A Brief overview of IC engine ( Internal Combustion Engine ) | Mechanically Education | Skillshare

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A Brief overview of IC engine ( Internal Combustion Engine )

teacher avatar Mechanically Education, Mechanical engineer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (1h 29m)
    • 1. Introduction to IC engines

    • 2. Components of IC engine

    • 3. Two stroke engine

    • 4. Four stroke engine

    • 5. Six stroke engine

    • 6. Spark Ignition engine

    • 7. Compression Ignition engine

    • 8. Engine cooling

    • 9. IC engine Lubrication system

    • 10. Technological advancements in IC engines

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About This Class

The invention and development of the internal-combustion engine has a profound impact on human life. The internal-combustion engine offers a relatively small, lightweight source for the amount of power it produces. Harnessing that power has made possible practical machines ranging from the smallest model airplane to the largest truck. Lawnmowers, chainsaws, and electric generators also may use internal-combustion engines. An important device based on the internal-combustion engine is the automobile.

I am a mechanical engineer. I have gained good knowledge regarding Automobile engineering while I and one of my friends were working for a project related to that subject. I have attended so many workshops held at different universities and I have also a good idea regarding recent developments that took place in the market.

If you are an Automobile engineer or Mechanical engineer passionate about Automotives and Internal Combustion Engine then this course is for you. In this course, you will gain knowledge regarding the following topics such as

  • Heat Engines,
  • Working of IC engines,
  • IC engine components
  • Types of IC Engines based on strokes, fuel used and more  

Every complex topic has been discussed in the simplest form possible so that you can understand the concept easily in very less time.

Meet Your Teacher

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Mechanically Education

Mechanical engineer


I am a mechanical engineer. I have gained good knowledge regarding Automobile engineer while I and one of my friends were working for a project related to that subject. I have attended so many workshops held at different universities and I have also a good idea regarding recent developments that took place in the market.

Apart, from that, I also have a good command over the Solidworks software and currently, I am pursuing training in merchant navy.

