7 Quality Tools for Quality Management and Improvements. | The Guruskool | Skillshare

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7 Quality Tools for Quality Management and Improvements.

teacher avatar The Guruskool

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

24 Lessons (3h 31m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:22
    • 2. Introduction to the Course

      2:15
    • 3. Basics of Statistics

      11:23
    • 4. Measure of Central Tendency

      6:42
    • 5. Measures of Variation

      14:11
    • 6. Sampling using MS Excel

      6:19
    • 7. Descriptive Staistics using MS Excel

      11:30
    • 8. History of the 7 Quality Tools

      2:59
    • 9. The 7 Quality Tools

      6:36
    • 10. Flowchart

      14:46
    • 11. Flowchart Using MS Excel

      10:53
    • 12. Checksheet

      9:02
    • 13. The Cause and Effect Diagram

      13:48
    • 14. Cause and Effect Diagram using MS Excel

      6:45
    • 15. Histogram

      10:25
    • 16. Histogram using MS Excel

      5:20
    • 17. Scatter Diagram

      11:02
    • 18. Scatter Diagram Using MS Excel

      10:08
    • 19. Pareto Chart

      9:10
    • 20. Pareto Chart Using MS Excel

      8:12
    • 21. Control Chart

      15:10
    • 22. Control Chart using MS Excel XBAR Chart

      15:25
    • 23. Control Chart usin MS Excel -RBAR Chart

      6:43
    • 24. Congratulations

      1:21
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About This Class

Description

Welcome to the Complete Crash Course on 7 Basic Quality Tools. The course was designed to equip you with the tools and Techniques that are used to solve 90% of quality management related issues within an organization irrespective of the Industry.

The course is easy to follow and equipped with examples which are easy to follow, At the end of every topic the Practical Application and Implementation is demonstrated using MS Excel.

Being a Quality Professional for 15 years I have practically used and applied these tools in multiple Quality Projects thereby resulting in Millions of dollars as cost saving or Revenue Enhancement. 

Who this course is for:

  • Everyone involved in Quality Management field
  • Students willing to Make a career in the Quality Field.

Requirements

  • A lots of Enthusiasm to learn.
  • An attitude for Continuous Improvement.
  • Basic Mathematics.

What you'll learn

  • Define and understand the functions of the seven basic tools in business and quality field
  • Help to identify and prioritize problems quickly and more effectively
  • Assist with the decision making process
  • Provide a way of extracting information from data collected.
  • Provide a vehicle for communicating problems and resolutions through-out the business
  • Drive a culture of Continuous Improvement in your organization at all Levels.

Meet Your Teacher

The Guruskool is a group of passionate teachers who are dedicated to Quality Online Education in different domains.We know that learning is easier when you have an excellent teacher. That's why most of our educators have achieved an advanced degree in their field. Our faculty are passionate about the subjects they teach and bring this enthusiasm into their Online Courses. 

The Major Focus of Guruskool Teachers is to embrace the pursuit of excellence both inside and outside the classroom. We encourage critical thinking and emphasize the learning process over rote memorization.  

