that you use properly on. We're going to look in the referencing section off. This course is high. You source a newspaper article high. You reference a newspaper article how you reference a bit. Call you reference in YouTube video. We'll look up, uh, that kind of thing. Some suggestions off different types of sources. You could use Mick Silvery swing. We've talked about the university library, which is your friend. Books that have been written by academics and professionals on people had lived experience in your topic journals as well both academic journals on journals and professional fields, whether relevant articles, academic articles, newspaper articles, magazine articles, any articles that have been printed, you can use blog's if they're the blog's off a well established organization. For example, in my field, maybe Music Week rather than People's own personal Private Blog's online, you can use video interviews. You can use documentaries. You can use audio on radio interviews on. You can use information that you find through saying public records, officers things like results of surveys, anything that contains empirical and statistical data obviously get. 20. Sources Lead to Sources: So one thing to bear in mind is that sources neatly dis sources say. I read Julie Sutton's book on music therapy on She cooks Some other books or music therapy and Herbeck. So I go to her bibliography on I see a couple of titles in her bibliography that I think you look useful to my research on DSO at snowballs. So this is a great way, actually defined sources because sources they sources, it's just don't let it get to write off control cause Remember your own a time from here you possibly can't read everything. So when you see a source and it looks quite interesting and you think, Oh, I really need to investigate that ask yourself high relevant It is to your thesis on your Tobeck on where it falls into the argument that you're making. Have you already quoted six different arguments and that are quite similar on I what you need to find a something from a completely different point of view on maybe this particular article that you're straight across is not going to do that for you. So just to keep things rolling along and no allowing it to mushroom out of control, those are some good questions to ask yourself 21. Why Presentation Is Important: in this section. We're going to look at presenting your research because if you've got a great depth of research on, you've got some great arguments, but you can't present those appropriately you're going to lose marks. So basically, in this section, we're going to look at the protocols off academic research on We're going to look at things like the right register of language to use and you're searched. Want to look at using quotations and appendices? We're going to look at referencing not. I'm going to focus on Harvard referencing in the State course, because that's what my own academic institutions recommended at. It is one of the more common ways of referencing a paper. There are different ways of referencing a paper on. You need to find light your own institutions, rules on all these things, not just on referencing but on presentation, and you make sure that you're writing to the guidelines. But we're going to look at some common themes that run across all research papers in this section of the course 22. The Right Language: in this lecture, we're going to look at the sort of language that's appropriate to use in an academic paper , obviously a very different register of language than if you were talking about the same topic with your friends in the pub. So we need to use the right register of the English language in an academic paper because you want to come across as knowledgeable in your failed on as an academic. And if you're institution has a style sheet, you definitely want to follow the style sheet. So we were going to be writing in standard English. And that means avoiding colloquialisms phrases that come from your own geographic area. Being Northern Irish, we have quite a lot of idioms and colloquialisms. You could have someone marking your paper from anywhere in the world, so you want to avoid those. You also want to avoid an overly conversational style. You're not on YouTube. You're not on Facebook. You're not having a text conversation with your friends. You are on academic on. An expert in your field under language needs to convey that. That doesn't mean that it needs to be convoluted, are unnecessarily complicated. You don't have to use polysyllabic words just for the sake of it to sign. Clever. It's about getting complex ideas across clearly, in essence, so avoid overly a motive language, you know, big, powerful words. Sensational. Massive is also where not to use because that's got a real sort of pop culture competition that doesn't fit in an academic paper unless you're using it within the right contacts. You know, within quotes. Of course, you can use a motive language, but in your own arguing best not to good spelling and grammar absolutely essential. You can lose marks for per spelling and grammar, and spell check doesn't always cut it. It's not always right, so we're going to look at that in a bit more detail later. Use the terminology, all of your failed you know, the right terms for your own academic field of study. It's good to be essential to have those in there that's quite obvious. And above everything else, it's a bite being clear. If you thank you signed clever by using convoluted