See full profile

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1. Introduction to IC engines: combustion engines here in and the first rule Kate Engine. A heat engine is a device which transforms chemical energy, which is present in the field. Angel tenement energy. Ah, heat energy. If he energy is further converted into the mechanical work which drives the they could, it is classified in two types. 1st 1 is external compassion. Indian and internal combustion engine, External commission, Indian are those in which compassion expressed Archerd the Indian. Here we can see there the combustion is taking place. Or, said the Indian, the hit It is produced by combustion Ease. You went to the water which in and use the mechanical work. This is how the external combustion engine works. Now let us see when an example off External compassion Indian This is the steam engine which was used in the earlier days. Here we can observe. The compassion is taking place in separate chamber and this feed is given to the water which intense, heated and convert into the steam. This steam build drives the piston and hence the locomotive Most This was how the external compassion Indians waas used in earlier days known. Let us see what are the limitations off this external compassion Indian esteem, minion or any external combustion engine is huge and at the same time it is heavy and steaming Anne, huge and heavy due to its big boiler and furnace. Here we required the boiler that is the number which is containing the water and the furnace with issues for hating the combustion products. Due to the presence of this boiler and furnace, the steam engine gets very heavy and huge insights. He had the steam. England does not start at once. First, we have to burn the commission projects, which takes some time and then produces this team. And it operates on low efficiency that is around people. Soon the thermal efficiency off the if Indians is also very low there differently percentage. This keenness operate on low efficiency because the heat has to be transferred from one million to another medium. So there are very losses off hit energy. Sometimes it becomes very unsafe to operate this boiler at higher project because due to excessive pleasures, this boiler may bus also due to these limitations, the external combustion Indians are replaced by internal convention in yes what we use? No, it is now Let us See what this internal combustion engine in this Indian? The compassion off airfield, Mr X Place inside the surrender and used to drive them more to force he and the commission off air fuel make sure x place inside the cylinder and which drives the piston. Here we do not record any boiler or for dance. Here we can see how internal combustion engine looks like in this. I think just the fear or the airfield mixture is they can insert the cylinder and this airfield mixture is ignited by using this part black. Hence the compassion is taking place inside a surrender and which drives a piss turned down and use a mechanical work on the cumbersome products are sent absurd The cylinder from the exhaust he is the fuel is suck. Insert the combustion chamber and this field Is it connected with the help of spark like this is how the Internet conversion in books? No, let us see. What are the futures off this icy unions when compared to if Indians The Indians are compact in size, which can be easily accommodated in our Artem ABIs like DeVillars and four wheelers. I feel Indians does not required boiler again, which is the reason why, because it is compact in size and this does not required a long time to get started. We can start this Injun at 12 months higher the efficiency when compared to Ethio engines because here we don't use any kind off it exchangers. The head is validly converted into the mechanical with, so the efficiency is about prettified to 40% due to the combustion off the airfield mixture . In the inclusive volume, these Indians produces the noise. Anyhow, this grow back is no more a valid because pretty did our various pipe off mufflers available in the market introduces this noise completely. Here we see one typical example off. Four stroke spark ignition. Internal combustion, India During the first broke. The airfield mixture is secular inside the cylinder and the piston, most from top to bottom in the thickens croak the airfield. Make sure is get compass. Insert the surrender at the end of competition. The spark is actuated, which ignites the airfield. Machel and combustion initiates under the compression off your feeling. Sure, a very huge amount off treasure is applied on the piston head, which drives the pistons. Hence we get the third stroke, which is the Polish broke. The Piston moves from top to bottom. And finally, the fourth stroke is the exhaustive screw in which the piston sweeps the combustion product outside the surrender through the exhaust world. 2. Components of IC engine: component off internal combustion engines. You're really sick of the media. Competent internal combustion India cylinder Block Cylinder Block is the main supporting structure off the various companies. It is a single bastard unit, which supports almost all parts of the internal conversion in. And that is the various components are more. And on the cylinder look at the top off this little block. We have the cylinder head and at the bottom we heard the crankcase. Here we can see the cylinder block off, multi cylinder Indian. In this image, this cylinder blocks are temporally made from the materials like cast iron and aluminum. Alloy esta is generally used for diesel Indian well because in diesel engine, the compassion takes place due to the competition off the A deeper also called as the compression ignition engine aluminum alloy cylinder block issues refer the spark ignition injured or the patrol England's. Because here the compression ratio is low when compared to the visit Indians. So we used the lighter materials light aluminum alloy. Any one of the reason why these species Indians are heavier than the patrol in us, selling that the top and off the Solyndra block discovered with the solution that the cylinder head accommodate the inlet and exhaust walls with the spark plug and the fuel injector. Here we can take the picture off cylinder off, four cylinder engine piston. It is one off the important component in internal compression. India. This system is a cylindrical part, which the Supercuts inside the cylinder this piston transferred, the fourth exerted on it by burning off the church to the connecting road. It fits perfectly into the cylinder liner, providing a just right space with the piston rings and lubricant. Here we can see the image off how the piston looks like it is a simple cylindrical component in piston. Further, there are two parts. One is the piston head and the pistons Kirk. That up portion is called the piston head, and the boredom is a piston skirt. Here we can observe the grooves on the stand head. It is used to accommodate the piston rings. We will discuss what is the piston rings and why it is used. The top of the system is provided with particular type of Predominately, this is used prefer the proper mixing off the airfield gases are in case of their diesel in June. When the fuel is injected, it has to be travel in older directions with the help off this geometry. This pistol is made off aluminum alloy way because it has to be very light in break. At the same time, it should have good thermal conductivity because it has to transmit that he from the Pistone do the cylinder liner, and it should also persistent good and subsequent cylinder. In particular, we call a cylinder liner. It is a main part off the engine in which the system, the Super Eight, so thankful it also acts as the transferring of the heat from combustion chamber to the world, objected in the quick, cool India and from combustion chamber with the fins in the air called Indian. Here, this is the chair off the cylinder liner. The cylinder liners is accommodated in the cylinder block, and this kind off cylinders are usually in water cooled Indians. Here we can see the another type of cylinder where the fence are provided on the surface of the Syrian that liner. This kind off cylinder liners are used in airport maintenance. My Biggles cylinder liners east made off Castelen because it should have good your assistance. Good damping behaviour after Aaron has one of the unique creature dirties has the good damping behaviour observes the vibrations. Hail thermal conductivity for transfer the heat from the combustion chamber Hula cylinder block This guest student is inexpensive standings. This storm brings are fitted impetus lords around the pistol, the portion of the piston. We can see the bruise on these groups. These piston rings accommodates on the Liston for words that might ceiling between the eastern and the cylinder Waas, just preventing the liquid off Compassion guesses we can differentiate. The oil drilling is any because it is always placed below the competition. Brings compression is a puttering with Freud's that it takes ceiling the rain, lick it off burned gases into the lower portion. All living is a lowering, which provides the effective seen even deleted off the oil into the Indian cylinder. Bewildering issues for lubricating the cylinder walls and the next two company is connecting. Lord, connecting Lord is apart with one word that a c propelling motion of the piston Anto circular motion off the track shirt. It is an intermediate by which downwards the full extra motion of the piston into the big motion. Off during shirt, he we can see the image of the connecting rod it has pulled in. One is called the Big, and another is a small and smaller of the connecting rod. It's connected to the piston with the help of God, John being