A basic introduction to Stoicism | Alex Abbott | Skillshare

A basic introduction to Stoicism

Alex Abbott, I like to think!

A basic introduction to Stoicism

Alex Abbott, I like to think!

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7 Lessons (1h 5m)
    • 1. Introduction to the Course

      3:02
    • 2. Philosophical Foundations to Stoicsm

      9:39
    • 3. Greek Stoicism

      9:39
    • 4. Roman Stoicism

      8:28
    • 5. Stoic Logic and Physics

      19:12
    • 6. Stoic Ethics

      8:43
    • 7. Modern Stoicism

      6:05
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About This Class

What is Stoicism? What does it mean to be a Stoic? Can Stoicism be used to guide us in the modern world? These are all questions that we're going to be exploring in this course. We shall begin with the Philosophical Foundations to Stoicism, where it came from and how it developed. 

We shall next look at the History of Stoicism by looking at both the Greek Stoics (such as Zeno) and then the transition into the Roman world (e.g. the works of Seneca). 

The final section will explore the details of Stoicism, understanding the Stoic views of Physics and Logic and how they relate the Stoic views of Ethics. We shall then go into detail and look at the Cardinal Virtues in Stoic ethics to understand how Stoicism can guide us to a good life. 

This course is designed to understand the fundamentals of Stoicism as a Philosophy, it's history and what it actually says. This is an all levels introductory source in Stoicism. NO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF STOICISM IS NEEDED FOR THIS COURSE. Philosophy should be fun and interesting, that's why I have been creating these short introductory courses in Philosophy. 

Meet Your Teacher

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Alex Abbott

I like to think!

Teacher

Hello, I'm Alex. I have a BA in Philosophy from the University of Nottingham and am currently in the process of getting an LLM in Law. In the future I would love to pursue academic studies further and go on to do a PhD. I have a keen interest in teaching people what I have learned in fun and interesting ways. My primary expertise include Metaphysics, Logic, the Philosophy of Mind and Ethics. I shall be making courses on some fun and interesting areas of Philosophy. 


My Current Courses include: 

 

- Can Computers Think? Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.

