Ableton Workflow: Simple Recording/Mixing | Will Edwards | Skillshare

Ableton Workflow: Simple Recording/Mixing

Will Edwards, Artist. Creative Problem Solver. Musician

Ableton Workflow: Simple Recording/Mixing

Will Edwards, Artist. Creative Problem Solver. Musician

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10 Lessons (36m)
    • 1. Selecting Instruments

    • 2. Setting Key, Tempo and Beat

    • 3. Recording Chords/Harmony

    • 4. Recording a Chord Tone Melody

    • 5. Session View and Bass Line

    • 6. When/How to Use Reverb and EQ

    • 7. Simple Workflow for Live Recording/Mixing

    • 8. Compression Quickstart Settings

    • 9. Side-Chain Compression Basics

    • 10. Limiting Basics

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About This Class

This short course demonstrates the process of recording a complete track using Push 2.  The track is very simple, but it is useful for students who what to develop a workflow on Push that incorporates the technology while producing a piece of music that is actually using music theory principles.  Steps include: 

  1. Instrument Selection
  2. Setting a key and tempo
  3. Recording chords using triad pad shapes
  4. Composing/Recording a basic melody
  5. Using Session View to create track sections
  6. Record in Arrangement View
  7. Export
  8. FX Overview: Compressors, Reverb, EQ and Limiting

Meet Your Teacher

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Will Edwards

Artist. Creative Problem Solver. Musician


I am a full-time professional musician who has broad teaching experience with guitar & bass students in rock, blues, jazz and many other genres. I perform live on bass, guitar and keyboards.  In addition, I perform live electronic music improvisation.  I've devoted over 26 years to my own well-rounded musical education, focusing on a mastery of all aspects of modern music - from music theory to ear training; from live performance to composition and practice routines.

I specialize in bridging the gap between music and technology, focusing on using modern tools to demonstrate all aspects of music.  I compose and perform with Ableton and Push 2 and I have experience with Cubase, ProTools and Logic.  I'm extremely comfortable using web-based to... See full profile