and the big game off the connecting door disconnected. So the crank shirt, with the help of the drank in here we can see the assembly off connecting road and Kristen . But Indians, anything about are generally made from the materials like still alive. Switch, our prophet told him. An 11 year generally, we used the spill allies, but aluminum connecting rods is used to refer the life with and flexible. Flexible means it process. The good machine ability I've been in connecting Rod is used for the high performance vehicle because off its exceptional characteristic and at the same time it is experience you. But jumping this good jumping forms the link between Linda, Justin and small, and often it in Rhode commemorated in the distant skirt, Frank Chef can words that a super creating motion off the piston into the useful rotary motion off our foot ship with the help of an in road. The big end off the connecting door is connected to the dang chef. With the help of crime in the structure is enclosed in the crankcase. You know, we can see the picture off the crank shirt. This is the crime shirt off four cylinder engine on the lift it off the can sharply here once pocket, which is used to break the having change just end on perforations, are full. Asked. Frank is here we have four rankings which are used alternately in between. The crank means we has the main building. This portion is called as the main journals, which act as a support for the correction on the other end of the crime. And we have the corn lords. These are the contact Lord, which are used for the dynamic balancing off this crank shirt. The rationale is generally made up off medium carbon steel alloy Any point bullfight 2.4% carbon. It is produced by forging. Why? Because it has high for explained and hardness. This toe all the key characteristics off this crankshaft. The next two company East, the camshaft camshaft it used to control the opening and closing off the inlet and exhaust wolves is associated parts are assured, broker swells thing and efforts. Sometimes police, I'm sure, also protects their drive to the ignition system. The camp shirt is driven by the crank shirt With help off. I'm in chain other. Anybody here? We can see the picture of the camp shirt on the left end off this camp shirt. We have a good time in gears. And if the camp chef off four filling the engine here, we can see there, too. Powerful ship one if used for the in literal that is used for the exhaust Well, on the each shift, we can see that gate cam look. Kamloops Partners for each cylinder this pool are used for the ended and the store for the Oscars. Off each cylinder, which are placed prepared in Andy Meridian camshaft are made up off Children guest Aron containing 1% off chromium and let's still guest in Hampshire or used for high volume production. And I think that disposes everything would be a resistance. But if we required the high performance camp shirt, then we used the bullets Still material camps or Kamloops, this Kamloops, our place on the camp ship, which helps in opening and closing up the well. These government as an integral part of the camp shirt and our design institute, we open the world at the character timing and to keep them open for the necessary duration in this leg. Um, we can see the Dominica off the camel. Oh, this cam lobes actuate the inland and exhaustive while in the character. I mean, you'd reconsider diagram off the camp Chef, we'll be here. When is the opening Rams closing them? And then those ended and exhausted. World's wealth are commonly mushroom shaped. Poppet, these are provided on this it in the head for regulating the judge coming into the city knighthood through the in late one and for discharging the products of compassion through the existing Well, from the cylinder. This is the picture off the well here. We can see the ended and exhausting worlds. Here we can observe the size off. The intake war is slightly larger than the exhaust one because indeed well is operated during the substance group. So that big large among off a or airfield mature into the Celinda. And these section occurs only due to the pressure difference. Exhaust wall is slightly smaller than compared toa in little because when the exam wall it opened, the piston forces the compassion product outside the cylinder by the mechanical action here , we can see the position off the lives in those angels. Meridian. This wells are generally made off in this skill at any extra persisted properties like that . Assistance to high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance, part of the the component to initiate the commission process. And it is only useful in the spark ignition opinions and usually located on the cylinder head. Here, you can see the image off spark Look. Most of the time this part Lexar electrical actually seal in your between the company used to in the field in the cylinder. These are used only in that compression ignition engine. Order is in India and usually located on the cylinder. Feel that we can see the image off the feel ended up most of the time. This field injector are operated with help off camp shirt, which interns operated with the help of drank Shift. Frank is it is a born portion off the cylinder block. It hoses the crankshaft off the I think and and also serve as some further lubricating oil slaving. It is one off the interesting company off the A senior. It is a big will wanted on the crankshaft booth function east remain in the Constand speed . It easily done by starting the except energy during the power stroke, which is 100 years industrial in simple words. So they will either the ways which can post the fluctuation off power. With these given to the crank shirt, it is definitely market on the friendship materials. It is made off materials like Justin and and skill generally the incident materials way because it works on the principle off inertia, so the density material is the keep America. 3. Two stroke engine: oh struck India. This is the picture off a two stroke engine. In this Cree have an exhaust port and password port on the spring loaded Inlet port. The village in the four stroke engine are replaced by the ports in the postscript Intern. Now let us see the working off the simple two stroke engine. It has the compression scoop and expansions group, the completeness group, when the piston is at the bottom. That center, it uncovers both the exhaust port as well as their transferred work. The burnt out gases from the previous cycle Well, most off the cylinder through this exhaust for and the fris charge from the crankcase he's , they can enter the skill in that through their transfer pork know the present start moving from the bottom, direct undercooked off their tender. The charge is complicit in the cylinder at the same time, due to the pressure drop costly in the crankcase due to the moment off the piston towards the top, they're tender, the spring loaded inlet ports opens, and the first shot is taken into the crank is by the time the piston register top that center. The spring Lorded Inlet port also closes no second stroke. That is the expensive screw up at the end of compression stroke, the spark like act tricks and the commission process takes place. The Pistons starts moving from Dr Tender Tobar 100 center In this bag, Um, we can observe the Expansions Troop during the expansion stroke. The first chart taken into the crankcase is no partially compress low by the time the question reaches the bottom that center. First, it uncovers the exhaust port so that the burnt or gases leaves the Celinda and the president drops to atmospheric pigeon. The further moment of the Piston also uncovers their transfer port, by which the partially compresses charge from the crankcase is taken into the cylinder. In this way, the cycle is completed again. The fresh chart, which is completely free in the cylinder, is complicity in the competition stroke at the same thing. The fresh studies, again taken into the crank, is by the end of compressions, broke again. The spark plug it ignited on death. Pension takes place in different. The cycle continues. If we observe in the two stroke engine, the cycle is completed in one revolution off Crank Chap are the too distant strokes. The main difference is the method off. Feeling the fresh charge and removing the burned gases are from the cylinder. Input stroke in the filling process is accomplished by the charge compressor in the crankcase, the induction off the complex Richard moves out the combustion products through the exhaust port Dick means at the same time the exhaust port, as well as their transfer port, opens the induction off the fresh charge into the surrender bimbos out the combusted gases from the cylinder. Therefore, no piston strokes. Are we quite for the affection and the exhaust operation. Two strokes are sufficient to complete the cycle one for the compressing the first years. Another for the expansion are the power stroke. The up off the piston has usually a prediction for different the fresh charges towards that up off the cylinder before throwing to the exhaust port. If we observe the piston off the two stroke engine, the piston usually has a prediction under top. Off it, it acts as a defector for the fresh char work that up off the Celinda before falling to the exhaust port. It's a veritable purpose scavenging the upper part of the cylinder off the combustion product and preventing the fresh child from directly throwing into the exhaust port. The theme object can be achieved with told the Eastern defector by property shaping off their transport for Does it also one kind off? Two stroke engine he had. We don't have any deflector, but exhaust and the inland port are arranged in the proper manner. No letters discuss above their differences between the fourth