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In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: 2. Introduction to the Course: Hey, welcome to the course on seven Lucky Dube's. So in the world off quality, we believe that the journey never stops. You never reach a destination because as soon as you reach a destination, a new journey is always there to begin. So these seven quality tools, which are also called as seven QC tools off quantity, which are deadly weapons off quality with which you can actually fight anybody like any sort off appointed the more they originated in Japan when the country was actually undergoing a quality revolution on it had become a military part off Japanese industrial training program. What did the exports rely heavily on the seven BC quantity does and Caraway Ishikawa, who was the developer off this seven chronic? You tools believe that 95% of the quality related problems can be tackled by anybody who knows how to make optimum use off the seven quality tools. So in this particular course, we will start with learning the basics or statistics because as we move during the course, we will understand that we need to know certain basics of statistics if you need to use these tools efficiently after basis basics off statistics, we will be moving towards learning the measures of central tendency on variation and then gradually we will get introduced to the seven quality tools on. Once we start learning the seven calling to us, we would normally understand what exactly are we saw seven chord individuals. But we will also understand where they are used, how they are utilized in in the quality board one of the benefits of using seven quality tools on the best parties. We will learn to how to implement them using Microsoft. Except so I'm really excited to get into the scores and get on this learning journey off continuous improvement Using seven quantity tubes. I hope you are equally excited. I never see in the lecture. 3. Basics of Statistics: before we move on and understand what are the seven while if you choose, we need to understand certain basis. And they were talking about basics. We need to understand the basics. So stills. So what exactly is this? Was that this thing is a very broad subject, but applications in last number of different views in generally, one can say that statistics is a methodology for collecting, analyzing, interpreting, on drawing conclusions from the available in books. So if I have to go by the player definition from Wikipedia, when asked for Wikipedia Statistics is a branch of mathematics, which deals with election analysis, interpretation, presentation and organizational. So what it means is that is a certain they believe there is a process off collecting that data. Then you got some kind of an analysis off data, and then, based upon your analysis, you brought certain conclusions. So statistics is basically a mathematical methodology or collecting, analyzing, interpreting, presenting, organizing. So that is, understand some basic statistics for business we've already discussed. It is a methodology for selecting, presenting. I'm a lazy Andi, then going ahead and throwing some confusion this upon the off liver people, and that helps us in designing on may be improving our existing products. I'm lost, so it is also a status he could be. It is a ball you in designing you've artist and assistant. It also helps in improving existing designs and processes on, then also helps in designing new processes. Lock statistics can before the classified goes. So one is up This upstairs. So what learning by description says Okay, so let me explain that with So I have certain data really do. So let's say I have a data off, maybe the students in a particular There's and I have the data for the masks or by the students in a mathematic best. Now, based upon this available information, I can easily calculate the average goal of the plus. I can easily see who want the maximum. I can easily say what was the minimum school on? Based upon that, I can maybe even save what was the range in which the maximum students scored the bus. These type of statistics which are based about the entire population data on do you have certain methodologies of scalability. So that is something that you call other descriptive status. So in other words, this script started six. Focus on collection, analysis, presentation and description upset off. Then what is the second? The second type is an information services. So what is the meaning of being put Inches? So let's say there are two parties, a party and party on, both contesting in a and you want to find out that in a particular geographical area which party has the maximum probability? Oh, but the end of geographical area has maybe around one million. So it is not practically possible to go ahead on and analyze the data for one million people and then broke conclusions based Awful. So then what do you you take a small sample of that. So maybe out of one million people, you will just pick up a data off 10,000. And then you asked him the question. Who do you think is gonna be not? Based upon the output off these 10 houses, you will go ahead and draw up confusion that Okay, what? He has a highly probable of you winning daily. But maybe Parton, he has a higher probability of winning. So what you're doing is you're taking this whole sample and then your bring your analysis on. Based upon that, you are making certain inference. And that is what you call other in prevention specialists. So if I go by the population in four inches, that the six focus on making decisions about the lots of data for the population from this subject of leader because I wanted up sap. Okay, so these other two times up my minutes understand some basic films instead, supports is the population. And second is that stuff. So if I have to give you a very simple at a basic example, let's see, I have 10,000 apples on. I want to be sure that every apple in those 10,000 Apple has an average rate for 400 grand's. So this entire set off 10,000 apples will for my English. There s if I have to draw a conclusion that okay, every apple weighs approximately 400 grand. I'm not gonna go ahead and be all that impose of apples. I've been maybe pick up 100 or 200 apples out of the Lord and then having read and based upon the conclusion that I draw out of that Saturn, I would say that Okay, The average week off every apple in this particular set is approximately four grass. So basically, population is nothing but a collection of elements on which we wish to make an inference where a sample is us more subset off the population we used for our analysis purpose. And based upon that, you draw. Okay, so that's about population. So we put it in a very simple that is understand what exactly? A sample is a portion off a population that is selected to gather information. You're throwing a basis for action on the village rather than taking a compute senses off the whole population. Statistical sampling procedures focus on collecting a smaller portion off. Okay, this is again a shorter working off which says sample is a smaller collection of units from a population which is used to do the mine fruits about the operation. So in our case, 10,000 apples were the population and we wanted to go ahead and in for the truth that every apple with 400 perhaps. And for that, we took a sample again. An example of William, 50 samples off, dull, picked up from a production line. So I want to just go ahead and be sure that Okay, all the bulbs are defect free. But I cannot go ahead and test each and everybody in the production line. So every now and then, maybe after that we pull out, survive us, I pick up a sample of people, check them. And based upon that, I drove her. Okay, so that's about it. No. What are the benefits of sample next time consuming? Why? Because you're not dealing with a whole lot of beer. You're taking us more samples out of the entire population. So you're dealing with this data? Definitely. There's gonna be less time. We just lost effect because any analysis picks up some kind of rituals now that the source can be in terms of manpower or maybe some kind of a monetary inputs. Or maybe you need some kind of official passionate e r calculation mechanism. So some kind of a resource will always be in board when you're drawing some kind of inference or conclusion based upon sound. So reducing the size of the sample or maybe working on a sample other than on a population is always a cost effective measure because that the sources that will be utilized. This it is less cumbersome and easier, of course, because you're dealing with less data. So it is definitely gonna be in easier task to deal with the survey data on to work with give the results with known accuracy that can be calculated. So in statistics based upon samples, you can draw conclusions. And there are certain methodologies that are available in the world of statistics. But which you can say that. OK, maybe 90% accuracy. I can draw this conclusion. Our baby with 95% accuracy. I can draw this conclusion. But there are different methodologies. Are we living for that? However, that is out of school for our course. So maybe we can discuss this. Insert other schools. So that's about the benefits up. 4. Measure of Central Tendency: Hey, welcome back. No. After understanding the B six of statistics, be more another concept, which is all the major General Center attendees. So what exactly is the vaginal center? 