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1. Selecting Instruments: selecting instruments is an important part of using the push. Doing this with a mouse and a keyboard could be kind of onerous, especially if you have a lot of instruments. Nice thing about Push is it has a beautiful display that helps you navigate through all your instruments, and I want to show you how you can add them quickly. The first thing is, from any screen you just hit the ad track button. Once you out of the track, you have a choice to select midi or audio tracks. Anytime you're adding a soft synth or some other instrument built into able to, you're gonna want a MIDI track in the second column. Although great out there are lists of many track options. You can actually create your own instruments and save them under user files. But for this example, I'm just using the built in sounds. I can either go to my Sounds collection, which is going to look at all the tags and labels that able to has used internally to group different instruments and different particular parameter settings. But you could also go to instruments, and you can select a specific instrument like analog if you know that you want to have an analog, subjective synth sound that will bring up another menu you keep going through until you find the instrument no longer presents you with further columns. Then you hit load. This is added a track, and I can play it more war, war, war, world right away from my Bush, adding instruments is as easy as that. 2. Setting Key, Tempo and Beat: through this lecture and trying to set up the key and also tempo rhythm related elements for my project. Firstly, I want to do is actually set key. So make sure that you have selected one of the instruments that is melodic or harmonic, something that generates notes rather than beats. And your scale button will become available if this button isn't available, It may be because you have a rhythm item selected like the 80 wait. In that case, scale is not an option. So you need to choose an instrument that has melodic or harmonic intention and suppose is a good way of putting it. Now you're scale buttons available. Go ahead and press that And for my project, I'm going to use the rotary to make sure I've selected Major and I've selected the key of a pressing buttons will set the key the root of the key. I'm gonna go with pay, and I'm gonna press scale to go out. The next thing I want to do is make sure that I've set my tempo, so I'm gonna use the upper left hand and I'm gonna set my tempo to 120 beats per minute. I also want to make sure my key signature is set to 44 So if you look in the upper left hand corner of your able to display, you'll see 44 is what I have said in this project. Now you can download this project as a supplement with this lecture and just get started right away. Alternatively, of course, you can be building your own project, and then you'll want to know how to set the tempo, how to set your key signature and also set the key. All of that stuff is really important. Now you'll notice one other thing in this project. If you download the demo that I've made available as a supplement with this lecture, If you look into a Bolton, you'll see that I have four clips back beat house garage and two step, and I'm gonna actually use this kind of audition and experiments. See what kind of beat I want to go with when I'm putting together my final composition. So now let's go forward into the next lecture and continued about being our final project 3. Recording Chords/Harmony: this'll lecture. I'm gonna demonstrate what it looks like when I create a harmonic structure. This is a 6415 progression. So in the key of a major which we set in the last lecture, that is gonna be the six Court is F sharp minor. The four chord will be D major. The one court, of course, is a And then the five chord is e or E seven and E dominant court. So I'm gonna go ahead now and play that court progression in addictive keys. I'm going to select that channel, and I want to point out something that's pretty cool about the push to We can actually change the colors for each channel. I find this really helpful to just kind of keep my workflow solid. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna hold the shift key, gonna hold it down and select addictive keys, and you'll see that the screens is selected color for Channel five addictive keys. I'm to go ahead and select green. Now you'll see that when I select instruments, the color that relates to that instrument is actually the color used in the pads and the knobs. It really helps my workflow a lot. So I'm gonna go ahead and just do this for all of my instruments. I'm gonna make the percussion and eight await blue like that. I'm gonna go ahead and make my leads red, and I'm gonna go ahead and make my base. Well, I'll just leave that the existing color right now, which is kind of an orange or tan, and then I want to make my pad into another color. So I'm gonna go ahead and let's see. I'll choose yellow. Okay, so now we have a nice color coding that's gonna help me when I'm actually playing kind of tell what I'm doing. So I'm gonna select addictive keys. And again, I'm gonna be playing a 6415 progression. Now, just a reminder how the scale works on a push like this. These are your octaves. She have a root 23456 That's gonna be the root of our six chord. And then this would be the root of our one. Gord are four chord on our five Ford. So we're gonna play a 6415 OK, that's how it's gonna work. 6415 and I use this triangle position to play a basic dry it. Based on whatever I'm selecting, I'm going to use one of my drumbeats here to just kind of give me Ah, riel. Basic be to play along with now. I'm gonna go back to addictive keys and I mean a hit record. I can turn the metro name off because I'm playing to the drums this way. I know when the loops gonna come around again. Got my gonna there. I had my loop. I find it really helpful to record my harmonic loops against either a metronome or drum loop the way that I just demonstrated, because it really helps me to know where one is gonna be. I can kind of track where the one is, and you'll find that when you hit record, what is really going to do is it's gonna start recording on the next