book and two stroke engine. In fourth book in the thermodynamic cycle is completed in Forced Broke Off a piston are the two revolution off the crankshaft? But as in the two stroke engine, thermodynamic cycle is completed in one revolution off the crank chirp, or they're too distant strokes in four stroke engine. One poor stroke is often in every two revolutions off crankshaft. Let us in. Goose Creek Indian boards. Brook is often in each and every devolution off grand theft. Second point when power stroke in every to devolution off grand chief, that means one poor stroke is opting into the pollutions off crankshaft. The power stroke is often in each alternate revolution. Third point heavier flay will do to the non uniformed turning woman because one published group is often input evolutions off fracture mirrors in the two stroke engine. Like that flavor is required due to the uniformed turning moment Power produces less in four from India to particularly, the public produces choice in the two stroke engine, but in the real time only there is a 30% increase in the power Do you do? Some burned gases are mixed with the fresh charge. Four stroke engine is heavy and bulky way because here be required while operating mechanism, which in turn records the camp share the push rods the rocker arm under timing chain made as we don't equate all these things in the two stroke in and so it is light and compact. In four stroke, lesser cooling and applications are required. Two stroke engine needs greater cooling and lubrication. Why? Because the power is produced in every revolution off frank shop, so more heat is generated. This is Toby pulled the separate off here and here in four stroke engine in two stroke engine hair is the right off here and here. Four foot Indian contains one involved mechanism. VeriSign, the truth stroking, and we don't record any of all mechanisms. Those are replaced by the inlet and exhaust ports in Fort for opinion. Here is the initial cause. Where is the Bush looking than the initial cost is less volumetric. Efficiency is more due to the greater their time off induction off the touch. The volumetric efficiency is less in two stroke engine due to the less other time off election. Off the charts into the cylinder in four foot engine, thermal efficiencies, height and also the partner deficiencies better here abjure carefully. Thermal efficiency is high, but the power produced is less because the efficiency is the ratio off or Procope. But with respect to the in Brookfield in two stroke engine, thermal efficiency is low and part role efficiency is lesser. Fourth book in your issues with a bill, the efficiency is important. Bush looking and issues revere the locals. Compactness and light with is the criteria. Low cost is due to the cheaper initial cost. The examples off. Four stroke injured. Are it issues erred in motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks, tractors, industrial engine as well as the part in greater the examples off Social union are the lamb overused in the form applications, scooters, motorcycles, mopeds propulsion ships X Ertl. The propulsion ships are went up. The important application off two stroke engine. A little discussed the application off two stroke engine. It is used in the art Mobil's in motorcycle scooters. The dirt bikes as well as in the artery shows, inform applications it is used in lawnmowers in small. Our boat in Dad's Borane injures in the modern ships. It is one up, the really huge application off the two stroke engine. Generally, you would have seen the Marsten ships. It is used to carry their cargo across the oceans and seas. Here, you can see the size off Mirren, India. It's very huge in size, about four or five floats. This 1,000,000 Indian operates on whose broke compression ignition engine. This is the piston off the mid an engine, and this is the crank shop. Here, you can see the site off crying Shop. Here, you can compare the size off human in front of the rancher. It is a very huge baby. Use is the true stroke. Dillinger for the Mirren application is because it has some characteristic features. It if compact in size, when compared to the full stroke Here we don't required any well on ball operating mechanism, which reduces the size off an engine to some extent in two fucking. Then we can also use some local it fuels for burning. These are the two stroke slow Indians will the rpm off the Indian is around 1 52 100 rpm that is required for the ships they can't introduces. The need off gearbox on this Indian is directly coupled with the popular off the ships. The maintenance off the two stroke engine is also less, since we use their two stroke diesel engine for the internships. 4. Four stroke engine: forced Brooke s I India. Here, screw is their displacement off the piston from extreme position to the border. Extreme position or from bottom extreme position to the oh extreme position. Here, 4 50 strokes are required. Complete one thermodynamic second they see the force broke. If I Indian the thinking off operation is completed in foolish brooks off a piston are revolutions off crankshaft building one stroke off the piston The crankshaft. It's a devolved a big 1 80 degrees and doing another stroke. The crankshaft is again devolved one new two degrees friends for the first broke the crankshaft is the vulnerable seven prophetic piece that is there to complete revolutions. Second off operation containing the four stroke. First, a stroke is named s suction stroke are in extract. Second a stroke is the completion scripts. 3rd 1 is the expansion, all the power stroke and the 4th 1 is the exhaust. Brooke, Here we can see the diagram particular presentation off four stroke engine here the arrow points the direction off the piston during the scrolls and making observation. And the world during the 1st 2 stroke only in liberal is open. And during the second stroke and third, Sprague put the world to remain close, and during the fourth stroke, the exhaust well is open. Now let us say in detail about the four strokes. Faster stroke, that is. The section are in extra section starts when the piston eat ABC and about more gun words. Then the English world is hoping at this time, and exhaust well remains closed during this entire stroke, do with affection created by the motion of the Histon. Worse, the bottom date center there is the bottom extreme position of the system. The charge, consisting off airfield make sure is grown inside the surrender due to the treasury difference. It is due to the motion off the piston. What's the boredom? Dead center and you? Could this pressure difference? The airfield Mr is drawn into the cylinder with the distantly just the board under center. The faction strokes and and intellect. Wall closes. This is the extra off the faction stroke buring this group, the Piston, moves from up the center to the water director compression stroke. The charge taken into the cylinder during the election stroke is come. History Medic, turning off the list on during this group bought the inlet and exhaust of worlds who remain closely. The airfield mixture, which fills the entire volume, is no comparison. At the end of compression stroke, the mixture is ignited with the help of spark look located on the cylinder head and hence the button X place instantaneously. Now you do the combustion, the chemical energy present in the field if converted into the hit energy, refusing the temperature. Rice off about good housing. Big disintegrate during the compressions crook. The stand moves from bottom decks and cut off the tender expansion or motive. The very high pressure. Do the burned gases forces the piston words? The bottom rec center. During this stroke board, the world's remained in close position off the four strokes only during this stroke. The power is producer, so it is called the Power stroke, Good pleasure and temperature decreasing during the expansion. Another interesting feature off this stroke is there. I wanted this power broke drives the remaining three strokes. That is the function compression and ignore stroked during the purpose grow our expansion stroke the piston moves from doctor to enter to the bottom. Great center and the final stroke, if exhaustive stroke by the end off expansion. When the piston re just the bottom rec center, the exhaust well opens and the inlet well, the means close to know the distance starts moving from bottom, ditching their publication, the and sweets. The bird gases out from the surrender almost at atmospheric pressure. They exist a while closest in the distant Regis. There objects in the here we can observe the dirt. The burn gases are a sin in our trade, the cylinder by the mechanical action, whereas during the success stroke, the air fuel mixture is a canings. Heard the cylinder not with a mechanic election, but only due to the racial difference, which is created by the pistons. So the size off the inland well is greater and the same off the existing wall is slightly smaller. Four stroke 1,000,000,000 complex, above four operations in Indian revolutions. That is the true crankshaft. Revolutions. One revolution off crankshaft occurs during the traction and compression and the thickened revolution during the power and exhaustion cook test in one complete cycle. Among the four strokes that if only one of us Brooke, that is, we up in one word stroke for revolution off crankshaft. No legacy four stroke compression, ignition engine or diesel in it. The fourth book, CIA Indian, is almost similar to the forced broke. If the engines but it open its a much higher compression. There's just the compression ratio in if the engine is 6 to 10 mirrors in CIA. In Denise 16 20 due to the high compression reef, you temperature at the end of compression school is sufficiently heights yourself