10 is Let's understand. So if I go asada definition, then descriptive measures that indeed cute whoever sent it or the difficult value off the valuable nice elected set off measurements our court measures syndrome. Now, measures of central tendency are often referred to us averages. Okay, So what I mean to say is that if I have en different readings on, I want to understand what we measure off center tendency off and readings. I just had the stem beauties on, then divided by the number of samples, which is the number that gives me an average on that becomes my vigil syndrome tended. Why do you usually use it? Is because we expect that when we take a sample majority off, the values will be hovering around these central majors. Okay, so what are these different vegetable central attendances? The me, the media, the more and they're all valid, measurable sentry days, but under different conditions, some measure of centre London tendencies become more appropriate to use that how? Let us understand that with an example and let's understand these major layoffs and third tendencies one by one. So now let us understand. What is it? Me, I mean, is the most commonly used measure off central or wanted to do a video. I It is also borders that are, I think, sample B. So basically, even when people speak up taking and average, it is the mean that they're most often every If I were with deformation, I mean, is the average off set of data. And then how can you to calculate to me? Waas lets some of the data and then divided by the count off the Let's look at this example longs We have a set of data with the following reading 12 15 11 11 7 and 30. I want to find them mean off this particular How will I do that? Plus, I add all these. So when I stomach up, the value comes to 16. And how many meetings do I have? I have six feet. So you divide 69 Plessix my average comes to 11 point, which is nothing. But my so, as I mentioned earlier, is nothing but the average average of the set of the the time that Okay, let's move to the next. So, media, what does it mean? Median is the middle number in that set off data With the advisories. Let us understand that we've done so. What we have over here is the same set of data. And now what we need to do is we need to arrange this leader enough ascending. Or the seven come spores followed by 11 leather 12 30 50. Now, if you look at this CD, didn't we fight that 11 as well? Falls exactly in the middle of the sea. So you have two numbers to the left of them. I'm doing a bus to the write off these. So then how do I find the media? It's simple. I will some the who with values. So I've been ad 11. I'm well, so my sound comes to 23 and then I divided by you, which gives me 11 point. So the median for my CDs is 11 point. Let's move you. What is that? More more is a number that offers boast. What do I mean by that? Let's look at that exact seeming. So we have these numbers. 12 15 11 11 7 If you're observe the number 11 ofcourse the most number off time in this. So any number which has the highest frequency off operates within a series will because your let's say in the same example, if I have the number 53 times that automatic any more so that covers the topic. Four majors off central tendency. So we just heard. What does that mean? Yeah, Mr. What is a leading on the district? What is up? So I hope you understand these topics. Well, let's move on to the next. 5. Measures of Variation: welcome back during the previous Like Terry on this work is the major off center. Oh yeah, You will quickly understand What are the major? So be it so by you need to understand this. Why didn't you learn my village? Because in addition to locating the center off officer value of videos in the bigger, another important aspect off this little study off variable is numerically Venturi. The extent off radiation around the same. What I mean is I want to understand how my data is distributed around me. How close or how far this is data a round up. So if my observed values are very close to them then I would see that Red crosses has been best. But it off the values are spread far away from the mean. Then I was that five process as a baby. I've let us understand. He's with the decorations on taking so exact. So let us understand. What is it? Be possible? So everything is a little bit which is nothing but the difference between the largest. I'm the smallest number in this. So if I have to think this exactly, that's it. This is the big Brother. OK, But these are the numbers and this is my biggest. Now I want to find the range. So I don't think the largest number in this particular because it which is 15 on this modest number in my day, does it is. How will I can't believe the read. It's a lodges minus the ball is so my age is okay in boot. Basically, what I want to understand is what is the maximum value might be? Does it? What is the minimum value on then? Identify What is the difference between the maximum on the minimum? Let's give me. But now that is understand. What is the Venus now? As I mentioned earlier, variance is nothing but the measure of how the data points differ from the What do I mean by that? Let's understand that that example. Okay, so this is my day, does it? This is my day Doesn't want because 357 and then this is my second deals, which has five numbers on all the numbers. Said what is it me off the bodies? The me What opposed a Does it this seven. If you want, you can miscalculated then Stannis. 20 10 27 unless 3 35 35 divided by five. So, my mean is said And then what is my media? My median is again. But then, if I look at the second Davis, what is seven? And then what is the media? It is against it. So is my views are similar. We know that believe that this Nazi so variance is something that shows how does data this ? So if I look at the data said one, the value three is away from my the value 10 is away from my with seven by three units on three years of age from seven by. But if I look at the second Davis, which is 7777 So all my values are actually lying on my leaders, What does that mean? It's simple. My data said one has a Iaw illusion. My data said do as no. Okay, how do we calculate civilians? The average off the spread deviation about the movie is called Sounds difficult. Do not. We've learned that with exact you could just look at this problem as up now. Okay, It's a basic ingredients. It is the north Gate by sick must wear this submission off X minus Xbox, the whole squared divided by N on This is the value that you can't create. What operation and what a Sambou reading of this value as s quit The only difference over year, this part population. We take the denominator as the entire population. But as for the sample but denominated it is the ground minus one. If you feel confused right now, do not. Once we saw this with an example, things will become much more easier once let us understand what is the standard deviation. So I'm possible. Let's understand. Why do you even get to find out? Standard? The standard illusion is the measure of radiation off schools about them. So I can't think of a standard deviation of the average distance to the meat. Although that's not numerically active, it's on sexually so always off saying this seem higher. Standard deviation indicates I have spread less consistency and left. What is the formula for standard dilution? Standard illusion is nothing but this We're route off my population. The standard deviation by news taking us sigma. What a sample! The standard deviation value is the notary by the small. Yeah, Let us understand? What does Radiance and Sanders division within. Exactly. Okay, so I have a math test. Four off five silvers. I need to get 80 68. So if I arrange these scores and I think the average so the average, which is my X box comes to setting. So what I've done over your desire just added these and do I did it by then. I think the value s x minus. Explore in my next. What do I mean by this? I've been so subtract 76 out of 19 that give me 60 I saw obstructed 76 out of this 80. I want I did it for all the numbers. Two Indian ice obstructed 76 months. If you do that. So these are my X minus exposed. Now I need to square least. So my 16 square is wanted after p six. Well, square is 1 44 And so violence. So accurately My minus 24 whole status. 507. Then I some. When I summed it up, my son came through 1000. Okay, Now I want to understand what is my CDs? And if you remember in variance, we divide the value off X minus Exports holds where? By end minus one. And is that open number of leading that? How many leading do I have in this example? I have by exact fight. OK, but because this is my entire population, I've divided by Wow. Okay, If this was a sample, then I would have divided by private minus one. I'm assuming this to be my entire population. So I'm taking that. The nominee has Wow. So after divided 1056 by five, I get 271. It is my Andi said that standard deviation is nothing but the square off. So if I think this were off 211 points do I get standard, which is 14 point right. So I hope you invested the concept off variation. Why we need to understand the new ship is because we understand how our data this spread around the me or around our central attendance. And that is the reason we need to understand. Majors are very ish. Why do we need to understand process fusion? Because for suspicion is very important in the world of quality, customers are constantly evaluating us So this is part of that process is to get a mind how well we have meeting gala occasion. Why? Because let's take an example off delivery service. And that's a order something. It reaches me in tones. Next time I ordered it, it reaches me. Then I order it reaches Same brought up, but it's reaching up for three days. Two days. Customers can actually being this because then you send something to the customer and foodies. The customer expects you maintain that gun systems at any radiation. Your customers immediately understand that there is a variation on your courses on yourself . How it is that this is done by comparing the current processes, services and products. Look, we define Stack. What do I mean by that? That's a My product reaches the customer. So now customer has big standard. He believes that you're any time. He orders the product, the product with the chairman and every time the bill. If it happens, the customer is going to compare you with the SEC benchmark for movies. It reaches him in one day he will feel that yes, your service is improbable. But if it reaches in the readings, five days, seven days time. Danny knows that there is a huge variation in your so the objective off any 40 initiative, Mr Mita customer CTT, which is nothing but critical quality. What is the expectation that you said with the customer you have to be consistent on this directly translates to 40 days. These are being in people and you monetary benefits intangible. Maybe your customer is very happy with you on. He might recommend