- Who am I? Introduction to Personal Identity

- A basic introduction to stoicism

- Introduction to Formal Logic

- Introduction to the P... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction to the Course: Hello and welcome to the course introduction to Stoicism. In this little short little video, we're gonna ask ourselves what stoicism is. And then we're gonna look at what this course is going to entail. The kind of things we're gonna be talking about on the kind of things that were going to be discussing throughout the course. So, first of all, what is stoicism? Stoicism is a philosophy which came from the solve Hellenistic era on the Hellenistic error of ancient Greece from the Thinker known of known a xeno off city, Um, in around 300 b. C. A. It's heavily influenced by the likes off Socrates, the philosophy of the cynics. Andi engaged in a lot of vigorous debates with skeptics and academics on the so called epicure Ian's at the time in ancient philosophy Andi. It has a number of issues in contemporary philosophy, contemporary medicine and contemporary psychology. It's got a number of impacts that has really shaped the way people think today. Stoicism has, and people are really picking up on the idea of stoicism as a practical way of living. So, for example, the practice of ah, cognitive behavioral therapy is a psychological practice that's heavily influenced by stoicism. So stoicism is very important, even though it came from the ancient Greeks thousands of years ago in this course, Then we're gonna have a look at a number off things from the philosophy of stoicism we're gonna look at, really the the foundations of stoicism. Where's doses and came from the kind of influences that stoicism has had on the kind of things that influenced stoicism. We're gonna look specifically a Greek stoicism with and move on to the Roman period. Look at their way that the Romans such as Seneca and Marcus Aurelius developed on reform. Stoicism on going Look at the actual details. Onda stuff that actually the stoics actually believed. So we're gonna look at logic and physics within stoicism. We're gonna look at stoic ethics. I'm gonna look at what stoicism really means for today's society. What can we take away from skepticism in the future on in contemporary society, for the discussion task? Really? What does stoicism mean to you? Try and think about the kind of things that it's almost to call us? Quite stoic about something. What do you think that means? Okay, what do you know about stoicism already would be good to see your kind of understandings on Did to see what you understand now on how that links to what you're gonna learn from this course. So these are things that I wanted to just think about and maybe write down, or maybe put in the discussion area at the bottom of this page. Okay, so the next lesson we're gonna have a look at the philosophical foundations of stoicism on . Then we're gonna move on to the history on then the actual content itself. 2. Philosophical Foundations to Stoicsm: So in this lesson, we're gonna have a look at the philosophical foundations of stoicism. Really? What influence? Stoicism on what influence the people to start to develop stoicism. And I'm really waking Mitrice the history history really of its development. So specifically, in this lesson, we're gonna look a number of different philosophical foundations which built up the so called philosophy of stoicism. We're gonna look at things like Clayton ism, cynicism and scepticism thes of the sort three of the main ideas that were so fumbling around in classical Athens and Hellenistic Athens. Okay, which came slightly after the classical period. Okay, and then we're gonna have a look. Really? How these philosophies came together to really form what we understand stoicism to be today . So, really, what is does is, um, well put simply, stoicism is what is known as a Hellenistic you demonic philosophy. Because we can define stoicism in this kind of way. We can expect it to be influenced by its immediate predecessors on this contemporaries, because it's have quite the definitions. Quite broad. Okay, The hellenistic refers to the period in ancient Greece when it was made, or when it first founded on you demonic refers to the kind of type of philosophy that it is we're going talk about you'd ammonia later on. Not only was doses of influence by contemporary theories, so contemporary is in the theories around the sort Hellenistic period at the time they were also in conflict with these issues. They were also there were a school off their own that would argue and debate with the other thinkers at that time. So, for example, the Socratic issues the academic philosophies of Plato and Clayton ism theorist. Italian philosophies off the pair of pair up attic, peripatetic school square hard Teoh Pronounce some of these words. We're gonna be finding out that out quite a lot in this course. So these the kind of different kinds of people that were influenced on were influencing the ideas behind stoicism. So we've said the stoicism is a Hellenistic, you demonic philosophy, but what do we really mean by this? So when we come talk about you'd ammonia itself. The most modern translations of you, Tim O'Dea sort of describe its meaning as like say, happiness. Okay, so in reality, the term you pneumonia roughly translates to a life worth living on according to the philosophies of the Greco Roman Empire Air. Sorry, you pneumonia could be defined, sort of, in part by having so called excellent values on excellent virtues on this is, ah, theory that is credited to Aristotle himself. On this is the idea of virtue ethics, all virtue theory on its closely virtue. Ethics is closely linked with the so called Arista Tilly in ethics on the principle of you , Timoney is popular in most of the sort of Greco Roman theories of philosophy. So it makes sense to explain stoicism as a part of this kind of you demonic kind of movement, shall we say, within the ancient Rome on ancient Greece, so as you've seen here, like stoicism is quite difficult to formally define. And it's for this reason that we should understand stoicism by looking at the comparing, comparing and contrasting with his contemporaries, trying to find out where it fits on where it did fit within ancient society, to then start to develop our understanding of it further further, as we carry on. So, for example, people like Socrates who weren't Stoics is famous for arguing that virtue virtues are the only good that the virtue is the only good that can come from a people. Okay, so really, anything that isn't a virtue is neither good or bad. It's got Sinem no moral worth. So these things were theories and ideas that are not just unique to stoicism but have developed through hundreds of years, really, through the ancient Greek period. Aristotle, on the other hand, who came after Socrates suggested that virtues were necessary, but they were not sufficient for you, Timonium. Okay, so for you need virtues to be able to have this sort of happy life worth living Okay, But they weren't sufficient for such a life worth living. And then we look at things like cynicism, which was a movement within itself. So cynicism sits as an extreme contrast to Aristotle. The cynics thought that not only that 30 was the only good, but that any additional goods that Aristotle talked about were actually just distractions on and needed to be, you know, prop positively avoided. The philosophy of cynicism can be described quite comedically in the story. Off Die! Argenis off! Sign up! Okay, so this is the kind of ideas of cynicism I'm going to read the quote specifically. So one day, observing a child drinking out of his hands, he cast away the cup from his wallet. Andi, with his words, he says, A child has beaten me in plainness of living. Okay, now this is the kind of thing that die Argenis is known for. So if you want to Google