ignorant the feel here we are not going to use any spark like to initiate the combustion process. Rather, we used the fuel injector toe inject the field in that right. I'm that is, at the end of compression scripts in compression ignition Indian during the section stroke , only the air is taken inside the cylinder, and this is compressed was so that it reaches the very high temp later, which is sufficient self ignite. The busily no legacy the four stroke during the elections broke here alone is unusual during this stroke. In a little while, it's open and exhaust well is closer. Electro the If angel here, only the air is taken into the cylinder compressions fruit the area and use reviewing. The section stroke is compressible So it's clearance. William. That is the public center board. The world's agreement lows during this stroke expansion script through your injections that's nearly at the end off competition scripts. By the end of completion stroked, the field is injected into the cylinder after the injection off the field. If complicate the product of the convention expand way because the air is compressed during the competition stroke. Very high temperature, which is sufficient who self ignite their diesel so the combustion process initiated. But the Welsh remain closed, refuting the expansion screwed exhaust probe. The distant traveling from boredom breaks, anger took public, tender, cautious or the product of compassion exhaustive, always open and and little is closer. During this screw up like that, we will see what little difference between the recognition engine and compression ignition engine Indians. Now let us see the applications off four stroke Indian in our mobile industry. The first book, Indian is Useful in You will earn four wheeler and the heavy applications and like the truck and emphasis forced from the Delinda, is also used in the locomotives in small outboard motors in small propeller air crabs in poverty nation applications to run the generator, the generator, what we use for their domestic purpose, as well as for the power plant. With the large number off basil Indians are placed side by side produced a very huge, more buff electricity. 5. Six stroke engine: six croak India in six crook injure thermodynamic cycle is completed in three revolutions. Off Frank ship are the six piston stroke. The main difference between the six crook engine when compared to the four stroke engine is the addition off to express Prokes. That is the second hours Brooke and the second exhaust through here. The Indian captures are your religious the exhausted feed from the four stroke engine and uses it to get an additional power off the Kristen in the same cylinder. Here we will discuss the to back off. Six broke India one is villas it on six group Indian on court over six broke injured in Villa Zeta Indian fresh air is used for the S, the secondary fuel Here the fresh air is injected into the cylinder during the exhaustive group, that is, by the end of the fourth describe, the fresh air is injected into the cylinder, which act at the field, and if any and burn fuel is present, it will get come burst with the fresh air and therefore forces the piston down foot and additional stroke. That is the 50 scope and the 50 stroke is the exhaustive stroke. The two enlistments stroke using it injection provides for the because scavenging the Indian seems to show a 40% reduction in the fuel consumption and a dramatic reduction in air pollution. It's for it Correctly Show is slightly less dander off a four stroke gasoline engine the Indian was developed in for clothes and fight whether team off mechanical engineering students from Kerala, India. This student, also a president from the government for this project and the second type of six crook union is the CRA wards. Six stroke engine. He and the worker is user. As the secondary fuel for the second course broke the fixed Brooke engine prototype in the United States by the Bruce Grover What that is injected into the cylinder after the exam stroke, that is, by the end of four to stroke, the water is sprayed, our injected into the sitting there, and immediately this water particles gets our demise and introduce team, which expands and forces the piston down for the an additional poor stroke. That is the second boat stroke and the sixth shrug is the exhaust off this burn guesses, but over estimated that his design would produce the field consumption by 40% by generating the same power out for lower could spell spill. No, let us see the working off the six broke India. The first of four strokes are same as that off the ideal four stroke engine. Central compression, stroke expansion, stroke and exhaust group inception stroke. The chart is sucker into the cylinder. The piston moves from off their tender to bottom. That center in little remains open during the stroke on exhaust. Trouble is closer. Second stroke is compression stroke. Airfield Michelle Art cart is complicity in the cylinder stand, most from bottom deterrent that targets in the good. The world's remained closed during the industrial at the end of competitions group. The airfield maturity is ignited with the help of sparkling and burning off gases takes place. The third stroke, that is the expansion are our stroke. The high pressure gases forces the piston down towards the bottom deck tender during this stroke. But the world Serie Mons closer if it's the first of power stroke produce in the cycle with the help off the primary field that is gasoline and the fourth stroke is the exhaustive stroke at the end of expansion. Stroup the exhaust one opens and the inflatable remains close. The piston really excelled. The burned gases out of the Celinda. Now the 50 strokes that is Aziz, the second poorest group. The Fresh Aid from the Air freighter endorse in Toda Cylinder through the second air induction line in case off Villa Zita six stroke engine. Now this eighties, expand in the 15th broke and the piston moves from under tender to Barton Pretender. And in second case, the water is injected in the superheated surrender. By the end of fourth stroke, the heart guesses the water genius its face into the steam as they completed off. Heart guesses is very high. This stain will act as the working fluid and forces the piston downwards, which makes the 50 stroke that is second port a stroke in case off growers six stroke injured. And finally, the 60 stroke is the second exhausted stroke. During the 60 stroke exist double, it means open. The Eastern studies the entire gases off the cylinder. This is that grammar to get a presentation off. Mila 06 broke India. Here we have two additional wells. When is an air in little and exhaust one during the success broke the injured well, vitamins open. Second is the completion stroke. All of all, three men, closer heard is the or stroke or the first expansions growth with the help of primary field , a level two remains closed for is the exhaustive stroke. The Exhausted while is open. No, the 50 stroke is the infection, stroke or air induction stroke, in which an 18 letter wall is open here, is indicated by the yellow color on the sixth stroke. If the it exhausts and it it exists. Herbal demons open during this stroke. In this way, it completes the videos. It a six stroke engine. This is the big dramatic representation off the growers. Six stroke engine here, the Aid Inlet and exhaust wall, or replaced by the single steam Well, first is the extra Were the injured one opens and the Piston extra first job into the surrender. Second is the compression screw all the world streaming close. Her is the expansion screw up with the help off remedy Fear forties. The exhaustive stroke during this frothy festival opens, and the burn guesses are sent out of the cylinder. By the end of the fourth stroke, the water is injected into the surrender. This water, my little bill, our demise and converts into the stream, which drives the piston from talked. That's under 200 center. That is the 50 stroke called as second public school sixties. The steam exhaust stroke Well, the steam is send off the cylinder, but opening the steam well. In this way, the thermodynamic cycle is completed in through a six stroke injured. Number is discussed. The features off the six broke India. One of the important feature is fort, including the Indian is considerable introduced and makes the Indian later. Why? Because the hit produced by burning off primary fear if used, prefer hitting off the this aid Are the injected water six broke? India seems to show the 40% production in feel consumption. The Indian shows around 60% reduction in carbon monoxide pollution when compared to the four stroke gasoline. In the start off research work is going on. This six broke injured. Even though we don't have any commercial vehicles running on the six stroke engine here, I would like to share one idea about the six stroke engine. Head ridden is also useful as the field in some first broken. Then there are some vehicles which runs on the hydrogen. India. Like some cars made by the PM, the veterans on the Partridge, an Injun in feature hydrogen can also be used as a fuel for the vehicles here. My idea is we can use the hydrogen as a second, refuel for six stroke engine, but end up the fourth stroke. We should inject the hydrogen gas and to the cylinder due to the very high in surrender temperature, which arto ignites the hydrogen guests and we are in the chicken POTUS troop. This was my idea, but it has a lot of consequences as well. Another future off the 100 fearless. It gives a very clean compassion. Do the disadvantages. In future, the six stroke engine can be used in our cars and motor seconds. 