you do another. So you always have benefits when you ensure that your bosses has minimum babies. What do you do next is even understand these terminologies that we just know to excess Because excel will make things much more clear on it would be easy to understand. And once we go toe a few examples, things will be much, much more clear. Okay, so let's proceed on. I will see you in the next late 6. Sampling using MS Excel: Hey, read them back. So, after learning the basics off statistics, veg is off center tendencies on the vegetable radiation notice. Open our resource five and let us understand all these concepts using an example so possible We started about population on Sampley. So let us understand what I mean. So in your excel resource that has been provided to you. Let's go with the index and click on this option. So as you can see and exit Chute has just opened up on us on all year. You see the entire population on your you see the Sam? What did them? This is my entire deep. But I have taken certain samples from this data for my office. But this is my 2nd 1 which has at all. Okay. Exactly. And this is my supper shoe, which has around then samples or 10. How do we do that? How do we make exit? Find the sap. So for that, what do you do? This? Let's copy this population data or you are blank. Exit will open up blank exertion. So now our blank except you is a whatever it is. I've been pieced this population data out yet. I want to draw sample out of this. So how do I do that? But before we proceed, that is something that you need to do with your excess sheet or your except soft. If you go to this option data and you click on it, you see this optional Libya is divided and this is a very handy room, especially when you're dealing with. If you do not have this two under your data, it's simple. Would you fight the final option? Good. Oh, options. Okay, they come down to this option. Adan the Gone added. I'm all your BBC this option analysts is back selected. Oh, okay. On your data analysis back will be added to your data. So now let's start playing with. So as I said, this is the population and I want to draw two samples out of this entire. So let's say this is my example one. How waiting that I would do dialysis on over your if you we're down. You see this option Sam Blue click on Sampley and become Then it will ask you for that so and hit it then it wants to know. Do you want the sapling that to be your dick or landed on select. And then I would say how many samples more want I want. Then it will ask me. They want out. So I will click on this, our coverage. And then I read it. So I want my out, put you and and as you can see, my worst sample is Let's get the second sample as well. Let's I liked this particular on goto analysis Gone Sampley. Okay, I will again give the same read. The guys will be free to after 21. All I need to do is just change the output because I want my foot for you. As you can see, my second sample is also Jen. So this is how you do Sampley on you. Select certain sample size from your population. Music by himself. Exit. I hope you enjoy this lecture. In the next lecture, we will understand how we live with the measures of central tendency on evolution using that's the year than expected. Thank you. 7. Descriptive Staistics using MS Excel: Hey, what about? So in the last lecture we understood What is Sampley on? How we select a certain size up sample from a given population using now that is understand . How do we find the descriptive statistics? Because the mean median old revision on standard deviation using emphasis. So what? That we will once again open our soc and click on this button it which is descriptive. As you can see, I have this Dida or you. I have a one on one product, Cindy. Wrong. John Goodison, what I've done for you is waas. We took on average off this and we found the average to be 1 36.92 And then we subtracted this average from these values that gave us the value of X minus expert. Then in this color, we squared these values and then he sounded what we didn't next. Okay, divided this value by and my response. So a number of samples over a year it's dress. So what we did we divided this some by and by this one which is never that gave us the valuable the and then we took a square root off this value. It gave us a standard. So over here, what we've done is you have manually get done. All the calculations and oil you used the going back. Just the data analysis back. You get these buttons on if you get the value. Yeah, I the gates on munis, lump of six point. And yet one thing is exploited. So is the media more? Our obedience is 904162 Even with the back out to sea on, our standard diffusion is again. See? So let us understand. How do we do this using exit. So whatever you do is, I will just copy this. Nor do you know, from the ship on blank, let's open blankets and sheets that's on this. But now what you do is even do a manual capitalist would move all these years from here. So the posting that we have to find out is eggs ball. What is explode? Expert is nothing but the average value off these says, How do I calculate that? I would say people average open brackets select this entire big okay, and then laws back. So my average is 1 36.9 However, this please the sense, but this f ool and I would first at one more because my values are on. Okay, you Now I need to this back this pita because my average is common, but each and if you back now that has got rid X minus its So we take this value just x minus baseball and then it's back. So we have have our expired. Now let's dig up squeal. So how do I do that? I just se equal this button might be like by the same one and then I this I need to take the summer off these bodies so some and then get some Let me fill up these by news No So my me is Hey, spot 176.9 If we find the media, find the median The proble is yeah, open bracket So in this range. And then I found my media Let's find a more the formulas again. Very simple Busy was more open brackets like the range And then let me find me minimum value my entire So my minimum batting this 100 Let me if I want them maximum value in my age it is incredible. Last and then select. How do I can't believe Marie court with this maximum minus? So I would say that's equal maximum value. Bye, Mr They that now I need to calculate X minus export the full spread divided by end minus one, which is nothing but the summation off X minus export the whole square divided by and my miss. What is in it is nothing. But that's called the number of values, my countess. So I will say obedience is equal submission off X minus takes about who's divided by end minus one So and is doing minus one is that I get my big and then if I take that wear off this one, I don't get it. The problem is open back it like this so I get my standard deviation. But this is how you calculate it. The measures of central tendency on the valuations Use a manual. But did Microsoft exit? Now let us understand if we can do this and dark absolution using rt analysis food. So let's league on data or do the analysis. And then that's a big districted status. Click on OK and then it will ask you for the input. Let's look on the foot range Our entire legalized in this green selected ender. I want to see this. Somebody said six. I'm gonna put up check Mark on that, and then I will give my out, put some bubbly output range and let's give us age. That's I wonder, would be in this. So as you can see now, my data is already calculated using the food back. Okay, so this is true. Uh, this was done. Just a click upper part that if our data matches with whatever we have calculated manually , Okay, just a nice boarding. I look strange off you. Okay? Just to make it look a little bit so I mean, is 1 36.9 Mattis with water. A media is 1 37 which is the same more is 100. So it matches our ranges 101. The same, uh, variance is 904.62 on a standard deviation is 30.0, which is so we did the calculation manually as the last dodo gate analyst system on a boat . The calculations have given similar. So this is how you used by himself exit to calculate the measures off center Dennis. As the lesser measure go very issue that this we move on to our next lecture on, Let's start understanding what are the seven quality tools on our we used? 8. History of the 7 Quality Tools: Hey, welcome back. So after understanding the basics of statistics now, let us move. Worked off. Pick up interest on that. Is that seven quality? So let us first understand how did the seven quality to originate? What is that history behind? So seven quality tools basically originated in Japan when the country was undergoing major quality revolution. Andi. It had become a manager topic as a part of Japanese industrial training program. But being stores are basically comprised off simple graphical and statistical techniques on our very helpful in solving critical policy related issues. These tools are often referred as seven basics. Cool off quality because these tools can be implemented by any person with a very basic training in statistics on were simple to apply to solve any quality related complex issues . So who is the originator off this particular points? So these basic Cuba tools are often associated with. He was believed to be a Japanese professor, a bingo Andi. He's credited other heavy vig in the quality management on especially known for the development of, or any certain Ichigo order wishbone dagger. Let me tell you, fish bone diagram in itself is one of the seven basic quantity tools. So but some seven boots off quality is basically the doctor. Seven. Food off the famous warrior Now who's vendor Ben Guys? Basically a commonly depicted as a man of great strength and loyalty. Andi. He's a very popular subject in the Japanese, for it is believed that went, I owned seven weapons with which he used Bill All by and similarly, Professor called believe that anybody who knew how wise use this seven quality foods able to solve 95% off the problems related. So that is a little bit about how the seven quality news. 9. The 7 Quality Tools: So now let us get familiarized with the seven quality tools or the seven future tools. As so the seven quality ones do a job check. She, Mr Graham scattered. I go. But it really charges cause and effect diagram on sometimes even call it off. Fishbone, tiger. And what if you so these other seven window. So what other benefits off Learning the seven. Or if you do so, let's understand. So first of all, the seven tunes are bluffing things on that people commonly used for quality control and troubleshooting partners. So basically, what happens? Any data that you gather, you look at the data in a graphical form and that makes you understand the potential causes on, you know, break down to the root, causes off the problems and then identify this solutions for already controlled exporting heavily over seven of basic foods to find your processes as a part of or all quality assurance effort. So there are many organizations where there are teams such as business. Excellent, Steve, Our process accidents t on. There is a culture that is living for activist group. So seven quality tools player crucial rule. Who these kind of an environment. Where is the organizations are continuously striving to give better and better out better, so this will be a custom. Seven institutions can be applied across any industry starting from product development based in the village, so it is not limited to a particular type of industry. Anybody who has the knowledge off seven apology tools can use that knowledge in any type of Windows. 