and research a little bit about dodgy knees of sign up, he was a very interesting character. Andi. He really built this idea of cynicism, and the cynics around this solve a soft, strange way of life that he's off developed. We can explain the sort of cynic Chris criticism of Aristotle by suggesting that Aristotle's philosophy was a bit too aristocratic, which is what the cynics argued, that it waas. They suggest that if one doesn't have certain privileges, one cannot achieve you'd ammonia. This was the arrest Italian view on the cynics disagreed with this idea and suggest that you don't own it can be achieved with mawr minimalism, you know, discarding material value, anything with material, wealth, anything material value, that that isn't actually what is part of the you'd ammonia. You don't need them. And in fact, that positively avoid. That is what's going to get you to achieve this end. So what does this debate say about stoicism? That's what's important. And stoicism is seen as a kind of sort that they were value in both of these schools of thought. The Stoics believed that Aristotle was onto something. But they're also the cynics were on. What the Stoics tried to do was to strike a balance between the two schools of thought. They endorsed two crucial ideas. The Stoics, with one idea is that virtue is the only true good on the other. Things like health, education of wealth may be rationally preferred over sickness, ignorance and poverty. So they just think that we can prefer these things over, you know, ignorance or sickness, just as long as we don't think that they are valuable in themselves. So this is what they stoics tried to believe. They believe that virtue was the only thing that was good, that health wasn't good. Education wasn't good. Wealth isn't good. Okay, on the ignorance and poverty aren't bad. They have no kind of moral law, you know, a good or good or bad property, that the only thing that was good was virtue. But they also argued that unlike the cynics, they argued that despite the fact that these things don't have any sign of good or bad value doesn't mean we shouldn't prefer rationally, you know, one over the other. So we shouldn't prefer we should prefer health and education over sickness and ignorance, for example. So these are the kinds of things that the Stoics believed and they saw it sort of seen as a middle way between the arrest Italian view off virtue being nearly good on also the cynical view that if virtue is the only good that none of these things matter, there was a discussion question for this lesson. We to just look at this quite formal s a kind of question, Andi. It basically asks. Stoicism successfully provides a middle ground between cynicism on arrest. Italian ism discuss. So if you want to discuss their some further readings in the Projects section, I might do a further readings for each lesson which might be quite useful toe reading up on this and seeing really whether the strengths and weaknesses of both of these a school of thought really came about Andi, how stoicism is successful in providing a middle ground between the two. In the next lesson, we're gonna look specifically at stoic philosophers themselves on. We're talking specifically about Greek stoicism, and they were gonna move on to Roman stoicism as we solve, carry on through the course. 3. Greek Stoicism: now I've looked at the philosophical foundations, toe stoicism, or going to in this lesson is have a look at Greek stoicism. Specifically, McGeough, take an introductory look at the early forms of stoicism in Athens from Zino. We're then gonna take a look. Xeno himself, his philosophy, the idea of the tripartite, stoic philosophy and his influence from the cynics on Plato where they're gonna move on to have a look at the rejection of Zinos thought on the reforms made by Chris IPASS on. Then we're gonna look at the sort transition of Greek stoicism into to what it became bypass. Adoni ous the Greek thinkers here. Okay, So as an introduction there, Greek stoic face spans relatively simply from the founding of the school by Zino to the time off. Placido Gnaeus. Our knowledge of this early form of stoicism, really most of stoicism comes from a few main primary source is one of those is the work off Cicero, who wasn't a stoic himself but provides a very good primary source for much of our knowledge of stoicism today. Stoicism actually flourished in Athens during the classical period of ancient Greece into the Hellenistic period. Andi as a philosophy stoicism would primarily Socratic. So it's fine, primarily based in the theories and ideas by Socrates. Now. I mentioned Socrates a little bit in the last video when we looked at the philosophical foundations, but I was more drawn to the idea of stoicism being able to provide a middle ground between arrest, Italian philosophy and the soft cynics on The reason why I did that was because Socratic philosophy is really the father of all of the schools of thought, from the salt Plato toe Aristotle to stoicism, anti cynicism. They all have some kinds of routes in Socratic philosophy. So to suggest that stoicism is also Socratic is a pretty convincing argument. When it comes to the real founder of Stoicism, we're gonna look at Zino. So Xena began his studies under the cynic Crete ease. It is for this reason that stoicism was also heavily influenced by cynicism. As we mentioned in the last video cynicism and stoicism it sort sit on this spectrum almost with arrest Italian ism on one side, cynicism on the other hand, stoicism almost sitting in the middle. This influence would be important all the way up to the philosopher Epictetus. Andi Xeno also studied under the polemics okay from the academy and also still po as well from the Nigerian school. And it's for this reason as well, that Zinos stoicism can be seen as inspired by Socratic philosophy but also a compromise between polemic Andi still IPIC philosophies as well as a compromise between arrest, Italian on cynic, philosophies, stoicism, self six in a soft center of all of these kinds of ideals. When it comes to Zinos, one of his main contribution to the stoicism and stoic philosophy, his idea of tripartite study. And it was Xena established the tripartite study of stoic philosophy. This was a part of, basically suggested that stoicism weaken study stoicism by studying three main areas on this was ethics, logic and physics. We're gonna have a look at each of these individually in their own videos later on in the course. But we should just know for now that Xeno was the person that founded this idea of tripartite study. According to stoicism, ethics took a very took a very cynicism, a very cynical approach. Corner stoicism. The universe is permeated by an active on a passive principle will talk about the active and the passive in lesson for five, I believe. Moreover, there was also a cosmic web of cause and effect that the Stoics believed in that the the idea of causation is a web, so that one thing causes multiple things and they're all in also in tandem causes within themselves. Okay, logic on the stoicism, the idea that the study of logic latterly a mixture between the formal logic that we would study in philosophy today, as well as the study of epistemology, which is the theory of knowledge and the study of how one obtains knowledge, taking on a pistol and logical position. The stories can be said to be quite empiricist and naturalistic philosophers. They they take empirical evidence toe hold true on they look at the study of the natural world. So this effectively makes up all of what we would call the Orthodox stoicism, the basic principles of ethics from the cynics, the platonic understanding of the physics in the universe, on the study of formal logic and epistemology. So that's what we could take to be Zinos understanding of stoicism. What about the disagreements that came after the you know so