words, you know, you might actually be confusing the examiner who will be an educated and well read person. But remember, they have a lot of papers to read, you know, get to the point quickly in the most clear way that you can. So let's go on to look at some good and bad examples of language in an academic context. This first sentence would be a bit of a bad example of a way to use language. Julie Sutton thinks that using music can massively help with trauma. Well, Julie Sutton, Thanks. Thanks is okay, but that's a little too conversational. You know, my friend, Thanks that her cat is wonderful. That's Mawr, the kind of conversation that would use that particular word, that tone of language and also the word massively. It's a word that you would find maybe on Facebook or YouTube, as I was saying it doesn't signed particularly academic. So bad sentence Julie Sutton thinks that using music can massively over emotional word help with trauma here. It would be a better way of phrasing. The same thing, Julie Sutton asserts and otherwise. Julie Something is making an argument that is backed up. Julie Sutton asserts that music can positively impact upon drama just a little bit more of an academic way of phrasing. The same idea, the positively impact is Sam Sansa's Massively Help, but it signs last overblown. So here's another example I had interviewed on Irish singer songwriter called Ludwig Oh Natal as part of my research. And he had told me about a time when British soldiers had broken into his family home when he was a child looking for someone in the area and that had been terrifying to the family. So here is a bad way of telling that story. O Neill says that soldiers Red Li broke into his heist during the troubles. Ni. It tells us what happened, and it tells us when, and it tells us who but, O Neill says, is a little bit too conversational. My friend says that her cabbies cheese says that no on appalling way off raising something . But there are better ways on the rudely broke into his heists. Well, yes, it is rude to break into someone's highest, but that is making a judgment, and we want to avoid that in the body off the text. Also, it's in a motive word, but it's not the right motive word. They didn't just feel Oh, these people are really rude. They felt actually deeply traumatized so in several senses. This is an inappropriate word, a better way off phrasing. The same idea would be O'Neill reports that his home was broken into by British soldiers during the troubles, not o Neill reports, because he did report it to me. In other words, he put it in writing, and he knew that I was going to be using it in my academic research. So I feel that that's the best word that I could use their. And this is a great deal. Last emotional and conversational while still having the same emotional impact for the reader, I think that his home was broken into, which is a traumatic thing. I think that comes across in their sentence, but it's not quite as overblown. So when you are writing your research paper, it's a part asking yourself how I phrased my information in the best way to get across what I really mean to say on Have I phrased in a way that is over emotional are over conversational, that my alien it or antagonize the Examiner in any way 23. Essential Spelling and Grammar: in this video, we're going to look at some of the most common spelling and grammar mistakes that will lose you. Marks. No, it's not my intention to patron eyes, any of you. You are university students, some of you postgraduate students, and I'm sure you're fluent in English. But it never does any harm to remind ourselves of some basics. So what's right for these errors on these are all quite common errors by the 1st 1 is mixing tenses, which just doesn't read that well. I recognized Sutton's points, but I also evaluated tans arguments. So we have both present tense on a perfect tense here. It would just read slightly better, as I recognize some things point, but I also value it. Towns argument. You might lose a lot of marks for that particular sentence, but there's just a better way to do it. No, you will lose marks for the misuse of apostrophes on. I'm sure the misuse of apostrophes is something that drives some of you nuts because they are abused all over the Internet on on street signs. Quite commonly, you'll see misuse of apostrophes, but an academic paper is somewhere to try avoiding that So starting with its If we have i ts with new apostrophe, that means belonging tent as an its relevance say, and I t apostrophe s is an abbreviation for it is It's Thursday on apostrophe indicates possession on in the example that I have first round here. Julie Sutton's idea the opposed to Feed goes before they asked. Because Julie Sutton is singular. There's only one of her. But if there were more than one person, such as in the second example psychologists ideas the opposed to fate goes after the s. And that's because psychologists is plural, not because ideas is plural. You're quite often see apostrophes just put on plural online and on the street, as in kicks with an apostrophe were selling kicks. There shouldn't be an apostrophe there. I'll try not to get upset because even the thought of it okay, splitting infinitives is quite bad. Grammar of the most famous split and filled definitive is to boldly go what should actually be written to go boldly. The two on the go must go together, so to dream. You Teoh, walk the two on the verb must go together in a sentence and you don't want