7 40 tools are used in various types of projects. So maybe a lean project or D C. A project or maybe a six Sigma product. So all these tools are abdicated on, can be used for any type of they're easy to use and can be implemented by anyone who has the basic understanding. Statistics on that is the reason we covered the basics off statistics in the initial pays off this corpse on. If you know how to use the seven basic quality tools, they'll give you a big help in solving problems you face at work on a daily news is because , as Professor Ishikawa has said, anybody who has the knowledge off the seven quality tools will be able to sort 90% off the problems associated with quality at this, So let us understand the benefits off. Seven quality news. In short, it helped you in collecting the leader. So when I'm talking the modern data, it is the data that you use for analysis for identifying the potential causes on. Then identify that root causes of your problems analyzing the reader. So once it's collected, the greater the foods also help you so graphically. Look at the data closely. Understand what is going Go on then, Based upon your analysis, you identify solutions are probable causes and then you bigger plan of action, according identify, move causes. So, as I said did these tools will help you identify potential causes on. Then maybe after using multiple booms during the course off your project, you will be able to drill down to who causes off the problem. So once you identify the root cause is very easy to go ahead and implement change on, bring them. Bring about drastic improvement in your process. For those major, the normally the stools help you identify the causes, help you in going ahead on preparing solutions. For once it's implemented the solution. The rules also help you to go ahead, and my journalism. So whatever solution you have implemented isn't working, is it? Not working is something that will be able to identify using on. As you can see, the tools are related. Numerical data poses, so everything is numbers. It requires some sort of numerical data on these girls, then will help you identify what is going on in your process or other potential causes. One of the root causes for could beat up probable solutions for your issues, and then in the end, it will also do you understand what other measures are, how you get go ahead and make your processes, so to summarize what we just don't in this topic. The seven basic wall if you do it or 75 are tools which are age problem areas. Therefore daytime diagrams. They service the problem areas and then they clearly burned up. Bring up the hidden truth. These tools are not for exports alone, but for the use off. Everyone in the available a problem solving teams success, but we only depend upon the familiarity on the east that which they know how who used. So with that, we cover the basics off the seven quality dudes. Andi, Now let us start by understanding each do one by one 10. Flowchart: Hey, welcome back. So let's start with upwards Quality group, which is look. So what exactly is approaching more dark? Is a pictorial re presentation showing all of the sex off Ross's. So, in other words, off for charges is a diagram that showed us step by step through off operations to get a solution off the artifical. That correct sequence off the losses. A slow jog is used in designing on documenting complex programs. It helps visualize what is going on on what will be process, and people will better understand that causes. So what do I mean by that? So let's a new employee joins your company. Andi. He needs to understand a particular process in which he needs to work. So rather than explaining that person the steps in wall in the entire process, it is very easy to draw a diagram and let the forces bulls who the dragon understand the bosses and then asked if that I need a living questions sure healthy, better understanding or all the sub clauses involved with a huge complex. What are the elements off? How do you design? So we're designing the LoJack. Use certain pictorial elements on every liver has a signature. Some of this understanding one book. So if it all within your process that is opposes there, then that is a resident by a next time. Then comes the nor direction. So a floor direction line or adul re presidents and which direction your courses moves. So let's say for an example, you produce a particle a part of, and then you have to sell it through a work station, which is located in another part. Then, in that case, the flow direction. By be sure how that particular product off the supper order is moving within the department , that is, that uses Adam. Then comes a diver, which is our decision, boss. There are times in your process, but in the decision is either yes or no. So let's see if it all there is a you let which produces bottle. And during the backing stage off the bus, it has to go through the veil over quality. So if it passes the quality, check that it is five. After your experience, the 40 check, then you reject that articulable. That is the guy you bigger decision on. And that is that you these time this particular diagram you would be We're going in by really that finds that is, believe your forces. The process has to be because maybe has to receive some input from some other self forces. And that is the kind of process that particular time within your process is all yourself poses all feeds and evidence. Sometimes when we're drawing off LoJack, the flow chart runs a multiple peas. So if you need to panic something on a big one Oh, Assad crosses on page do that is the time began. Use this off a bit. Reckless input and output within your closes, especially in the manufacturing unit you give us our daily input on you did. I would certainly how these inputs and outputs are sure using this parallelogram order. Wrong. Then we have this particular diagram which represents a document so well in your courses. If there is some kind of documentation inboard, it is a presented by this. And these are organised symbols for start stop. The stock is basically even. Your boxes start and stop is very reports and comes here. But these are the elements. Before Bujar, there are many more. But these other most commonly used. Let us understand. First of all, what other steps in border. So there's a feeling of your drawing. Upload, John, you bust developer general process. Okay, so you just generalize and you make an overview off how the process waas on moves, then step through the process by delivering those who perform it as they do the work. And in these cases, the best people getting that artist subject Michael Export because they know exactly how into nd opposes all just supporting. So then you can go ahead on point your blue based upon the inputs that you receive from the subject matter, experts order any other exports within that particular department who can give you the information around the bosses on this supposes is evil. Did the mind bitch steps add value to the processes and which don't No one will mean by that. So if you're off of any human process and in the world of quality, you will see that little value. What do you mean by long pauses. Any causes for which your customer is not willing to pay you any additional money are any step which does not transform your right. This considered to be a non value I sup, bro. So basically what happens is you been and immunities don't value added processes. No, it is not possible on the time because someone by direct offices are the choir after the business. But there are many a times there is a possibility off. People really normally wear it step and thereby improving the efficiency off forces. And that is that with your idea, then reviewed the horses, not with employees. They need a genius, and I just went through the process. Then it. Once you've designed the pulses, let's go back to the export. Once again, let's go back to the scene once again, show them, then God and then may any last minute modifications. So there are possibilities that you might have this held something very critical within your flow on At that last minute, you can go ahead and he goes. And now let's move and I understand a small forces that we have used approach are, and then we have identified known value right step and make better bosses. So let us look at this example Now my customer needs snapper, please. It's a very simple forces added animals quite steps. Pick up the paper, walk to the state step of the people, walk to the list and then. But every step within this room takes a certain amount of time. So let's say picking up the paper takes one second on the distance. Travelled is deal. Walk with the same. So let's take the step left is kept every 20 feet away from you, actually, so the time taken to travel for the stellar is 25 seconds is the time for giving that distance. Then