following Xena, there was a number of disagreements about the issues of stoicism. Many would interpret the writings of Zino in different ways. So you, for example, you'd have disagreements between the philosopher's clean the's on Christopher's on this. In the disagreement, one of the main disagreements was effectively about the unity of virtues, which was a theory that the Xeno suggested. So Xeno had made the claim that each virtue had some kind of wisdom on this could be interpreted in two year from Weighs on that was interpreted by these two philosophers in two different ways. So on one hand, clean thes suggested that all virtues are in fact, one and the same, that being wisdom. So all the virtues that we're going to talk about when we look at stoic ethics are all the same thing, really, in their orders, part of this ideal of wisdom. Where is Chris? IPASS thought that virtues were all part of a greater whole, as in their work, all pieces of wisdom that need to be understood as a collective in order to be seen as true wisdom. So all the virtues collectively come together to form wisdom, not the all virtues are basically wisdom. They're slight differences between the two on became known as the divide between unitary and pluralistic versions. Off virtues. So what about the Greek Stoics post? Chris IPASS? Because Christopher's was really a very influential reformer to stoicism. What happened after that? Well, around 60 years after Christopher's, there were two main figures in Greek stoicism. We have xeno of Tarsus, who is not the same xeno that we talked about earlier. We also have Dave Journeys of Bubble on on These Contributions Association were less impressive than that of Christopher's. However. They were still worth mentioning, bringing up their names in a video about Greek stoicism, the main event that really talk stoicism toe a different error into a different different dimensions. Waas something that happened in 155 b. C. E. On this was the diplomatic efforts. So in 155 BC, the three main schools in Athens, the Stoics, the academics on the pair of pathetic ex okay, were sent to Rome to help with diplomatic efforts. The impact that the philosophers like dodgy knees, a bubble on made on the Roman people could not be understated. Okay, this was a significant event on. It was incredibly significant because it multi period where the philosophy, philosophical thought in general would shifted from Athens to Rome on with that took stoicism. So we're gonna look at Roman stoicism in the next lesson as we looked at here. So what? This thes diplomatic efforts meant for philosophy is that all of the types of philosophies were picked open on, debated and talked about in Rome on and they saw saw we see a dying of we see a dying of the of the the Greek philosophers. At this point, we start to see the move, really, of the dominance of the Roman Empire. Anyway, as we move from 155 BC, on with that, like I said, came Stoicism went with it for the Lexus. I'm gonna look a Roman stoicism we've got We've covered the history of the Greek Stoics. Now we're gonna look at the the way the Romans picked up what the Greeks had left off on how they develop stoicism themselves because they did make a number of significant reforms 4. Roman Stoicism: So now we've looked at the Greek stoics and the history of Greek stoicism. What we're going to now is move on to Roman stoicism on Boy. If you thought the names pronounced the pronunciation of names in Greeks doses and was difficult, just wait till we get through this lesson because we'll get this through this lesson. It's fine. We'll be able to deal with the complicated names and the rest of the course. So that's good. Sign was holding my breath. You hold your breath as well will be OK, OK, so in this lesson will take an introduction to the stoicism in the room and world. We're gonna look at the stoicism of Seneca, who was a very influential stoic who were going reference quite a lot through the rest of this course. We're gonna look at house doses have developed through the Imperial period in Rome, and I'm also gonna have a look at the salt development, then on in to the rest of the Roman stoicism. It was an introduction, fluttery was brought to the attention of the Romans during the diplomatic period of 155 BC . And we've mentioned that I talked about that in the last video right the end, the the transition into room. However, there was also a shift away from stoicism in Athens. Onda shift as to Ward Room That's what we talked about again in the last lesson that it was sort died away in Athens. The Stoics. There is no evidence of a continuation off the stoic school in Athens after pani ts Panati is okay on. There's also suggestion that certain political events in the years 88 to 86 BC caused a permanent shift in off stoicism from the lands of Athens and Greece in general to Rome themselves. So 155 B seeds sold laid the groundwork for the shift of stoicism into the Roman world on them around 88 86 BC. We see the permanent shift, a permanent move into Roman era. So stoicism also became a very important part off the transition off room itself, from the late republic to the imperial era for the Empire. So when it comes to room from Republic to empire, there was a transitionary period. Okay, It was actually Cato, the younger who became the most influential stoic in Rome on this was partially because he was openly critical of the so called tyrant Julius Caesar on did it on. It did attract quite a lot of popularity from people who agreed with him on because it was a stoic is his popularity grew on? We also have Athena, Doris off Tarsus on arias. Did Imus, who were also important, stoic thinkers during this early period of Roman stoicism. Thies, too, both had high social standing. In fact, on this really also propelled stoicism into through its popularity because because of the high social standing off talk of 1/3 aureus of Tarses and Arias did emus. We see the we see the growth of the popularity. It gets a higher gets more people listening toe the ideas of stoicism. There we actually became councillors of the Emperor Augustus. So that's the kind of high levels that we're talking about with this shift in the Roman history, the republic going from the transition from republic to empire, we also see a shift in the substance of stoicism. So the more theoretical aspects of the tripartite school that was developed by Xeno the ideas off physics and logic, they actually became quite a lot less popular during this period. At the same time, the aspects of ethics in stoicism became very popular. How This is not to say that the theoretical aspects of stoicism just went away entirely. They were just less popular than the ethical side normally on enduring and under the Greek era, off stoicism, the tripartite were almost equal. So the physics, the logic and the ethics were almost equal in their value. And in there the amount that they are stood it. But at this point, the physics and logic talk take the back seat for the ethical side, we can indeed see a point. We can lead point to a number off stoic works that tackled some of the theoretical physics on the metaphysical and the logical questions of the universe. Still, even though they did take a back, seem can still see a little bit of some works that tackle these metaphysical issues. An example isn't Senecas. Natural questions looked a number of important issues in physics, and we also see a shift of way from stoicism away from purely academic okay, and we're talking about academic in the modern sense. No academic is in the school in Athens. The academy. We're talking about the kind of what we would understand academia today. So theoretical, Um, not very practical philosophy that kind of we start seeing moved towards using stoicism in day to day life were to start to see the likes of political figures, not just thinkers. So Seneca and Marcus