to stick another word in between. Never end a sentence with a proposition on. The example I've given is never use a proposition toe and descendants with that is bad grammar. So you do have to sometimes think about how you're going to phrase things to make sure that you don't have words like to wealth, but any kind of proposition at the end of a sentence. Another point is, don't be over reliant on spelling and grammar. Check on word because it's not always accurate on if you're doing, say, language degree under using words and other languages, it's going to try and spellcheck and AutoCorrect right things that you actually want to be in your paper. So it's a good idea if you feel that spelling and grammar isn't your strong point to maybe look at taking a basic English language grammar course. It's not something to get really, really worried and upset about, though, because you could ask someone to proof, read your paper for you on point. Like the spelling and grammar mistakes before you submit it 24. Formatting: So let's talk a little bit about four Matic and lay it on. It could be that your course or your institution style sheet actually prescribes what the four Matic in layout should be like. But as you can see here, I've used massive font size for the front page and title. We go into the man body of the text. Um, I have made it really clear what the man titlist on have used to bite size 14 for the section title such as abstract that you see here. So I have set my formatting. I've gone to paragraph here and I've said it to 1.5. My cheater, who was going to be marking the papers, remarked to me that he find 1.5 easier to read than you know, setting it to two, but just setting it to one and having no space between the lines. I think the back kind of is not easy for an examiner to raid, and just setting it to 1.5 is a little bit easier. But again, follow the directions in your own institution style sheet if there is one so looking, don't Yeah, clearly breaking up sections with large bulled titles keeping the formatting and 1.5 another really important thing to do. Um um is insert page numbers on to do that. I'm sure you know how to do this, but you just go to insert on, then page number because it just makes your work so much easier to reference on if the Examiner wants to rate something again, just makes life a little bit easier for them. So again, we look through large blocks off quotation. As you can see, our end italics I have used as, uh, type this as a fund. Um, calibrate, which is sort of, you know, the automatic type fist that my version of word uses. You want to use a pretty standard readable fonts. You know, you don't want to use a fault that mix you're research paper. Look to Florrie, or that's actually going to be difficult to read. Just something pretty plan on again, you know, following the recommendation off your Children, all the style shake. Soon we've got subheadings that are just underlined, whereas a major title will be emboldened size for attained, as I mentioned earlier so and at the end of each section in the section conclusion I choose to use underlying on bulls, and that indicates that we've got the end of a section. Then we go into the new section and again it's pulled on 14. So that's the way that I have formatted my paper and, you know, you can see that they're spaces between paragraphs here. So again you know your particular topic in your topic out your particular institution, we'll have a bearing and high. You lay things I on what formatting you use. 25. Quotations: So let's talk up. I'd quotations on the first thing I would say on this subject is every time you quote somebody's work, be sure that you referenced them because plagiarism is a cardinal sin in academia. You want to make sure that everybody who should be credited is credited. So let's look at some different kinds off quotations that I've used and my work. So I'm quoting Bono here, bottle shoes. A United View with Mullen Hasn't Larry Mullen of YouTube telling us a us? So I'm quoting up pick That's in my bibliography here, so you'll notice I give the name of the author on Van. After the quotation, I put the year of the book on the page numbers in two parentheses and, of course, listed in the bibliography. So I have put the quotations into italics with no quotation marks because it's quite a long quote here. And that was what my institutions style sheet recommended. That I do so, of course, do follow your institutions guidance on presentation. But that is high. I presented quite long quotes. They're going to find shorter quit. So I have sat here just here here we are reminded off Sutton's definition of trauma as a shock, wind lasting effect on of the individual's relationship to the outside world being irrevocably changed. So I haven't actually used a direct quote there, but I've referenced her work. And so that being the kiss, I have put in the year of publication again on the page. Number on that is in relation to Sutton's book, which is in my bibliography and has been used before in the body off the text. So then I've used on actual quotation here, long echo into the future and put here something so we know Who's that about published 2002 on Page 23. So that's a way of laying right different kinds of quotations. But as I say, be sure that you check your institution style shaped for recommendations just in case. It's slightly differs from what I've done here, but this is a quite standard way of going a bite, using quotations and the text off your