you staple the paper, which takes seconds that you walk with the best. Again. Again. It takes five seconds on. You have to travel the same business again because you and then you put down the paper, which leaves another once. So the older dying that is a bad bosses. Steak is 14 seconds on the distance you travel. Doing this time is, but then what is the value? Our time In this entire process, the value at time is worthy. Why? Because the customer is not interested, How long you have to travel, we'll pick up the state of and staple the fees. He's only interested in getting the biggest paper on these stairs. Said one picking up the paper. What do you? Steve, live on the paper and then putting down the paper. These are the whole need. Value our steps within the process. Walking through the step alert and then coming back to the test is not what the customer is willing to be. Okay, so the value I did fine. What I thought is this sport circuits the white Force against, but 14 seconds. The value added time is only 28%. And if you're observed in the real world in the piece off quality, you will see that most of the work much, much below their efficiency. Because of that, I Okay, so there isn't a traveling now that doesn't get that updated. Customer needs stay. Privileges I reviewed the by state is to be seen. How did anything that he got the people stable the vehicle and without I'm taking one second in seconds, people the baby book. And once I do dogs Corbyn distance, you don't be total time or something. Which means the entire duration off my father's is a value. How did I manage to achieve it? You move the stapler on kept it on the desk that people be so slow. Jazz basically help you identify novel extents with your process. They help you understand the bosses and then dig them. But let us understand the benefits off schematic, drawing off the bosses major. But basically you can see all the sub bosses is rewarded within a forces on how they move within your bosses. Step by step, identify processing. Remember opportunities just like we saw in the previous example. When you draw up motor, you would identify certain steps which are unnecessarily added within your book. Then you can maybe brain stone on. Then take whether you can actually eliminate some of the bottles, make your processes more efficient, chose to begin efforts and other non value I did. It will also show you, if certain, some processes are refuted within your and bad forces. Andi. In fact, there is no need to do because at the end of the day it is not your brother and not is it adding any value what those so that no child will actually has. I didn't need dedicated effort at the same time. Have you eliminate any non value added steps within your target specific step in the bosses or the really have your entire floor Jack and then Vince, either en tired Fortis on the sub forces involved. You can easily point out uncertain political processes are certain critical sub processes. And then, rather than putting, your effort is improving the entire process. You can just concentrate on one or two sub processes because very critical on probably just walking on these one or two sir processes will bring about a considerable improvement in your entire. It helps in creating as a slow What do I mean by that, as his map is how your process is working, cutting. Want to observe your process? Once you've identified the duplicated on the non value added set, you can go ahead on design up to the man that is a future stigma, and a futuristic map is designed to a slew. Increase the efficiency off your crosses. So basically, what a judge does this give you over your off our office and to understand all the sub processes involved? Have you identified any known value added seven with your bosses and to identify and then eliminate? He's known value added forces and then finally l do in designing the few German off your So that's about the forced quality. All of the seven Jack. Now let us move ahead. And I'm just how we can design approach are using Microsoft Excel. 11. Flowchart Using MS Excel : Hey, welcome back. So in this particular lecture, we will understand how we designed for charge using Microsoft so that once again, we will open our for cheap on in the resource she. If you go to the index, you will observe that I have to write it two pages, So let's click on the 1st 1 It is not more taxing. What if you want more toxic? Busy with that, I have to live in a nice laundry lists off. All the different elements that can be used in a flow chart on the most commonly used ones are highlighted in this, so you can go ahead and read more about them on use it in your project as in value. And then I have also provided an example over. So I have taken a small scenario over here. But in Let's say you want to go for a movie, but the movie ticket s if you dollars. So, of course, you will be able to go for the movie if you have a few dollars more. But then let's say if you don't have a few dollars, then you have another option off going for the service because the service ticket is only ready on. If you do not even have $25 with you, then you have no other option. But you, Steve. I full So this is a very simple example of approach Are that I have picked up by cleanness . Learn how to draw a flow chart together because that will give us a better inside your design. More complex. So what I've done is I have read this and our scenario on a blank exist. And now let us start and construct a new doctor. Get so Microsoft Exit provides us a wonderful collection off LoJack limits in that shapes option under the insert tab. Okay, so if you click on, insert that and you go to this option. Cheers. And click on this, Adam, it is pointing downwards. You see that there is a collection off motor elements under this section called on. You can make use all these elements or designing your clothes using my So let us start constructing the flow chart using these elements. So as for our scenario, lettuce plus stock people. Okay, so I really use the dominator stuff. Okay? Just the closest, then my next step is to call the money that I don't think the money is a loss. So what do we use for the process? The user rec time. And that is what we're gonna use a work. So let us go to insert both ships and let this highlight that if you get even a highlight a rectangle, it does. What are you using for? And I would say donde that's once again allowing this. Okay. And now ever connect the boxes because after starting, my next step is counting the one. So how do I do that? I would be, sir, what shares? Selector arrow and why I'm using an adult Because I don't see it over a year. But if you remember Billy, get a lecture on flow chart. You showed that adults is something that you use us connectors. Okay, so this is actually connecting my process to get So now let us move it. So, after counting the money, I need to make good decisions. But I'm going for a movie or angry. But how will I decided that it would all depend upon that one off money that so for that, I really once again people in concert with ships. On this time I've been selective decision y importante selected decision box because the decision of going for a movie or a surface depends upon the amount of money that Okay, So what is the condition for? Is money greater than or equal to? Yeah. I was once again aligned Everything Is money greater than or equal to 50? Let's say yes. Okay, I have the money on, but I can't. So then becomes my answer is yes. Okay. And I use that. I think this bosses and then I haven't said if my money is greater than one more. Yes, Go. What happens after going for the movie? The bosses end over and I didn't stop. Okay? And I will connect this false my lego that we're ready, sir. Bullshit. On this time I've been select this one elbow. Okay? No, But what happens if my money is not more than creepy? I have less money again. I need to make a lot of this is what is that again? Can I be going for the circus or maybe stable? We'll put that I need to confirm better have the money more and let's say yes. the money is more than what? Waiting for. Uh, okay. Okay. When you have a purpose of this in my arms, this decision boxes Yes. Long? Yes. And when am I going for the circus? If my money is less that used one more. I see I'm going for a second because I do not have money. And now what happens after I go for this? Of course. Make it stop. So I've been once again select on elbow and this process, Dr. Now the question is I don't have the money, even the word way. Locos sequel. So I got that process one way. I see. I use that. And when do I stay home? When I don't have the money. That and then once again, this process again going to my So I did. But this this year. Okay, So as you can see, I start my bosses. Then I found them on. This is a process. I use that this is a decision ball. I first find out if I have more than $50. If yes, I go for the movie on the process. If I don't have more than $50 I see if I have at least $25. If yes, Then I bought for the circus on dead The boxes stop if I don't even have $25 that I see evil. But this was a very simple example of how you got stuff off future. Using the element is Mike exit that for that knowledge, you will be able to design more complex future. But I would still recommend that whenever you're designing the set with a cross functional on Impossible have the subject matter experts off the videos processes sitting together so that you do not miss out on any critical. Some processes are critical steps with the up close. So I hope you enjoy this lecture on this is how you create off track using Microsoft's I would see you in the next picture. 