6. Spark Ignition engine: ignition. Injure our guest will in India. Patrol is another name off Gasol and Fear Spark Ignition. Indian Works on Arto Second, it was discovered by the scientist named Otto. Here is the ideal pleasure. Was this volume diagram off a four stroke s Indian. Here we see is the clearance volume and VF is the threat volume. Prince William is the volume off the Celinda When the piston is at the top, Dead center position swept. The volume is the total volume of the cylinder when the piston is at the bottom direct tender, minus clearance. William, the editor present their direction off the process in this cycle 0 to 1 is the section stroke here. The first start is taken into the cylinder at constant President. That is, at the atmospheric pleasure I want to do in the daytime dependence. The compression stroke during this broke the pressure inside the cylinder is increased from p one to p two. Putin three is not describe number three. It's constant volume, feet, tradition. The head eat added at constant believe that is in the form off, igniting the compress the airfield mixture with the help of sparkling and the tart burnt and the heat is produced the highest. A pleasure is often at the end off the compassion that is at the point. Three. No grief before is the expansion stroke or the power stroke. Now the pressure is drop. Look before and the piston we just the bottom date tender 4 to 5 is not a stroke, but fortify eats constant volume. Hit rejection. He had the piston agreements at bottom Jitender. At that time, some hit is traveled to the cylinder wall or the cylinder head that is from 4 to 5. Now from Fighter zero is the exhaustive stroke. The piston starts traveling from bottom date tender, too, not big tender, and the burnt out gases are sent out of this elinda. In this way, the arto cycle complete. No need to see the futures off the spark ignition engines. Basic Second, the Rto Indian works on Arto Second, our constant William Hey tradition. Second, feel gasoline is hell. Ebola tell feel. This can be easily big city in the it the self ignition temperature off gasoline is high, that is around 30 degrees indicated, whereas for their diesel, it is Putin. The recent victory in production off the field in the cylinder. Here, the gases Mr Off the Air and fearless Internet distributing the section stroke, corroborated and ignition system are necessary. Carbonated is a device which is used to mix the air and fuel in the desired proportions. Ignition system misused toe. Ignite the air and feel mixture at the end off compression stroke Lord control. Here, the load on the engine is controlled but throttling the quantity off the field. Mixed with the air ignition, it requires the ignition system with spark plug in the combustion chamber. Somebody work. It is provided by N battle competition. The show. When these 26 Our business trip in is the compression ratio, but a problem. It is fixed by the anti no quality off the field. Speed off the Indian do the lightweight and also due to the homogeneous compassion. They are high speed Indians homogeneous conversion in the sense you're the one little characteristic off the gasol in. It gets easily mixes with the it which leads to the homogeneous compassion thermal efficiency. Because off the low compression ratio, the maximum value of thermal efficiency that can be often is lower. He had the compression ratio in the gasoline in Janie's less when compared to the CIA Indians way this year, say Indians are later invade due to the people here, which in turn is the desert off less competition ratios, whereas in a digital Lyndon B request very high compression rituals to burn their disease. 7. Compression Ignition engine: compression ignition engine are did the engine. The thermodynamic cycle on which the CIA engine works is known as their disease. Second, here we can see the Bridger was his volume Bagram for forced proxy. A Indian this cycle conservatives for Strug, I'm six activities. The 3rd 1 is the first broke. That is the suction probe. During the factions broke the treasury Mishcon string The beef atmospheric pressure went Toto is the complacent stroke. During this crop, the child was just taken inside the cylinder is no complicity hope with ease Not this program activities and activities That is the constant pressure. If you tradition here the heat edition these in the form off the fuel is spread into the cylinder at the end of compression stroke and the conversion process starts now 3 to 4 is the expansion stroke, which is also called less powers pro for to face an activity that is constant volume introduction. When the piston demeans at the border under center, some amount of heat is probably through cylinder world. Further two cylinder block. No fight A little if again, the exhaust roll. The piston travels from bottom dirt and dirt Order tender and pushes the combusted product or up to cylinder knowledge has discussed the features off this compression ignition engine . The CIA engine work is known as the constant Project Fig tradition. Cycles are diesel Second, because here the hate edition is taking a constraint original, whereas in the same agent ricin is taking place at constant volume. Feel useful? It's little digital is and John Willard oilfield. Hence it does not mix completely with air, unlike the pickle which is highly wheeler tile. So here we don't inject airfield. Mr. Unlike in s agents, the self ignition temperature off diesel is comparatively low to patrol. So here we used the concept off art ignition. Here the flesh is taken into the cylinder during the successful on bits alone East Company Strydom at the end of competition there temperature off the eighties incl easily at that time. The deal. It's injected into the surrender with the help off your injector. This resume access with the high temperature off the air and the compassion X place It's known as art ignition. Introduction off fuel into the Celinda here Feel is injected directly into the combustion chamber which is at high pressure at the end of completion screwed in order to accomplish this, really quote the field pump and injector Indian your control. Here, The Lord on Indian is control but regulating the fuel supply. Hear, hear Quantity East not controlled ignition. Self ignition occurs due to the her temperature off it because off high completion, the compression ratio in CIA Indian is here of incompatible if a engines. So that really is a loan. Companies to hear temperature Also, ignition system and sparked are not necessary in Syria Indians completion ratios. The compression reference Ian Janie's one is to 16 or one is to 20 with just limited by weight off the engine speak, do do very heavy weight and also due to the heterogeneous compassion, these are called as low speed Indians. He had the week off. The engine is heavier when compared to the defendant's due to the region's off year competition ratios. Thermal efficiency because off here competition ratio the maximum value of thermal efficiency that can be optimised here way heavier, invade you to the big parade. Your value the weight off the CIA unions are heavier. Been converted defendant again due to the variation in compression ratios. Yeah, 8. Engine cooling: Indian cooling system due to the continuous compassion off a field. Mr. Insert the cylinder. The temperature off the Indian components also goes on increasing, so it becomes necessary to bring down this temperature toe the up given value for the efficient functioning off the engine, which leads to the introduction off the Indian cooling system. All the heat produced by the Commission off field is not converted in the useful work at the crankshaft, the distribution off energy is given as below the useful work produced. A grand ship is only 25% and the remaining heat is the distributed as follows. The heat lost to the splendor of all is 30%. The head, which is carried away by the exhaust gases 35% and the heat loss due to the fiction is in person here. If we observe the quantity off given to the surrender, what is considerable? If the feed is not removed from the cylinder, will it would reserved in the pre ignition off the charges, it looks Strada in a property promotion. I'm by the way, the lubrication and I just excellent materials, so it is necessary participating the excess food from the cylinder walls. No, only see, what are the methods took willing this Indian for automobile? We have here going and water poorly in airport. Linda's the cooling William B. Start must Medicare. This atmospheric here passes over this Indian and get E a V, the soon from the engine. This atmospheric air comes in direct contact with the Indian sort of is, whereas in the water boil Indians. The Indian cylinder is surrounded by the water jacket. With 10 days the cooling, this woman takes away the good from the intense Elinda. Further, it is passport and competent called radio. Here, the head from the coolant is disturbed producer only. With a 43 conviction, let us discuss and digital about the air whole Indians. The basic principle involved in this matter is toe have parent off a flowing continuously over the hitter middle surface. It depends on the following factors. One is the surface area off the McDonnell Bt's in direct contact with the aid, and the most florid off the is the temperature difference between the heated surface on it , and it lasts conductivity off them. It'll test for the effect to pulling off the Indian, the surface area of the McCann in contact with it. Sure, being Eastern, this is been providing the Finns over the cylindrical battles. In this picture, we can observe the friends, since on the union cylinder fins on England, the extended surface, which are either an edge or integrated with the Indian surface by the addition Off this fences, that's our face area off the in Jin is increased, which helps in cooling the engine. Now let us see some features about the