research paper 26. Footnotes/Endnotes: So let's talk a bite. Footnotes and endnotes on you will either have footnotes or endnotes, not generally both on. You need to refer to your own institution style shape or to your course information for which you should be using. So I have used footnotes in my research paper like and notes and footnotes basically give the same information. But fit notes are obviously a fetcher at the bottom of the page. So to insert, let me just go to insert on. Then better on aunt notes will be at the end of the document. So here, in the very first word on this page, we have a little note you can see here. Little number three comes up, so let's go to footnote number three Bottom of the Page C. Smith 2002 page 70. It so, making sure that the footnote contends reference on that anything we've quoted his referenced for a discussion of instrumentation on association with socio political groupings within Northern Ireland. Now I have chosen to neck that a fit note because, you know, my paper was already really long. If I go into this topic than the man body, the paper, it might take me off on a tangent, but on the other hand, it is information that the Examiner might find helpful and, you know, following the threat of the paper. So I've put an end as a fit note on fit notes. Generally don't count in the word count. So I've managed to take that out of the word kind by making it, uh, footnote. So the kind of things that you would pay potent if it note is, you know, making the Examiner aware of existing discussions explaining certain terms. You're not giving reference information because that's all within the body of her text or in Europe videography. Sometimes you may be, but footnotes should be basically relevant information of information that the Examiner actually needs, but that you don't veil fit within the body of the text or would object to the word cart. So, basically, if there's something that needs explained, if there's something that needs referenced, there's something that needs backed up a bit than using a note is the way to dio Here I have recorded an interview, a section of an interview with Sarah Wilson off the core Amelia community, and as you can see, I've inserted a little but note here the little number four people from Northern Ireland would automatically know. Watch the car may looking and Iwas. But the Examiner might not be from Northern Ireland might know nothing about Northern Ireland, so I need to use a footnote to give a bit more background information. So I've said Carmella is a peace and reconciliation organization. Our mission is to embrace difference, heal divisions on enable reconciliation. This ethos is central to all our working life together, and that's from the core Amelia Community website. So I just provided that little bit of background information that I can't assume that the Examiner has. So that, basically, is the roll off a footnote or if your institution prefers or if you prefer on and note. 27. Harvard Referencing: in this video, we're going to look at Harvard referencing, not. There are several different ways of referencing on academic paper. I make sure that you are following the one that's prescribed by your own institution. But Harvard referencing is one of the most straightforward ways of referencing a paper, and it's one of the more common forms of referencing that's used. So we're going to look at high to reference. Various different kinds of sources in the bibliography at the end of your paper will also look at in text citations as well in this video. So first of all this is highly reference books. There is a four mont to follow, and it basically goes the last name of the author than their first initial food stop the year published in parentheses, followed by full stop than the title in italics than the city with a Little Sammy Colon, then the publisher on then, if relevant, the pages that you read. Because sometimes you might not have needed to grab the whole text. So here's a couple of examples say I am Phil Stop parentheses 2005. Full stop, then the title in italics. Bone alarm. Bono conversations with Mishka Saia, a man full stop. The full stops break up each section than London hotter and stopped. And so another example on In this example, there is more than one author of the first example only hard one author, so you'll notice that it's not in alphabetical order. The altars are listed in the order that they're listed basically on the front of the back. So Tom Coma s comma Ford Rash or Pay and hooray are parentheses 2010 Full stop psychology of music from Signed Significance and that's an italics Fill stop New York semi colon psychology press. And that is high reference fix so high to reference journals on. We're specifically talking about print journals here, the last name of the author Coma, first initial full stop, then again and parentheses. The year published very, very similar to referencing a book. Then the article title, which is just in plan type. The journal title comes and italics followed by a comma than the volume or issue and a calmer than the pages within the Journal. So here are a couple of examples on, By the way, there's a die notable resource attached to this video, which lists numerous different kinds of sources and high to reference them. So it's from a wonderful website, and I've also given you the link to that website on High to Harvard Reference. So here, Light Body J AS and Gary Lightbody of Snow Patrol and 2007 and parentheses on that