downbeat the one of the next measure. And you wanted to be able to anticipate where that is, so that your loops come out real crisp and tightened. Everything is timed correctly. Now we're gonna go on to the next lecture and continue this project 4. Recording a Chord Tone Melody: I actually looked at my harmonic structure here, my f sharp minor chord going to a D major chord to a major court and then into an e major triad one e seven, if ice and seventh. And what I found was a really nice motive that still uses quarter tones. So my motive is gonna work out like this. And when I play that I'm playing the root of my first court. The six scored and playing. This is the six. Remember, we have. All of the red items are roots. So it got 123456 That's the root of my six. So I'm playing the six and the three of my six, which is actually also the root of my home key A. This is f sharp. That's a so I'm creating a motive here. That's really based off the F sharp minor triad. Start with the route and I feature the third. Then I'm gonna move the whole thing down just or to the left. Just one pad that's going essentially be moving from a tonic of f sharp to a tonic of e. Right. So I'm gonna have this kind of f sharp minor. Try a based motive. And then this e major based motive. And I'm gonna play that over the court progression, and you're gonna find that it works out pretty well with all the cords. This is also representing a rhythmic motive because I'm using a static rhythm so that the arrangement is the same. That makes it a rhythmic motive. I hope that's clear. But it's important to understand that there are two elements to motive. There is the actual choices in the intervals. And then there's also whether or not it is a rhythmic motive, meaning that the rhythm pattern is being used over and over again. Okay, so now I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna play the house beat, and I'm gonna play the addictive keys Harmony that I added. So now I want to go ahead and record that melody. I think that my original addictive keys harmony is just a little bit slow. So I'm gonna go ahead in a Bolton, and I'm gonna actually use a cool feature here. This divide by two button and just make it play twice as fast. All right. I'm gonna go back to my lead way recorded 5. Session View and Bass Line: Now I'm gonna create scenes within able to in order to create song sections. And I'm gonna use the clips that have recorded and make sure that they are distributed to the right channels at the right time so that different sections of my song kind of have the desired impact. So there are 25 major sections to this beginner track. The first isn't intra, and the idea of the intro is basically to be kind of subtle. I'm not gonna have any base. And I want to establish some kind of interesting musical idea in this case, my moat. Following that, I'm going to get into the second section, which I kind of think of as the groove section. That's still pretty static. But I start to introduce drugs, and I also introduce base. Then I'm going to create a breakdown and the breakdown sections kind of self exponentially . I mean, actually switch out the drones for percussion, and I'm also going to kind of add the lead with the MIDI output from my originally becoming the MIDI input for my alternate lead during the breakdown. That's gonna be kind of important to changing the mood there and then I'm gonna come back, kind of with a giant climactic section where it's all in. I've got all the elements playing, and I'm going to create a slightly different rhythmic sort of more hyper rhythmic element and then also bring in the cords with the new path And then the alternately as well after that climactic section, it's gonna be an altro Where just gonna kind of remove the gentleman one by one? So in general, there's gonna be intro a groove buildup, the breakdown, a climax and then an outright When you are working with scenes on the Edison, push to you're gonna want to be inception view. So you're gonna press the session button and what you see here on the left inside, under my 808 channel is all the drum loops. Right? So this is my break beat pattern. This is my house pattern. This is the garage and then have the two step. So when a fire clip, I get that drumbeat so I can build up my song by using clips and then the horizontal row represents a scene. If I want to fire a whole see and I can actually use these buttons that are eliminated. Agreed. So, for example, if I hit this one here, all that's really gonna happen is that my house speed is gonna run. It's pretty slow house be. We can modify that later on. The scenes here are represented by four green. Let's I'm gonna want five scenes. All in. All right, So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to hit the duplicate button, and I mean, actually, hold that down and I'm gonna just tap a scene that basically creates a new scene. So now I have my intro, and I have my groove, my breakdown, my climax and then the ultra to these in my five sections. Now, I want to make sure that the appropriate clips are running in each instrument at the right time. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to go ahead and get rid of my back beat altogether. I'm gonna hold the delete key and just delete that. I just deleted that clip altogether. I think I really like the sound of the garage meat and the two step beat. Let me try the to set beat. I think that's my favorite. Yeah, I like the way That sounds more than the other beats. So I really want to make sure that I hang on to my to set beat. I'm not really gonna use the garage beats. So I'm gonna go ahead and delete that and I am going to use the house beat. So I'm gonna go ahead and delete my other beat here, and then I'm left with house on my two step. Now, I want the two step to be everywhere except my break them. So I'm gonna go ahead and I'm going to rename my scenes in able to This cannot be done really from the push, because the push doesn't have any letter inputs. So I hit command arm to rename. I'm gonna name this my intro. Then I'm going to reading this greatest. This third scene is gonna be my breakdown. I'm just naming this to make it kind of user friendly. Then I've got my climax and my out. Now I can think