airport Indian. The air cooled engines are like our inward because of the actors off, the radiator will inject it and the colon, so it is generally used to refer the late, great vehicle such as DeVillars. It can be operated in extreme climatic conditions. Hell, we don't record the cooling, so we are not concerned about the freezing point or the evaporation point off. The cooling and maintenance is easier because no problem off leakages off the cooling. The Indian here, if you really want, have been compared to the water poured Indians. The draw backs off the equal Indian east. It is not easy to maintain even cooling around the surface off the silly little inner way because not complete surfaced off the engine is exposure to the surroundings. The cooling fins. May my bread do do it. Nisus level may increase. This occurred in case off the Finns are that through the in an surface separately, knowledge Just discuss about the working poor. Indians killed the cooling William usually ease water. The Indian cylinder are surrounded by the water jackets work. All jackets are nothing but the started for the water around the cylinder through which the cooling world flows. Here, the hit flows from the cylinder walls to the liquid or the colon, which is present in the water jacket for the this heated coolant is no pastor toe the radio that, well, it loses its heat. But that's our only usual ism. Antifreeze is added to the cooling water to do it. It is often deferred s cooling. In this picture, we can see the circular off work. According Indians. Here we have a really later the lower or fan. Here we can see the water jackets. The Thermos tried one this month on Victor drives, the willing and the safety well, he had the hit from in Jin Cylinder, East Claverie toe the cylinder walls for the water jacket, which for their heads, doc willing, the disputed coolant is made. Tow us with the created with the help off before entering into the radiator. This one thermos trade waas The function off this world is it allows the coolant into the radiator will live in the temperature increases. The working condition in the Poland is allowed to pass into the radiator. Now the school in travelers from the up within, off the radiator toe the boredom portion through this narrow pef ages during this package off the radio and the heat is blown away with the help off. This blower or fan with the surroundings know the water cool is collected at the boredom bank off the radiator and with this past again into the engine or work objected in this with the Indian, Golan said. Purely completed the circulating. We could get the hit from the insulin, the thereby cooling the same. The same hit in the liquid is then dissipated into the atmosphere Through that, your dear daughter, by mainly conviction and conviction circular, the liquid gets school. By the time it was just the collector bank off the radiator the same water are swollen east , then circulated through the Indian to collect their head from the Selena. The pump is used for circulation and for mastitis impact to control the flow off. Pulling the pump is driven by means off a break from the Indian fracture. They're great for the fun. It's all starting from the same base. They deceived the futures off the water boil Indian. It is employed in both medium and heavy load applications like cards struck emphasis. Generally, we can see this world onboard union into 50 cc bikes. Also, it is easy moment in the even, cooling it around the Solyndra, which was not possible in the Air Corps attendance regulation off the coolant is proportionate to both dirt and speed. As the Lord in the Indian easing breezes or the speed off the unionist increases, the right off wing is also increasing. The Islamic for the system is it is more complicated and costlier than the air cooling system. In this picture, we can see the position off the radiator in the Villars and in cars generally improve Miller's. We don't require any blood because he had the engine is open toe this around me. That must be Nick Aaron will take away the heat from this radiator. Do the motion off the vehicle. We lessen the core we use and blower, which is less from behind a radiator which blow surveys the week from the radiator to the surroundings. 9. IC engine Lubrication system: Injun lubrication system duplication. It is a process off admitting an oil between the two surfaces, which are in direct contact with each other. The Indian can Arkan smoothly for more than a few minutes with the lubrication oil here, we never there to metallic surfaces moves over each other. Under the daily Contact. Andrey, or solid friction is produced this issue to the irregularities on the surface off chemical this particular cities under to myrtle surfaces ludes through the interlocking off each other. The right friction created produces a lot of food and desserts in the beer and tear off them adult surfaces. So when a flim off some lubricating oil, if inter poster between their poster faces so that this to our north in physical contact with each another, that means these two metallic surfaces ritual in direct contact. It's no separated by the flim call lubricating oil. The only the assistance to the motion remains the assistant off oil itself. This type of friction is termed as risk us or fluid friction. They're just discussed water the objectors off lubrication system, very muddy object. Does he and the prime American Son east to reduce the friction between the two moving parts to its minimum value. So they're the power loss is minimized and to reduce the beer and tear off the moving parts as far as possible. Along with this primary object, use this lubricating oil also Selves another drink pages which are armed in secondary objectors. 1st 1 is to provide the cooling effect. Fear the lubricating oil been also takes away. Some part off here. It is produced due to the commission off airfield mixture. The previous lecture. We have discussed the distribution off the head in the Indian in that we have observed that in person off the heat is lost due to the friction majority off. Their key is carried away with the help off this lubricating oil. The trend is to provide the questioning, affect the lubricating oil, says also as a good cushion against the shop present in the engine to provide the cleaning action, which means during the circulation off this lubricating oil, it results many impurities due to the running off the engine. Example. Carbon particles this lubricating oils for that purified with the help off oil. Frieder's. The lubricating oil also helps the piston rings to maintain an effect your seal against the high pressure gas is concerned. The surrender from leaking or worst crank is printed us some. In this picture, we can see the forces in the internal compassion injured here. The lubricating oil is indicated by the orange. A color in the crank is here referred as oil pen or some the oil from the some peace Taken through the strainer. This strainer is one kind off Frieder, which blocks the macro dust particles from flowing into the package. The oil from this pathogen is taken into the oil Frieder, which reduced the complete dust particles including but micro and micro dust particles. This oil is known pastor toe the main oil galleries. Here we have one oil from which Christ the oil into this circle. Here we can observe the oil gallery, stop pretended by the local beverage which are further connected to the crankshaft cylinder walls and when line is connected with the operation off the engine which lubricate the rocker arms camp Sheriff Cam lobes and Spinks Circle. The oil from this main galleries is also passed through the crankshaft, which for that lubricates the big pain beddings on main journals after lubricating all the Indian components, the oil lease again collected into the crankcase or the oil pen. Now let us see the requirement off this lubricating oil. 1st 1 is viscosity. Difficulty is that it systems off the lubricating oil off law. This course it should be just sufficient to ensure the hydrodynamic lubrication. I hear the value off the viscosity. It's not desirable because which, and alleged to the power loss due to the increase in oil assistance at the time off starting the Indian risk ostentation below, but the rest the Indian may not start. Second is physical stability. The lubricating oil must be they will physically at the lowest and the highest temperature which is encounter during the operation off engine that should not be in its operation off . The solids are lower temperature and then here computer. It should not weaponized 30 chemical stability at the higher temperature encountered in the Indian. The lubricating oil should remain. Chemical is stable. There should not be in new tendency for the Oxford formation, which are the sticky substances which further reduces the floor pretty off the lubricating oil. 4th 1 is the assistance against corrosion. The oil should not have any tendency. Took a road up by planes carrying case and other Indian parts, but which it comes in contact. 