in quotation marks. Are we good? Or a freaking shambolic dirge whose quotation marks that was the title off the article, which is in plan type on. Then the new Statesman. The publication that was contained within is in italics. Then we've got they volume. We've got the debt, the volume on the issue number and what page this article was fined on. Okay, so here is an article with more than one author. Disney could see an egg a day l 2015 the impact of cognitive, social and physical limitations on income and community dwelling adults with chronic mental what chronic medical and mental disorders. Very long title there. That's all. Implant tax, then Global Journal of Health Science is a talent coma and ban. We have the Volume seven on the issue. Five on the Pages PP won it 32195 ending with a full stop. So this is hard to access online journals. It's a very similar procedure, the couple of additional pieces of information needed but last name. The first initial the year published the article title the Journal in Italics and then making reference to the fact that it's all in line the volume and issue the pages. And then we write, available at and give the R L and then accessed and give the debt that you accessed the article because, of course, websites are being updated all the time, and changes could have been made after you access the article. So here's a couple of examples. Renna asked. 2015. Establishing correlation between genetics and non response plan type title off the article itself than the title of the Journal is in italics Journal of Postgraduate Madison. So we've made reference to the fact that it's online. Volume 61. Issue two, page one for it available at then Give You are out and then accessed at the vehicle. 2015 so you'll notice hard to write the debt there the day and then an abbreviation for the month and then the year so high to reference newspapers and print publications. Quite often, actually, you'll find newspaper articles online, so I have included Hide a reference newspaper articles that you find on the Internet. So Sim kind of idea. The last name first initial year published article titled Newspaper and Metallics on the Pages or the R. L. So if you're using on online version, you want to include the debt that you accessed that article the same way we did for journals. So here's a couple of examples. No, I didn't know the title off the author of this article, So I started with the publication, If you know the author, then, of course, she began with the authors of the Belfast Telegraph 2003. The private thoughts of a singer who scorns Fam Waas the title of the piece. And that was in the Belfast Telegraph on the 12th of May 2003. So it was presented online the almost supporting self health group. So it's on their website rather than the Belfast Telegraph website. On. I give the debt that I accessed that website as shown below so another example of a newspaper article on this is a print articles. So it's Massey a 2000 and 11. No, Martin McGuinness is not a fit and proper person. And that was in The Spectator, which we write in italics on Wednesday, the 20th of September 2011 on I don't Know the page number because I was given a photocopy of this article. And so it's best to make that clear and just write Pidge unknown Hi to reference websites. I'm going to include a couple of different ways to reference websites. If you know the name off the person who published the article, then you begin with that in the same way as usual. Last name. First initial year published page title referencing the Fact It's online, the website name unavailable at giving the girl on the debt that you accessed it quite often. You may me may not know who was the individual who wrote the text, So in that case you gave the website name the air published. If you can find it, the patch title in italics referencing the fact it's online available at and give the are out on the debt accessed. So here's some examples from my research the core Amelia community and I couldn't find a debt, so I simply put undated and practices. The page was called Mission Statement. Thoughts in italics referencing the fact it's online, available at on Give the Girl and then the dit that I accessed it, which I've given slightly differently here. I have put the month numerically rather than writing May, but that was because I was writing in the UK rather than the states that various in different parts of the world. So CNN's website and CNN Online I did manage to find a date for the article, which was 1990 It Elton John sings for Hope and Peace in Northern Ireland in Italics and that Article Walls published on Thursday the 20th of May 1990. It so if given a dip, the website on a debt for the actual article, referencing the fact it's online available at giving your out. I'm bad. The debt that I accessed it so high to reference blog's very similar last name, First initial year published the Post title in italics and then making reference to the fact it's Blawg giving the name of the Blawg and playing text available at Give the URL on the debt that you accessed it. So here's an example. Cohen M 2013 re election is likely from McConnell but not guaranteed, making reference to the fact it's a blawg. The bloggers called FiveThirtyEight available at gives your L and then the DIT, accessed on Here it is written. April is a PR rather than in my research, where I used a unit numerical form of writing them up Hi to reference videos. Well, it depends on the type of video, whether it's