Aurelius were both political thinkers, but they also shaped the stoic landscape on the period of yet this period, off off stoicism definitely contrast with the the Grecian and the Zeno IQ on the Chris Christie Aposhian Chris a push in her period off stoicism. So when it comes to the stoic sources in the Roman period during the transition period to the Roman Empire, we get a number of indirect sources for stone thinking on. Like I said in the first or the second lesson, the number of books by Cicero can provide great details about what the stoics believed. So during this period, we also get things like the the lives of eminent philosophers by Diaa Janie's alert e ists . These sources providers with further details on the theory and practice off the stoics at the time. So just like in Rome, there was definitely variety and disagreement among the sorry, just like in Greece. There was a lot of disagreement on variety among the Romans. D'Oex. So it can be said there were different styles when it came to Roman stoicism, for example, people like Epictetus was, Ah, strict philosophers. There were strict stoics. His philosophy was very much modelled on the cynic model off ethics. Then you also have people like Seneca, who was open to the pursuit of what he called preferred indifference, so preferred indifferent. But he also explicitly stated that he was critical of some of the doctrines of the early stoic. So we just like we saw a transition between Xeno on sis IPAss in the Roman era. We also seen the Greek, the Greek period off stoicism being challenged by the Romans. And we also have people like Marcus Aurelius who are very open in matters such as theology , something that didn't really occur as much in the in the Greek in the Grecian era. But as we move into the Roman era. These people took up and picked up stoicism on did what they wanted with it. They wanted to develop it and change it Okay, So really is a lesson task. We're link couple of bits of reading. But just from this lesson in general, what really? Could we see the main differences between stoicism in the Roman period on that of the Grecian period? Okay, so think about what the mean things were that we talked about in wrote in Greek stoicism on the main things we've talked by in this lesson and how they contrast with each other. In the next lesson, we're gonna actually look in detail at the specifics of stoicism and look at the logic and the physics within stoicism. 5. Stoic Logic and Physics: Now let's get into the actual details off stoic philosophy. And what as a stoic you should be looking at believing and accepting on. We'll start by looking at the 1st 2 off the tripartite theories off off early stoicism, and they're specifically looking at physics on logic within stoicism. So in general, in this introduction, we're gonna have a look at the tripartite connection and then go take in both of these different theories of the tripartite connection. Andi have looking them individually. So we're gonna look at what, the tri part, how the three branches of stoicism almost connect with each other. And then we have a look a logical in physics individually. So as an introduction. A fundamental aspect of stoke philosophy is the two fold idea. The ethics is central on that studying ethics requires the study of physics in the study of logic. So, really, when we look at the stoic understanding of physics and logic, we're using our knowledge of physics and logic to prop port power, our understanding and our study of ethics as a collective. These are the tripartite theory of stoicism on one good look at what we do is look closely . But the connections between the three of these aspects before we look a logic and physics specifically on. In the next lesson, go look out ethics. So when it comes to the tripartite connection, stoicism is on Waas. Fundamentally, a practical philosophy. The main aim off the stoic philosophy was to help people live a you demonic life, a life that's worth living a good life. Andi, the stories believe that this you demonic life came in the form of practicing so called cardinal values on the ethics of stoicism is then supported by the study of the other two fields. Logic. Andi, that's a physics, but logic and physics. This is all philosophy, but okay, logic in his contacts in this context is a lot more expensive than our traditional and modern meaning of the term. The stoic logic includes the modern day studio epistemology as well as the modern day study of logic. It's also it also stood in what could be called psychology or cognitive science, but that solve here nor there because that's a different part of stoicism. Anyway, on that reef link Maurin to stoic ethics. So physics, on the other hand, was a lot Mawr like while the one we would call modern day physics. So logic incorporated epistemology, which is the study of knowledge when it comes to the stoics. But physics with a lot more like modern day physics, so included the study of the natural world like a zoo physics does today the study of the natural sciences as well as incorporating metaphysics into the studios. Well, metaphysics is the so in modern philosophy we would call metaphysics the soft study off reality. Almost so. The studio What exists? Studio time. The studio off. If things are riel, the study off persistence cause ality free will. These are the kind of things that you studied in metaphysics really have. Mind what? Them what it means to have a mind, these Airil metaphysical things we can effectively suggest that stoic understanding of logic is the study of how we reason about the world. On the study of physics is the study of studying that world specifically So we stood in the world specifically using physics on Then we reason about that using logic. So we looked at how these to relate together. How do they relate to ethics? Well, there is a relation between ethics and logic and physics because it could be said, the stoicism is a naturalistic philosophy. When we speak of God on the soul, when we talk about stoic philosophy, what we're doing is referring to physics to physical entities. So the way we understand the relation between the three is that physics is being used to explain on formula, our ethical principles in stoicism and that is all kept together using logic. That's fundamentally what we're talking about. So it's like a stoic logic specifically. Okay, so the Stoics did make a number of improvements to logic on by this. Like I say by this, I mean, they made contributions to pissed, um, ology what we would call epistemology today and also to the formal logic that we would call for more logic today. It's just the Stoics told that these two were the same thing, which there no. Okay, So when it came to epistemology, the stoics were very heavily heavy on the notion that cognitive process progress story was important. Our cognitive understanding and learning was an important thing on this was known as a pro cope in in Greek. In the Greek terms okay on this means one is making a pistol Neurological progress effectively our modern understanding of it. They would probably say logical progress when it came to the kind of epistemological perception like how we perceive things. The stoic did believe that people could see things that are not there so they could get the wrong get things wrong when it comes to their perception on they did specifically site things like hallucinations and dreams as examples of one so called fantasma. Okay, this thes individual perceptions that were actually wrong. So if you wonder why Aristotle's there will talk about that in a minute, we could describe a stoke epistemology as inherently empiricist. Okay, so well, we would call empiricism in today's in today's understanding, when it comes to what we would describe as formal logic that Stoics made a number of important contributions, I will just also say when I say empiricism, what I mean