50 is the flash point, the flashpoint off the ultra be sufficiently hey so as to await the flashing off oil vapors at that temperature occurring in common use cleanliness. The also be sufficiently clean and stable it Selves so that the crankcase and the oil liners are typically further it must contain. The agent scored the elegance, which removes the impurities during its circulation. A soft lubricating system here, the lubricating system is classified in tow Effect Roy Lubricating System and the Break Some Lubrication System April lubrication system. This is used generally for the small Bruce Broke Indians suggest the supporters and the motorcycle Indians said in a moment of lubricating oil. If mixing with the platoon itself here will be pouring the pattern into the field tank, we will mix some part off oil with it. The usual ratio is 2% or 3% off oil. If the oil is less, the deter danger off insufficiently medication, quoting the damage to the engine. If the percentage off oil is more, there will be the excess carbon deposit and the Indian will also gives they're not smoke. The standings. Cylinder balls and Georgian pin bearings are lubricated by this matter. The field oil ratio used is important for the good performance. Docked Imam Field, if you use is 50 years to one, that is 50 parts off patrol contained one part off lubricating oil. Here are the two bikes which employs the patrol lubrication system. Generally, while putting the field into these vehicles, we thought there in this vehicle the lubricating oil. If board along with the patrol in the ratio off one is to 15 the second is the example application system in this system, a big oil, some is provided at the base off the crankcase. From this some, the oils pump it to their different parts of the engine. The main types off the red. Some lubrication system are the splash lubrication system on, but your eyes really lubrication system splash lubrication system. This is generally employed for the small or Lord dirty engines. This is one of the deepest emitter off in their lubrication here. If mal scoop is made in the lower part off the connecting rod and the already stored in the crankcase. When the in general, once in every devolution, the scoop causes the oil displeasure on all the predictions. This affects the lubrication off the cylinder wells Good jump in good and shipped. I'm chef main buildings begin buildings, piston wolves. I mean girls and camps. In this animation, we can see the working off the splash lubrication system. He had the boredom of the connecting rod. One. Scoop it. Cartegena well running the engine the school built splashes the Indian, so the proportion off the engine with tendons lubricates the top part of the engine. And second is the president's really lubrication system. In the present system, the oil pump the oil from the some through the strainer and delivers it through the filter to the main oil galleries are the pressure off Rudolph four bars from the main galleries. The oil goes, so the main buildings from here, some off the oil after the lubrication falls back to the some here, some oil lease plus to look record the cylinder walls and Bristol goes through a hole through the rankings for lubricating the big end Berries. A hole in the connecting rod. Weps leads the oil from the cramping, Or so the Gourgeon been. After lubricating the Gourgeon pin bearings, the oil falls back from the camp Chef and Timing Gate. Lubricating oil is laid through the separate oil line from the oil gallery through a pleasure producing well, lubricating the timing. Get some off. The oil jerk is directed to these parts. The world's on tablets are lubricated by connecting the main oil gallery to the fabricate surface through the great holes. No need to see the parts off the Indian, which are to be lubricated. The main parts of the Indian, which records the lubrication, are men carrying chapter biddings, big and small, and buildings off the connecting road. John in biddings, which connects the piston and connecting Lord forties. Their timing gives camshaft and come chef biddings, the stunned rings and still in the world. Last system will mechanism. Here are some pictures off Indian lubrication 10. Technological advancements in IC engines: technological advancements in I see in the I read the engine, I predict, is intelligent video bill. Well, I mean, I'm yes, electronic control Every ticket system developed by the harmed up, which was said to improve the way limited efficiency off a four stroke internal combustion engine deserting in higher performance are to your RPM, and no one feels consumption at lower rpm. The Vedic system uses the three Hampshire's to profile and had really police record between replace. It was invented by Honda Engineer Equal Detaining. Yeah, I know, but the company is referred to as high power and low field and gumption. Let us see this for perhaps when is by controlling the opening off to in Little's but Indyk ones. Second is by Eggeling one in equal, I've read it regulates the opening off airfield in pickles on exhaust wells in accordance with the Indians, boots opening. If one Amar glow Indian sweets and fully opening a hearing and speech achieving both high power and low fuel consumption, which means if the car is moving at low spirits are in a trafficker or the opening off the well is regulated, which is kept to a minimum so that lets a marked off airfield mixture is taken into the cylinder engines. When the God is moving at a higher speed, which requires higher power distant, the one is fully opening, then act normal. So there were about off air. Fuel mixture is taken into the cylinder. In this way, the here power and lower sales convention is achievable. Second is by dealing one in equal are closing the one in equal. The new high tech engine is jail and intelligent. I have low Indian spirits. One off the two in Iguala is ideal that is one of the antiquities close. The Indians sips the gasoline eight mixture, using a lane feeling shirt at low Indian sweets for further improved compassion efficiency . In this picture, we can see property and second read over which are off normal size. It number till we have the mid rocker arm. It is used for high performance. During the normal operation, the primary and secondary rocker arms will operate that in late welt, with the engine is moving at three rpm. Here, performance made rocker umps comes into action and the lift off little balls is in Tereza. It is not a month off airfield mature is taken into the cylinder, which encourages the power of the bacon CRD I engine CRD A is common rail buried injection , most of Morgan Indians field system use and advanced technology known as C R D a r Rahman Dr Derek Induction Not if we find this technology in each and every car in some of the cars like Human Day, it is the president did at CRD while in other costs. Also, this is used to make them in, not represent it on the weekend were the patrol and Digital Indians news, a common feel right which supplies the fuel for the injectors. However, in de Ville indents, manufacturers to the first put their technology as T already, whereas patrol unions, it is termed as gasoline direct injection Derek induction off the fuel into the cylinder off engine wear a single common line called F. The common drill. Miti's can people all the feel injectors instead of providing a separate rooms for the fuel . So plate the Kamen brain alone supplies the high pressure field to each other in the in the DBS Indon, so each cylinder is a great piece connected if pumps a place the field to each fuel injector that is, in present technology, a common drill is connected. All the field injector in this woman we will make in the very high pressure. This allows fears to combined with a much more efficiently Sierra ensures the field induction, diving 1 80 off the field, and art imitation off feels they are controlled electronically, using a programmable control bargain. This allows multiple injection at any pleasure at any time within the pre defined limits, providing 11 off flexibility, which can be exploited for bigger power of field consumption and emission. In turn, this electronic control and multiple injection reduce with a nice, cool get extreme for the ultra high speed See under the Ice Systems, which operates on around the 1800 bus, generating their ideal swirly and allowing the airfield make sure perform uniform combustion. And General Leader used the you know, X emissions, which are the major pollutants from the vehicles. In this picture, we can see the application off the theater D A system here we can feed the feel in the cup behind this injector we have in Common drive, which is connecting all these surrenders off the injured. In that line, the high pressure fuel is maintained no release. Almost all the course are accompanied by the CRD a system, but it is represented by various names on the different cards here. These are the Sierra de acronyms for months. Lisbon's car Statistic The President S C B A for here today CRB a Inter American CCR for but Indra, Mortars, CRD, BMW and Volvo. We can see the first of Ricky Motors as really I s but the debate for the in our only son they see a mission. We should be I d hard up. I see d b A and a B for few. It's nameless jdb for chiller be 30 I foot for and worst wagon as clearly Syria and pretty A on left this really FD technology A state with this advanced Rick Campbell floor technology, it is basically design optimization in the engine which induces a shuttling are spending motion off the airfield, Mr as it enters the combustion chamber The swirling motion age in the picture mixing off the field particles with a The advantage off this technology is a more efficient conversion off the fuel is ending in a fuel economy and cleaner emissions. It has discussed the futures off this empty after technology. Humble flow also indicates dark. The air flow circulating in the direction off cylinder access has it is beneficial in marginal in the air fuel mixture. It also has little effect on accelerating the compression process by generating ambulance so that the full flow efficiently improves the Indians conversion. I like Lord when it completes near the end after completion Hero Border Corporation our first, the 80 after technology on some off vehicles like see visit extreme hunk on achiever models . This is one of the vehicles on which the technology is employed and this vehicle we can see the marking off 80 FDA. These were some off their technological advancement in internal combustion engine.