online or a broadcast. There's also information and your downloadable resources by high to reference DVDs and on other forms of video. So broadcasts are reference this way. The Siri's title in Italics and then the year published then the type of program is a documentary is a drama, the channel number on the broadcaster. So you tube videos on online resource, very similar to the way that you would reference a website. So you start with the last name First initial or the corporate author in the the organization who put together the video the year published. The title or description is a metallic than format. Available acts when you give the URL on them, but So here's some examples. So in online video will start with Williams a 2013 d j gear on. It's an image rather than the video. Actually, if it was a video would say video and they're available. Act gives the flicker address might also be a YouTube address. Access to it of April 2015. So a broadcast. The new modern family. 2010. It's a TV program. It was Channel number six on it aired on ABC. So this is high. We reference interviews that you have carried ICT for your research. So the last name of the interviewer on their first initial thought may be your last name and first initial and then the last name of the interview on their first initial, then the year of the interview and then the title or description of the interview. So I'll give you example from my research. Williams A Brackets 2012 interview with Ludwig O'Neill. That was the way it was done in my institution. So instead of filling the last name, you know I haven't put O Neill l I've put Ludwig O'Neill. That was just the way that we did things. Um, I've given the name of my institution Basketball University. On the debt off, they interviewed. Similarly, Williams, a 2012 interview with Ruth Porter and other ways of doing it would be interviewed with Porter Are and then bass by university, because that indicates it was an interview for academic research in 5 April 2012. And I were going to talk a little bit by intact citations. We've looked at high you reference texts for your bibliography on As I say, many other different kinds of tax and sources are listed in the downloadable resource, which I really recommend that you read a Mickey so but in text, citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. So you're making reference to somebody else's work, directly or indirectly on their located and the body of the work. So right after you refer to someone you want to give some indication of where you have got this phrase that you've just used so they contain a fragment of the food citation. So you're not putting in everything that we put into the bibliography, depending the source type. Some Harvard reference in text citations look something like this. After that, I lived a young Roger and all the capitals of Europe. So that's Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald will, of course, be referred Teoh in the bibliography so that the Examiner, the radar can go check the bibliography to find the faux information. That's Gerald 2004 and that's basically what an intact citation looks like. So here is the website that you can check out to find out all about Harvard referencing. It lists many more types of sources that are covered in this video. Um, it's available as a downloadable yours. 28. Bibliography/Webliography: No, I we're going to talk about your bibliography on your Web geography, and I actually lost marks in my research paper for not thank those two things. So your bibliography should be everything that you've I watched. You may have used DVDs, TV programs, that kind of thing, part of your research, not just the things that you've quoted, but everything that you read all the information you took in, and you basically want to list as much as you can on their your Web. Geography should be every resource that you looked at online YouTube videos, websites, online journals, blog's you know, basically anything that you've used on the Internet on separate those two things. You'll note that I've used Harvard referencing for my biblioracle fate. No, there was just one thing I didn't might be overly. I'd like to share with you that waas this basically there waas on advertisement that I mentioned and my paper quite a lot, but I couldn't actually find the video that I needed anywhere online. Nobody opposed to own it online. I couldn't get it from the Northern Ireland office, you know, I just couldn't find it, but it was referred to in several of the documents that I had read. So I just wrote, I have been unable to locate a video file relating to the above campaign and so have had to rely on written descriptions of the advertisement featuring Van Morrison by Alan Murdoch of The Independent on James McLaughlin of the University of Ulster. So I'm in essence saying, I couldn't find this video, but it has been referred to, and I know it exists because respected journalists Andi academics have reverted. And of course, that's no ideal. But sometimes things like that happen, and you can use your bibliography. You can add a note to sort of meta get against that. 29. Glossary: so I have included glossary in my research night. In the case of Mice research, it was because I was writing a paper at an English institution on the run off a lot of Northern Irish terms within my research. So when you're writing your glossary, it's a bite, making the terminology on sometimes the jargon that you've used in your paper really clear to