more clearly about which clips I wanna have in which scenes, right? So in my intro, the whole point is to create interest and over the one that base or anything like that. But I do want to make sure I got my melody in there, right, So I'm gonna go ahead and I'm going to copy my clip. That represents my main melody into the same slot on that instrument, but in the interesting. So the way that I do that is to basically duplicate. Hold that down, tap a patch and you'll see it says that it has been copied. Now I'm gonna tap there and basically added a copy of that cliff into here. So now if I just fire this scene, it'll only fire that one clip because that's all it's in the scene right now. That's my melody. That's exactly what I want. Okay, so that's gonna be my in trip now in the group section, I'm gonna wanna keep my melody going. So going again, duplicate that. It's really functions like a copy and paste. Now I'm introducing my drums, but of course I don't have any base. So what I want to do is go ahead and record a base recording base into this channel is something I can only do from the note view, right? I can't do it directly from the session here, and I want to be able to play along with it. It's really a great idea to play your baseline by hand because it does introduce slight imperfections in your timing. And that actually winds up making the whole piece pull together a lot tighter, actually, winds a feeling tighter, even though what you're really introducing our small imperfections. So let's go ahead and select the base, which is actually my buzzer channel here, number four. I want that to be really low, something to use the optic button. And I'm gonna think about quarter tones and specifically shared tons. My 1st 2 chords F sharp, minor and D Major contained the note f sharp. And I'm gonna get a pulse on that while I'm running through those two courts. Then when the chord progression switches to the one in five, I'm gonna actually play the five which in this case would be eat. It just feels like that house beat his way too slow. So I'm gonna go into able to this something that is easier to do with the mouse. I'm gonna actually double quick on my house beat, and I'm going to divide it into previously we had used this feature toe. Make it longer. Now we're actually using this feature to make it shorter. Now we have a bit more of a steady sounding beat. So now I'm gonna fundamentally build a baseline out of these two notes. But occasionally I'm gonna add 1/3 of that relative root note just to create a little bit of interest. I'm going to actually record my bass part. So I'm gonna start playing the piece on gonna wait for my lead lined toe, actually go around one full luth and then start playing the bass over the top after hitting the record button, it'll start recording on the next downbeat way. Go, Theo. So this point, I've got my base set up, and now I've got a new clip here. So in my groove, seen I wanna make sure that my melody, the drums and that's the house beat. And then I've got my base. Right. So now in the breakdown, I'm going toe want keep my drums. But I'm going to switch to this to set beat, right? So I'm going to actually duplicate this. They're gonna go ahead and delete it there. I'm going. Teoh, remember that that is my to set beat. I'm gonna want to keep my melody, but I'm gonna actually play the melody on a slightly different instrument. Right? I'm gonna be playing it perfect here. So I'm going to copy this into my alternative lead. Sounds like that. Right? So I'm keeping the groove. I'm going to keep the base, but I'm gonna lose the cords. All right? I want to actually make sure that my cords are in this section. Appear so I'm gonna go ahead. Do you get that? They're now that these scenes sounds a little empty and not having the keys there. So I'm gonna go ahead and copy those over as well to the breakdown. When we come back into the climax, I'm gonna want the harmony duplicated out to this giant pad to. So let's go ahead and do that. I'm gonna want to keep my melody in the original sound. And I don't want to go back to my house, beat right base, also follow through Theo. Climax builds upon that by adding a new version of the harmony. And then what I want in the Altro is I want all of these clips there, but I'm gonna actually mix them down later on and remove each channel just through volume. Okay, so let's go ahead and make sure I've got all these channels represented. Then in the Outro, I can actually use the mixed feature to bring things in and out. So I've essentially taken a baseline that I've extracted from quarter tones and shared tones from the harmony I have taken to different drum beats. One that's a house feet and one that's a two step. And then I'm using those to kind of delineate sections of the song. I've set my outro up here to include everything after the climax introduces everything, but I'm gonna be actually in my performance, fading these out right and the idea of having to harmonic qualities here, the addictive keys that I get started with and then the pad that gets introduced later. That's also an important element to keeping some kind of growth in this, too. So let's move forward, and we'll advance this final project a little further in the next section 6. When/How to Use Reverb and EQ: I think this lesson. I want to demonstrate how to use reverb and e q. And I think the first really important thing to consider when you're using any effect is to think about why you want to use. Now I'm gonna suggest in this demonstration that the best reason for using river is because you want to create ambience space. You want to create the mood that comes with a specific space. And in my case, I'm gonna do that during the breakdown. Adding river to this channel is pretty straightforward. And then select the channel. I'm gonna say add device and I'm going to go down to audio fix and then all the way down to river. And I'm just going to select a basic preset here balladry, verbal to this patch. So now there's this highly ambient sound. So in a nutshell, that's the great application for reverb to create space. And where I want that space in this composition is during the breakdown. Let's talk about using e que e que really comes in a couple of different