by empiricism is taking things that can be proven with empirical evidence to be true. So that's a very oversimplification. But as a general idea, that's what empiricism means. So when it comes to formal logic, they recognize that no valid arguments are what we call Cilla Chism's So a syllogism is basically an instance of, ah, form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from two propositions. So I'm going to talk and give an example of a syllogism. Andi, we're gonna talk about why the stoics believed that Noel valid arguments are syllogism is like what Aristotle said. So if we take this philosophical argument right here, so we've got two premises which are propositions that are either true or false on they were almost add them together to come up with a conclusion. Okay, Andi, when we say an argument is valid, that means that the premises come together on they lead to the conclusion they entail from the conclusion. So this one is a valid argument. And we know this because if we looked at okay, premise one all men are bold. Premise to Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is bolt that it wasn't known as a syllogism because what it does is the first premise is a is an all encompassing premise. Okay, It suggests that all of something has this property. So in this case is all men are bold. Okay, They all have the property of being bold. Therefore, if Socrates is also a man, then Socrates has to be bold because all men are bold and Socrates is a man. Okay, you should see that this makes logical sense. This is a valid argument and it's what's known as a syllogism. But the Stoics believed that no, they can be valid. Arguments that are not Cilla Chism's on this is a true thing. This is true. Not all all synergism valid. But not all valid arguments are sell. A Chism's so stoic synergistic was built on the fire. Five basic terms of silage ISMs on. That's what the stoic developed and added into formal logic. It's really important that really it sound doesn't sound like a lot. But the idea that not all vying arguments are syllogism is very important to our understanding of philosophy today because most the time in philosophy, we don't deal with simple, synergistic kinds of arguments. We deal with a lot more complicated ones. So as a mother thing, thestreet logic has been described as a kind of proposition, a logic which is what we would describe as today. Proposition or logic is ah, proposition. A logic is the idea that we have different propositions. So something that is true evolves like a sentence. So, for example, you know this man has here okay or a man has here, Or Or John has here, you know anything about thes are propositions and that we can add them together. Multiple propositions with lots of different connective, so you can have a conjunction. So you could say John has here on day. John is tall. That is a a sentence in proposition or logic. We have two propositions. Jonah's hair, which we could say proposition would call that p and you could say, Andi John is a tall so that's que so p and Q together. Jonah's here and John his tour. Okay, I'm gonna do a course on proposition logic. Anyway, I think I probably be next week's course, but as an idea, that's what we can do. You Can you take propositions there just simple P's and Q's and ours. Okay, on we add them together. We're using different connective to form different sentences, and that's what proposition larger kids. What made a difference between stoic logic and the sort modern formal logic is that the purpose of stoic logic was to complement ethics. The purpose of logic in modern, modern day formal logic is a number of things that were a number of reasons. There are a myriad of reasons that we would study logic from compute signs tau physics to, you know, quantum physics to just working out philosophy itself. So for this reason, the Stoics were more concerned with the validity of argument rather than logical truths they weren't really didn't really care about. If something was logically true, biologically true. I mean, true by definition. So there's something has to be true because because if you because of the logic, the stories didn't really care that much about, like, they cared more about making sure that arguments were valid, eso especially ethical arguments were valid. And they also interestingly took into account what we call modality in logic. So modality is the there different kinds of modalities within logic and generally there can best described as principles like something is necessarily true is possibly true something . It's impossible for something to be true or it's probable for something to be true, and that's why we've got this image here. This is an exact these are examples of modal logic. Okay, we'll do metal logic as well. Thing is, ah, going a little bit beyond the sort of understanding of stoicism. But these are examples of modal logic. But it's interesting that the stoics were quite advanced in their understanding of logic by implementing different kinds of motile properties as well looking at thing, discussing the logic of things that are impossible or possible or probable when it comes to stoke, physics is a little bit easier to understand. So according to stoicism, physics includes what we would call today a natural science so that natural sciences like modern day visit basically metaphysics which have already mentioned and discussed on also theology, especially under people like Marcus Aurelius. He believed, ah lot. That stoicism should really be focusing a lot on the kind of theological issues when it comes to the natural sciences. The stoics door that we should quote live according to nature because we need to live according to nature is in very important. We understand to the best rob ability what that nature is. So the stoic believed that everything that was really nature was also corporal. Okay, this'll means basically linking Andi relating to the body. Okay on. They also believe that this included Mawr metaphysical concepts like God or the soul or or the concept of spirit. These were also corporal theories on the stoics. Finally, they also embraced what we call a vital ist theory of nature. So vital ism, really. This is what the stoic understanding of vital is amiss. They identified two main natural principles within physics and this is the active and the passive. The active principle is so called one generated and indestructible and is likely it's close to look Lola closely linked with things like garden reason on its referred to his logos. So something being if something is active within physics, according to stoicism, it means that they're on generated. They're indestructible. So, for example, God would be an example off. Um, active property on active principle passive principle is destroyed and created as part of the the overall Ching stoic cosmology on this is linked closely with the classical elements The four classical elements of water, fire, earth and air. So these are things that are there are ever changing and always being destroyed and recreated. So these are the two main principles within the the theory of stoic physics. The idea that we've got things that are indestructible, like God. And we've got things that are ever changing and destroyed and recreated it along the time, like water, fire, earth and air. It's also important that the stoke on standing of God is quite interesting as well. They rejected the A wrist Italian idea of a prime mover. So Aristotle believed that obviously Aristotle obviously didn't believe in in the kind of Christian God that we have today. But your But it did believe in the idea of a prime mover that everything has a cause and effect. So if I was to to push my phone across the desk that the phone moving is caused by my pushing so everything has a cause and effect, but that this cause and effect is an infinite It doesn't go on forever. At the