12. Checksheet: it was about. So let us look at the second moon. All quality, which is junkie. So what exactly that J. Jack shit is something that looked like this. What you see on your screen? Okay, you go into the details of it. But first, let's understand what is But Jack, she lets you for a form you can use to collect on, then later analyze. But it's difficult created at the location. But the disguise suggests at the end of a production line, what do I mean by that? So that they have up for auction. Nine manufactures. A certain that's it. Bubbles I There is a quality check bosses that happens at the end of the on and the quality Jack shoot has several checkpoints. So that said, there are 10 factors that needs to be checked before you off. Do better. A particular ball is okay, be back and ship. All right. It is not so. Let's say you have Bill objection. With 10 points on, let's say you're but pains on any one of them. You can then make a decision off, maybe rejecting the okay. That was of any group example. We'll move on. It and we'll understand that. The very purpose of a check this is to this down the important checkpoints off for my and people are getting marking the status on the operations which helped in understanding the progress, defects, pipers and even causes off. So what do I mean by that? The legs move it. Let's look at What is that? That so what you see on yesterday is a example off Objection on This is a believe in your resource. Fight on this has been designed using my exit. So then ticketed. This is a technique for every city corporation on. That is an inspector with the name of Mr And He has the blue at inspection off the production floor. We'll find this on a sick other. The other. So what does he do on the production floor? He checks if that I need those rules. Is there a dart in sensor? Did that some kind of a gabbed effectivity of the machine eighties? Are there any new spots we can cause? Maybe office he has are at the horrendous he needs to j would be this the furniture in good condition. How did the average, which probably would mean, what is the temperature of the room? Or maybe the easy off the settings customers are walking on? They probably used a group in machine. On comes So Mrs Smith also has to go at the security desk. He needs to check the security alarm and a fire extinguisher and from Wonder, decided, Yes, this is. And every day when he box up the barges law for this with the security desk. How many defects have me off, though? So let's say this is Day one. That's a view was to be a Monday, so he bought it through school on the there Waas, Gordon's and certainly one of the missionaries there was have defected missionaries. New spots were hanging off on two occasions. Then he walked up to the front desk and you fall. The cleanliness was not up to the mark on five data points. Furniture was not in good condition, off six locations or six instances, and Richard was not optimal. One of the rules, Cooper Machine, maybe had 70. Or he might have, although that although maybe 15 machine seven was not working security alarms, maybe he tried the alarms when he times and other with big stain. Allow the not gift the fight fire extinguishers. Maybe there are 55 extinguishes Reputed are different locations and out of it five not up to the month. So he makes these but patients within this on. Then he does it as a really job. What happens is at the end of the week, one calculates how many possible defects but off. So within the organization at the front desk that sick people we can go further analysis on this. And then maybe we can identify which are the most critical things that one focus apart on. Then walk upon the so basically what it takes. People do this. It is a kind of project, Alice, which may be an inspector. Are any person like an auditor or somebody who has to do a daily inspection off some of the things that in an organization you getting this cheap human go ahead on, go to the laundry list off the gentlest and then even know down the defects are the not working instances back He I didn t place within Okay, that is about she. No, that is Understand what other benefits off? Because the Jackie has been collecting data in a systematic and organized manner. That's what we saw in the Excel example. It had to get my source of So in our example at the end of the week Biggest dick, the entire list off all the defense ever observed with the baby. And then maybe we can run operator analysis, identifies done. Both. We can be back at you to facilitate classification off, you know, stratification. So basically, in our keys we have a couple of fourty pencil, we have the data poor front test and then we have read of what? So that would be certain political elements that certain things, because they can have Security Junction, are certain things that could be picking up like this. So it will help you. Actually, it's classifying your defect and then going ahead and based upon the classification, focus on that fuels. The results are analysed for Virginia development off the sea in sports and other. So based upon the findings, you can go ahead on try to reduce these defects, come up with certain solutions so that these defects do not local and thereby create a kind of an environment, very the processes that constantly improving. So what you're doing is you're maintaining the text, you and your ensuring that the defect rate is going down or up you go. So that's about the second quality to check. She I hope you enjoy this lecture on. I will see you in the face. 13. The Cause and Effect Diagram: Hey, welcome back. Now let us move. Works a very important topic India already would. On that is because anything diagram which is one of the seven quality. Now this particular tool can be used in any type of projects, but that it is a D back project of UDC, a project lean project, because cause and effect diagram helps us in identifying potential causes and then helps us getting down to the group. So let us understand. First of all, what is that cause and effect? So a causal effect diagram looks something like this. We will go more into the details of it as we progress through the course. So she covered, I grab. It is also called a fish bowl Dajka, and it is called so because it looks like a child drawing over fish, it is also called Is that cause and effect diarrhea? Because it is a visualization to park at crazy potential causes of the problems in order to identify it. So what? It does it. It helps us identify potential cause not once have identified the potential causes. Gradually, we can move on towards the root causes. Okay, so it helps us in identifying protection causes OKLA Rob and the major poppers off this diagram is to act as a first step in problem solving by creating a list off for danger cause So if you are so it is talking constantly about potential cause. So it may mean not leader I difficult because Dick Arabia for 10 Children, girls And then, as I said, you rent out of the group course and then work upon. So basically, this is how she covered I got a fish bone diagram lose. So if you look at this, it is the head of the fresh. This is Cordes, the KP, or we are the main problem. Very calling KP over is because the performers he process are full of very able. I'm something that you see in the blue. It is also part of the primary causes. Sometimes they even call it a baby. Ivy villages Key process in Port Ovadia. When you're drawing Belichick our diagram most of the time you will off The people use either a six Emma cardiology, a 60 methodology or a forest. Now what is this six m 64. So basically what happens is the primary causes off of main problems are usually categorised. Do six n Because maybe man machine I heard about the nature arterial measurement on manpower. This could be the primary causes are the primary causes. Could be people process policy plan programs, brothers. And then there is another methodology. Very people categorize the primary causes and do forest this around the supply. It systems and skills, and it is not medically that used all of them. You can use anyone off them on. Let's say, if I'm using the 67 methodology, it is also our finery that I use all those six. I can maybe just categorize and say that. Okay, my primary causes fall. Julian do forgetting that machines met her measurement and manhole. So depending upon the type of situation on the kind of project that I'm talking about, I can select my primary causes. I'll go. He's so let's move ahead. And let's understand what are the steps involved in creating a cause and effect time. So, first of all, with your drawing or the effect diagram, it's very important that you agree on a topic. So what is the topic that you're trying to draw? The This won't die for that would specific, problematic outcome with the far right edge off the diagram on draw a box around X to contact the fish. So the head of the fish will basically leader main problems for which you are trying to identify them or danger causes. Draw a line extending from the left off the fisher who don't like it off the diagram. This represents this pile of the fish. Now start writing down the potential causes off the problem and then start grouping them based upon common relationship. So what we saw in the earlier off light the six and methodology the 60 methodology or afford this bacteriology. You can use any methodology that suits named the major teams off each group. Okay, so again, you can go ahead on give the name for every primary cause, not draw a line extending from the spy but Eesti right category name at the outermost end off the life it is once again the same thing, like drawing a line. And then I don't defined the potential causes on dead going ahead on naming them as a family because throw one branch to the main fish bowl. But its appeal or supposes that this is something that we will see in the next example. Continue the seven step to drill down into as much detail as required, and you're you're defining more bones on leading relationship. So after the primary cause is, the next step that you need to do is identify the secondary causes, then the for charity causes and then finally reach the root cause of the problem. If all this sounds a little confusing right now, do not worry. In the next life, when we see the example, things will become much more here. And then Indian reviewed the diagram for Confucius and clarity and then mortified a boarding. So what? Reviewing purpose again, you need 30 and it is always advisable that whenever you're growing up fish bone diagram, you have a boss spontaneity because even while you're drawing the fish bone diagram, there is a lot of brain stopping that will be involved on. If you have a cross functional being, it is very easy because you get input from all the