forms you can do. Ah, hi, Pastor Low passed on to show you how I use those and Then you can also use band, pass and band pass kind of lets us boost or cut specific frequencies. And again, it's really important to ask yourself why are you doing this? Why are you using EQ you? So the best reason to use e que is to kind of clean up the field, so to speak. So you've got all these instruments that all creating a lot of sound they're creating sounded all the frequency ranges. But you really want to have certain instruments dominate specific frequency ranges. For example, you want the base to dominate the base and you want a lead, maybe to not interfere with that. So the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go to my lead here, and I'm going to add a device. I'm going to go ahead and I'm gonna add audio effect. And that one I'm gonna chooses the audio filter, OK? And I'm just going to select that and loaded up. Now I'm going to change the filter type too high pass, okay. And what high pass is going to do is it's going to ensure that any frequency above this frequency is allowed through. Now, if I play this right now, you're gonna hear that There's not really much there. But as I turned the frequency, you get this really kind of trouble the sound because there's no base, it's allowing high frequency through, but not low. So what's happening here is I'm actually using the knob, the frequency setting to change how this filter is affecting that sound. Now, this is a lead sound, so I don't really want a lot of base. So I'm gonna go ahead and I'm gonna use this high pass at about 120 hertz. So let's just listen to what that sounds like when it's turned off. It's not a whole lot of a difference, but it is excluding those low frequencies. Now, I also want to go to my base, and I want to make sure that I have a low pass filter set up here. Right, So I'm gonna go ahead to audio effects and I'm gonna go back to order Filter, Okay. And this time I'm gonna select low pass, and I'm gonna set that pretty low, and you can hear how it changes. The fact what it's done is it's kind of had the effect of making the bass sound a little more dull, but it's also making the bass sound more like a vase. So I'm using the low pass and high pass filters here to kind of sculpt the sound. Right now, there's one other thing I want to do, and that is. Take some of the mid range out of the drums, both the percussion and the regular drums. Now I had previously set up the percussion toe, actually function in the breakdown. So I'm gonna go ahead and I am going to copy my house clip there, and I'm going to delete it. So now we can listen to the new scene. That way, there's a percussive element. It makes the breakdown sound different. Still, I want to take the regular drum kit, and I want to make sure that I carve out a big chunk of the upper mid range so that all the other instruments can sit nicely in it. I'm in select my kit. I'm just gonna listen to this one kid. I am okay, so there's a lot going on there in the high hat and the snare, and I want to kind of kill that a little bit so the lead can poke through a little more. So what I'm gonna do is go at device down toe audio effect, and I'm going to go to E Q eight. Now, if you have only the intro version off able to an or lower version, you may not have this plug in. You can use a lot of different EQ you plug ins. You can even use the E Q three for this, but I'm gonna use the EQ you ate. Okay, I'm gonna go ahead and load that and then I'm going to just go toe. That's a band three. I'm going to make sure Belle is selected, and I'm gonna choose a frequency around two kilohertz okay out there. And I'm going to turn my residence down completely, and I'm gonna use the game to actually cut frequencies from that range. Now, let's listen to the effect that it has. So you can hear how I'm kind of carving out a little bit of that upper range. Okay, Now, I'm also going to go back to my band one, and I'm gonna turn this to a low pass or sorry, a high pass and I'm going to set the frequency to about 40. So what this is doing is it's taking out ultra ultra low frequencies, but it's still allowing quite a lot of base to come through. The reason I'm doing that is to say if power sending base frequency is enormously expensive , electrically so, if you can take out some of the base frequencies, of course that's going to affect you if you're using a lot of subs. I'm not using that here, but you can use this high pass feature in one of the bands in an E Q eight in order to control that a little bit. So let me go back to my band three, and I want to just see I don't want to be as dramatic as reducing by minus for DB. I'm just going to do a subtle three DB there. That's what I've done is at a low pass high pass and then this band past. You can see how that's affected my drums. Let's listen to the composition. Now you'll notice that the lead is kind of rising above the drums a little better than it did before, and that's because I carved out kind of a hole for it to sit in. Now let's move forward and look at the final mix 7. Simple Workflow for Live Recording/Mixing: So now we're gonna record a final mix down, and I want you to understand a few tricks of making sure this works correctly. Okay, so what I've got is arrangement view in a mountain. You can see that on the screen Here, arrangement view can be reached by hitting the tab button on your keyboard. You will end up switching back and forth like that. You want to be in ranch view and on the push. When you are generation view, the record button automatically translates to a Ranger court. So you'll notice that when I click this button the record button in a built in turns on. Now what I'm gonna do is make sure my mention of is on. It's flattering if it's not impressed the button. Then when I press play, it's going to start the Metrodome. Now I'm gonna want to start in section view because I'm gonna want to fire my scenes. Let's start with this view. This is just a basic view. Looking at all of my clips, I'm gonna hit Lay and then I'm going to fire off scenes. Once the Metrodome has started. Here we go and you lost to see this recording in the software. Now I'm gonna switch scenes. Once the motives, Doug, you could see it continuing