very, very start, there is something called a prime mover. Okay, hasn't kind of God that has any kind of qualities. All it is is something that, um, started this this this train of cause and effect. That's what Irish doctor believed about the prime mover. The stories rejected this, okay? But they also didn't accept the idea of assault Judeo Christian understanding of God, since they believed that God was imminent rather than some omnipotent being outside of time and space. There's some Christians that believe that God is also imminent on transcendent at the same time. So withers all at the same time as well as above er's outside time and space. But these kind of contradictory terms when it comes to stone metaphysics, the stories committees described as so called metaphysical determine ists. This is effectively the view that there is no free will and everything is determined because they've believed in this web of cause and effect. Okay, they believe that every single effect has a cause on that by that that there is no actual free will, anything because everything is already determined. That's what their view of metaphysics really comes down to. Wind has done this because off Cicero, and he describes don't metaphysics, as so I'm going to read this out in its entirety. So the stoics say that it is impossible when all the circumstances surrounding both the cause on that of which it is a cause, are the scene. Things should not turn out a certain way on one occasion, but that they should turn out that way on some other occasion. Okay, so this is a very complicated quote from Def Aito by Cicero. But what we would describe today as a metaphysical determinist is something that the Stoics would naturally agree with and adopt. Okay, so was a summary of thesaurus, stoic logic and stoic physics. The stoics made a number of informal improvements to formal logic and epistemology. Stoic, see logistics were Bakst on five basic Cilla Chism's stoic physics includes the study of the natural sciences, metaphysics and what we would call theology on the the the Adopted, A vital ist conception off the natural world. The idea of an active on a passive, the active, being indestructible and the passive being are ever changing. And thats don't metaphysics is determinist. These are things that you need to know. I know that's got very complicated and into a lot of quite, um, quite high level philosophical stuff. But in general, this is what we need to know about stoic logic and stoic physics. The stones were very difficult to pin down because they their theories spread across 100 hundreds of years, so it's quite hard to really find exactly what they all believed. But this is really what we could draw from stoic from our understanding of stoicism. In the next lesson, we're gonna look a nice and easy part off the tripartite, which was stoic ethics and how one should live their life according to stoicism. 6. Stoic Ethics: it's no. We looked in Kuala detail about the two parts of the tri politics off stoic theory, which is physics and logic. When we're doing this lesson is gonna dedicate the whole thing to stoic ethics, how to be mindful, living a good life, living a life worth living on. This is really what the Stoics aimed towards. Okay, The study of physics and the study of logic all culminated together to try and complement this stoic ethics specifically in this lesson would get taken. Introduction. We have a look at the ethics of the early stoics regard. Look at the cardinal virtues that one should have in order to live a life worth living. I'm gonna look at stoic the lamp three p and stoic mindfulness. Okay, which are two of the three disciplines of stoicism So taking introduction now that we've examined the 1st 2 areas of the tri parts and standing of reality, what we'll do now is look at the final piece of the puzzle, which is the understanding of ethics. So stoic ethics is not just one which is theoretical, but it's actually practical. Okay, So rare as logic and physics were more theoretical in their in their pursues. Stoic ethics is a very practical philosophy. The latest does believe that ethics was more of a guide to how you live your life on that. This allows stoicism to be more practical. But when you look at the early stoics despite stoic ethics, ultimately being mawr off a practical guide in general the early Stoics did believe that it was still relatively theoretical in nature. So the only Stoics believed that in a very interesting ethical motto, which was just that to follow nature on this referred to was living according to both the natural world and also living according to human nature. And it relates to the idea of living by nature. Andi, following human nature was the stoic concept of oik usis Okay, on this is often translated as affinity, so we're going to try and look at this stoic understanding of affinity. The stones believe that human beings had natural moral instincts. So we talked in a in a few videos that the Stoics are actually a very naturalistic empiricist group, a bunch of people and the there's also solve seeps into their ethics. So the stoics believed that human beings were you? They got their morality from nature is a natural thing that people naturally are morally have morals and they are moral instincts. There's actually some evidence for this proposition. Okay, we naturally behave in a fashion, has to advance our interests and our goals. That's a natural understanding. We naturally identify with other people's interest on the stove. Believe that these are sort of natural tendencies that linked us with the four stoic cardinal virtues that should save virtues. But it says values for some reason so therefore stoic cardinal virtues on these were virtues where temporary, it's courage, justice and practical wisdom. These are the four things that people must have in order to live a good life. OK, and auditor, in order to be truly the stoic thinker, the stoic ethicist, almost temperance and courage were required to pursue our goals. Justice is a natural extension off our concern for a never increased circle of people. Okay, that's a quote taken directly from a primary source that I'm gonna link in the in the further reading section. That's why there's a little one there. Finally, practical wisdom is what best allows us to deal with what happens in life. Okay, so how are these cardinal virtues relates to each other. Well, I have to first be said that the stoics believed that more than just, um, four cardinal virtues are mentioned in the last slide. They also believed in in sub virtues, So we have the four main cardinal virtues. But of each of the four, they're also split up into other, different types of virtues. So there were almost sub categories. So, for example, when it comes to practical wisdom, there are a number of virtues within that. And these include things like good judgment on discretion, etcetera. These are things that together make up this practical wisdom. Temperance is broken down to the virtues such as honor on self control. So these cardinal virtues are fundamentally they're actually fundamentally a Socratic theory. You can find their origin off the cardinal virtues from Plato's Republic, but obviously they have been taken and developed further by the stoics. So an interesting view is from the philosopher Ph Hedo, who suggests that they're actually links between the four virtues on the three what he called Tau pi, which, with a threesome, stoic disciplines. So these are things that this is an thes air new introduced to to us here. So these disciplines our desire, action on ascent, thes air three things that when we have the four cardinal virtues, allow us to achieve thes three disciplines. Desire is argued to have derived from the study of physics, which is why we study physics and through stoicism. And when it comes to the second discipline, we sometimes refer to it as the lamb