someone who's reading it, who might be from a different culture of background. Obviously, they're going to have a very, very in depth knowledge of your subject, so you don't really need to explain terms that part 10 to your subject. For example, my my subject area was music, and I definitely didn't need to explain musical terms. But there was the old political term that I need ticks. Then, for example, the word opinion here have written a term for ancient Celtic mythological heroes adopted by the Republican grape, the Fenian Brotherhood, in the late 19th century. It is now uses a purge art of term for a Catholic person in Northern Ireland. So this kind of background information that there's any terminology in your paper that you feel might be a little bit confusing. You can find a dictionary definition of the terms that you've used. You can use definitions that are used in the various sources you've used and your paper. Or you can explain yourself. Watch the term mains about your own explanation will come from your wider reading. 30. Confirmation Bias: something we want to avoid at all costs in an academic paper, which is going to demolish your marks is something called confirmation bias on. I'm sure that if you've been around academia or even if you watch videos on YouTube, you've heard this term confirmation bias. I'm going to read you a definition of it from dictionary dot com. Confirmation bias is the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories. In your research, you must not just seek ICT research that backs up your own ideas. Your own theories. You must discuss every major argument on your topic. It's fine to have your own opinions on. It's fine to come to your own conclusions, but you must show that you have engaged with a breath of ideas. If you don't do this, you will not get a good mark on. Also on Examiner may look over your bibliography and see that there are too many texts that all their towards one point of view, you want to avoid that. So in the body of your research and your appendices and in your bibliography and Web geography, you want to show a breath of understanding in your field 31. Gaffes That Lead to Failure: in this video, I'm going to share with you some really life things that people have done that were so obvious that they shouldn't have done that lad to total failure. So, needless to say, you don't want to be doing any off these things in your research paper or in your academic studies generally. So I happen to be very close friends with a guy who lectures media law and is a well known figure in his field. And he was marking a master's dissertation. Once a Nazi. He was reading it. He thought to himself, the signs familiar to me. I recognize this turn of phrase. I recognize the school of thought. I think the student might have plagiarized this passage. So he typed a few sentences off the passage into Google on who had written this passage he had. So the student had managed to actually plagiarize on entire page of text from the Examiner , a page of text which came from the course Hamburg night. It's quite likely that the person marking the exam is going to recognize the course Hamburg . So plagiarism is, you know, the unforgivable sin in academia, so don't pledge, rise, do be sure to use proper quotations. Not a sadder story. Waas. A student who failed a research paper by not actually following the instructions for that paper. And that's just a tragedy when you're marking someone, and you know that actually, they understand their subject well, but they're not actually answering the question that has been put to them to answer. So read the instructions really carefully. Know what it is that's expected of you? No, I not going to lectures will often mean you have no idea what the examiners requirements are or the little quirks that might come across when you hear them speak. So if you don't ever go to lectures or tutorials if you don't engage with your fellow students, if you don't engage with lecturers and cheaters, you're at a serious disadvantage when it comes to writing a research paper. So not rating The key text on your course is never going to be good. They'll generally be a raisin. Why certain texts are recommended. They want to make sure that you know the major schools of thought in your discipline. So if you decide not to read those on, you decide not to refer to them in your research paper. Probably not going to be a good I come. So we've had an entire video on confirmation bias following only one argument only one school of thought showing a limited range of understanding and reading. You are definitely going to feel for that. So I'd like to talk and I a bite one more per practice that goes on in academia. A za likes of going onto fiver or those kind of websites looking for someone to write a paper for you or offering to do it for other people. Just never be involved in that either as the purchaser or as someone who writes for other people. ISS. It's completely dishonest on it. How's the devastating impact arm the field of academia generally, but you will be discovered. There is no way off doing this without at some point you're being called arts to just stay well away. 32. Conclusion: very well done for getting to the end of the course, and I hope that you find it useful and practical. If you have any comments or questions, please feel free to get in touch with May. I'm always happy to hear from students on. I wish you every success with your research paper on with your academic career.