to record into a range of you while I'm gonna go to break down going into the climax with the Paige. Now I'm grateful Outro. Now I wanna use the mixed screen and then press the next button and actually used these knobs as volume controls. Then I want to keep that going until I faded out. Then I'm gonna start recording, and I have a view in arrangement view that represents my two. And you could also see the automation recorded here. Now, this is not a lecture on automation, but what you see on the screen, there is essentially some of my coder controls and their values over time, so that's the same as automation. So now I have my entire composition recorded, and I'm gonna go ahead and bounce it out. So on the screen, I'm gonna go to file export audio video, and I'm going to make sure that normalizes turned off. I don't want to convert tamano and there's no video component here. So now I hit export. It's a simple is that now I have my performance recorded a Bolton, I can save the project, and I can also just listen to the way file that I produced. If you have any questions about any elements in this particular lecture or this section or the whole course, please get in touch with me. I am always open, answering questions and even making extensive videos to answer questions. Now let's move on to the conclusion of the course. 8. Compression Quickstart Settings: art years compressed audio automatically by tightening the ear drum when loud sound hits it . This is one of the reasons that when we go to a loud concert for the next day or two, we can't really hear that well, because our ear drum has actually tightened up. And it's compressing all of the sound that we hear compressor does the same thing. It tamps down on highest peaks that allowed ist points in your music, and then that allows you to bring up the volume of everything without ever peaking without ever having digital corruption or some kind of distortion. What you want to use compression for in your tracks is to make sure that peaks are just kind of non existent, that there's nothing sudden that's going to really hurt people. Two years that's going to allow you to make the whole thing louder, which we all know we want an electronic music. But it also kind of makes the contour the volume a lot more digestible for people. So here the factors we got an attack and a release attack is how quickly does the compressor act on a peak that it discovers the release is How quickly does it let go? Then you want to look at the threshold value. This is what volume does a peak have to reach before the attack comes into effect and the compressor starts to function on the audio Generally, what you want to do is set. The threshold is zero. Bring your attack all the way up, bring your release all the way down. Now you want to bring down your threshold and you want to just the attack up until it sounds like the attack is pretty smooth to the ear. Then bring up the release until again. It smooth to the ear. Now you've got a pretty ideal attack release and threshold. The threshold attack and release settings are not going to universal to every track or every sound. You're gonna want different compression settings on drums. Then you might want on a vocal, for example. So you have to kind of use your ear and get familiar with these three principles and then use them over and over again, catering each compressors set up to the specific it instrument that it's functioning 9. Side-Chain Compression Basics: an important use of a compressor in electronica. Music is side chaining. Now there's two components to side chaining. There's the signal that's actually driving the compressor, and there's the signal that the compressor is functioning on. Typically, you might have something pump in electronic music where you'd have the compressor responding to a kick drum, for example, but functioning on a synth pad, and it creates this pumping sound every time the kick hits, the compressor tamps down on the synth path. You can also use it for more subtle purposes, like if you want the kick and the base to jail better, you can actually set up a compressor on the base that's responding to the kick. So every time the kick punches through, the base gets suddenly compressed. It's not quite a pumping effect, but you will find that it helps those two instruments gel together. Side chaining is really all about making sure that you have it set up correctly, and you want to make sure you're clear on what is driving your compressor and what your compressors functioning on. So typically you would add in a bolton a compressor to the track that you wanted to function on like, say, a synth pad, and then you use the side chain configuration within the plug in to respond to another only attract, like the kick drum. That's a summary of how side chaining works. It's really popular and powerful tool in our arsenal for electronic music. I suggest you give it a try, mess around with it, see what you think the right settings might be for your specific style. 10. Limiting Basics: Now we come to another effect. The limiter and limiters do. Limiting a limiting effect, or limiter, is essentially a compressor, but it has said its function so that it's more like a brick wall. The compressor will tend to soften a signal by a certain amount, whereas a limiter just stops it dead. A limiters essential toe have at the end of an effects chain. And it's really useful for making sure you don't have any peaks or any kind of distortion coming out of your system. So let's say that you send a signal out to the house that's just a little bit over zero decibels fs or a digital zero. It's the max level that you can output audio. Well, then you're gonna get this distortion sound and is going to sound terrible. A limiter basically says, Okay, anything over the X amount just not gonna let through. It's just not gonna happen. It's not going anywhere. A limiter is a brick wall, and it's very effective. If you just want to make sure that something under no circumstances makes it above a certain peak volume, use your limiter at the end of the signal chain at the end of your effects chain to tamp down on any kind of errant peaks and high that loud moments that might be offensive or might cause problems with your hardware.