therapy. Okay, So stoic thought and for the love three p is the basic idea that human beings ought to develop their natural concern for others. So we should be doing this in relation to one of the cardinal virtues which is justice on. This is also this offer tires quite a lot into their ethics that once we have a cardinal virtue of justice, this allows us to have the discipline off being concerned for others naturally concerned. For this, it should be a natural thing that comes from our natural instincts. The best way to represent this, and from a quote by Marcus Aurelius on this is the men exist for the sake of one another. And this is from his meditations. So It's a very nice quote. Very kind quotes Well generally summarizes this idea of of stoic philanthropy as a quote. There's fundamentally on explanation off stoic philanthropy when it comes to stoic mindfulness, which is actually the third disciplined, sometimes called a cent, sometimes called stoic mindfulness, um is really the stoic treatment of emotions on one psychology. And it said the discipline regards the necessity between Sorry, the necessity to make decisions about what to accept or reject in our experience of the world, and how we deal with our emotions on one go do is I'm gonna want to make an entire separate course on the stoicism of emotions and how stoic and motion house d'Oex really dealt with emotions and mindfulness because it is it. Really. It's a philosophy on its own. But just for now, this is what the third discipline of stoic ethics waas. So in summary, then fundamentally stoic ethics is concerned with virtue for two. Theory was very popular in in this period. So you have the arrest, Italian virtue, ethics as well as this in stoicism. There are four cardinal virtues which we've talked about. Each of the four cardinal virtues are made up off so called sub virtues. Okay, so, for example, things like things like self wisdom, practical wisdom, hot. So virtues such as good judgment on discretion, stoic virtues. Also connected with the stoic disciplines on those story disciplines were action, desire and a scent action, philanthropy and mindfulness as well as what we talked about here. In the next lesson, that isn't actually what the next lesson's gonna be. But in the next lesson, we're gonna look at the contemporary view of stoicism. I'm not sure why. It says that we have a look at what the contemporary, how we can deal with stoicism in modern society. 7. Modern Stoicism: in this final lesson, we're gonna have a short look. How all of what we've discussed All of what we've really learned about how we can applies to modern day, OK, And how was stoicism? Really? How's it survived this long on what was the kind of the revival in the modern day stoicism and how people using stoicism in the modern day? So we take a little introduction again, I'm gonna look a some contemporary stoic scholars. So the mawr scholarly route for stoicism. And we look at where stoicism fits in the modern world. And then we're gonna finish and conclude on the whole course, so as an introduction, like almost all the other kinds of classic and ancient thought, stoicism has seen a revival in recent years. So specifically the study of virtue ethics as a seen a quite a quite a strong, modern, viable in philosophy. So some see virtue theory as one that could be a legitimate alternative to the modern day ontological theories and consequential ist. There's so a D ontological ethical theory is one that focuses on duty. Being at the center of of one's theory on a consequential ist theory is one that basically says that something is good or bad, depending on the consequences that it causes. Andi Utilitarianism is the idea that the greatest good for the greatest number, so something is good if it can provide the most happiness or provide the most good for the most amount of people. Andi people are suggesting that virtue theory slides in on fit right in with In these two main theories and ethics, Andi, with the emergence of virtue theory has become, we've seen new scholarly debate around stoicism. So we've seen an emergence of stoic works so ever since. Really, the Cambridge Companion to the Stoics was released in 2003 which really outlines and on documents all of the stoic philosophy that we've looked at here, but in a lot more detail. We've seen a lot of stoic essays and stuff. So people have made contributions to stoke essays by looking at stoke understanding of emotion, stoic sage hood, as well as studies on individual thinkers such as biographies of Seneca and Marcus Aurelius , stoicism in a relatively popular kind of philosophy in the modern world. It's really that finally leads us to our conclusion, which is where the stoicism fit in the world today. Well, it's a very popular theory of life that some people have adopting the kind of self help circles. Okay, so things like the stoic practice of emotion and discipline, as well as the four Cardinal virtues it still should say virtues have proven very popular in the world of self help, productivity. The idea of Ah, a lot more So despite the fact that stoicism is, of course, a lot more complex than this modern interpretation, because some people suggest that stoicism is just simply a view about emotion or view about ethics, when in reality that a lot of logic and the physics and a lot of history this, you know, developed with stoicism something that we've looked at in this course. But the father stoicism still has a lot of relevance in today's society is very interesting on that stoicism. Like you were saying, I'm going to a course on how stoicism how we can use stoicism in today's world, too, to really deal with emotions on ethics and morality. Okay, here we taken introduction toe what stoic philosophy is, But how can we apply stoic philosophy on become stoics ourselves. So in conclusion, across this whole course, there are a lot more things we can talk about with regard. Stoicism. But as an introductory tour course, we've covered the main areas off stoic philosophy and thoughts. Okay, we've covered a lot of history of stoicism from the Greeks, the Romans. We then examined the stoic concept of logic, physics and ethics. We had a look at the impact of stoicism in today's society. When it comes to reading, I'm gonna link a lot of different pieces off reading and documents on the project tasks. Their number documents will be referenced. That should be reference for this course specifically so the things that I've used to to formulate these presentations. So number of free sources of information on stoicism have proven useful to May. So the Stanford and Incidents Encyclopedia of Philosophy articles on Stoicism, which are Lincoln, the further reading and the References section. There are also other sources, including Sharps, virtue, virtue, ethics in the Handbook, Virtue Ethics from 2014 on. There is also inwards, Cambridge Companion to the Stoics, or something that I mentioned earlier on from 2003 and Cambridge University Press. These things I'm also linking well, not linking referencing down below in the projects and the further reading section longer. Say thanks for watching. Okay, please share review on Have a go, the project tasks down below. If there's anything you want me to and on the project tasks, just just let me know and I'll I'll do whatever you could do literally what you want for products task scenes, as the best way to learn is to learn, however, you want to learn rather than making anything make, forcing you to do anything. Okay, following for mawr. Interesting philosophical and academic courses. There's, of course, on personhood and personal identity. On There's also, of course, on the philosophy of artificial intelligence. On next week there'll be a course on formal logic as well, which is getting quite interesting. One. So yeah, thanks for watching Hope you've enjoyed it. See you for the next course