different spheres of the organization and all the people who are involved in that particular courses. So you're Ishikawa diagram or the process off drawing music. Our diagram becomes very easy, Okay? And it becomes very easy to identify them mean root causes rather than just running around in all the possible direction. You can't just focus upon a particular primary called then down to the second because come down to the root causes and then start working about an actual plan quality, for it's advisable that you work with a cross functional. Now let us look at it. Example over cause and effect, Tiger. So this is the head off the fish bone diagram on what is the problem that I'm Casey. It is customer dissatisfaction on glory tainment, which means my customers are not happy with my product and they're leaving my company on boy were another competently. So I start doing it analysis as to why this is so if you're robbed up. This is thus fine of the wish. And then I create branches. A party okay on then I categorize my primary causes and do procedures, technology policies, communication management and people. Then what? I do this under policies. I identify that there's other secondary causes for Let's say there is an external policy and then there isn't internal points. So these to the sub branches off my primary cause bees will for my secondary brunch. Okay, so he's been for my secondary cause now the sub branches off the secondary cause these are called as my shitty causes. Okay, So policy becomes my primary cause at internal policy, which is a sub branch off the primary. Cause becomes my second because and then that sub branch off the second any course, which is maybe low Bora. Okay, So what is exactly happening is there is a policy in the company on it is an internal policy on because off this particular internal policy, there is a no moral between my employees, which is maybe affecting the finding product or the quality of my Final Four. And that is the reason my customers are happy with the kind of part of that time refusing. That would be another reason for that. Maybe once you start brainstorming, you may identify that because of the low moral people are not coming to work because of which may be of productivity is getting in. Your productivity is getting impacted. That is a possibility that you're not able to leave your customers demands on things are getting dealing, and that is what is creating this. So if you use this methodology on, start moving right from the head of the fish so the primary causes, then the secondary causes tend to the church because is and then linked out doing the brainstorming and identify the root causes you will be able to solve 95% of the problems that you feel is in the were low quality in your particular process, in particular brought up by OK, so use this methodology with that grass functionality. Try to get as many imports as possible on then build a strong Ishikawa diagram and try to reach the root cause of the Let us understand the benefits off the Ishikawa tiger. The first of all, it breaks the problem down into bite sized pieces. Yes, because rather than looking at the problem as a whole, will you start and played down your problem into smaller pieces? You will be able to focus better, and then you will be able to do a better dissection off your problem. To reach the actual waas off your video quality fosters teamwork upwards because it's a brainstorming exercise whether it is at the beginning, off blowing. They should cover diagram or maybe were. The end of the process is, yes, pasta symbol. Because people come together, the share ideas and based upon these ideas, get into the process off creating the fresh food as then in the end, you once again review it and then try to use the who causes and the solutions for your common understanding off factors causing the block. Yes, because once you identify the root cause and the entirety agrees. But yes, this is the because that is causing the majority of the problem that you would meet reach up Roman candle senses. Okay, a common understanding and then the entirety works to get an insolvent that for normal very Find a picture. Yes, because when you look at a fish bone diagram, you look at all the primary causes off the issue that your piece So it is a kind of road map that tells you okay, how your process is moving. What are the potential causes within Europe? Are you getting your process that is creating a problem? So basically because a roadmap and followed brainstorming relationship, what we said earlier brainstorming happens at the beginning off the designing forces. It happens at the end of the designing process, so it encourages rainstorm me on sharing off ideas. So this is how cause and effect diagram works in the next exercise did learn how to create a cause and effect I can using Microsoft's exit. 14. Cause and Effect Diagram using MS Excel: Hey, welcome back. Now that is understand? How do we draw a God in effect? Diagram using Microsoft exit So you can open that it's or she on, and you can click on this option causing. Once you click on it, you will find that I have provided you with ready made template on you can always go ahead and edit anything within this template. Maybe you can change. It could meant maybe a book on at the same time, you can add any contact that you want for the secondary causes as the less you can always go ahead and more content. So you can just control copy and then these And then keep on updating your cause and effect , Dider. But I'm gonna show you a very convenient way off doing it on for that. We use a tool, Eliza. Sick moment. So if you off my screen, you will see that you I have Ah, that just six months. Nothing. My medic is a new images of a living on the Internet, so we can just go do in the next, go to Google and I my magic, and then select this option Sick. My magic. You use X Elvis, another system. Once we click on that, this page will open. Okay? And all you We have this option down low so we can look on this. And once we click on that bird download, bosses will stop Once you have downloaded this too, you can this double click on the icon on the software. Install Yosses once it is in store automatically within accent. You will see this additional tab, which is sick. My much just in case you don't see it over there. In that case, what you can do is once Sigma Magic is installed on your computer, would you fight? Click on options. There we go. Andi Under added you of it. Please accept Adan's gumbo. I'm all year. You will see this option Stigma Magic I This will check mark on it. Okay, so in my computer, since it is already in full, you can see the Czech model of it. Just gives your system. It is not installed. You can just go ahead and put up Jack month. We're going OK on this, but then appear so once the Sigma Magic tab is available in your accent, it's very easy to brother, causing a big day. So all you have to do is look on sick. Magmatic, go to this option, Roger. And under project, you will see this option, which is cause and effect. Let's double. Once a double click on it, you will see that a ready made them play will appear on your three. Okay? And it has really added certain primary bosses, like person met with men, environment measurement material. And they're all anything, just in case you were not born equipment. You can just go ahead on click on updating book on inside off person. I need Okay. And as you can see, the shooters a beauty, not just in case. I want to add some more secondary causes. This. Then we go on of big inputs. And then people this option click here to open cause and effect diagram. We got this. And once you click on this, you will see that many of our open. So now, since I want to add an additional secondary calls, I will click on this Adam. And as you can see, the adult has. And now I want to add another potential secondary cause every double click on it and you can see that secondary potential. You can also add a likely cause nightly causes something that you're not sure. You just feel that it could be one of the positive causes. And then you can also add some uncontrollable goes. Uncontrollable causes are generally because it can be on your country. You can't do much about it within the losses. So based upon the brainstorming session, you can then go ahead on off your cause and effect diving. So every time you want toe update the inputs, you can look on a 1,000,000,000 puts. I make required changes that you want to make. If you want to add a public statement that they customer satisfaction, click on OK and you will see that your problem statement has also so you can make use off the stool on create your cause and effect based upon your boat. Lucy's with Onda Autumn a PR well, stormy. I hope you like this lecture and I will see you in the next 15. Histogram: Hey, welcome back. Now that is this us Another important room out of the 7 40 I. This one is called up His history. Graham is something that is most commonly used. We show frequency. What do I mean by a frequency distribution frequency distribution shows how open each different value in a set off data offers. So let us understand What exactly with this program? Why do you construct their How do you construct? And then what are the benefits of? So his program is something that looks like this more of later. Bardo. But it has certain differences. Let's not get into the differences off that as of now, just let's focus on what exactly the Disturbia and what is that? Globalism. So this program is a graph that shows how open of value other dangers of an offer. With enough given time and history, Graham provides a visual. Somebody off larger comes off immediately on call Pearson Waas, The one who introduced a history was that the very populous off instagram is to study there , then city off data in any given distribution and then understand the factors or data that refute boil. Let us understand this with that exact. So let's see. I'm a company on and I will launch a part of a deal. And before I launch the product into the market, I just want to know what is the average price off this particular product in the market, which is quoted by my competitors. So I send my market executive into the market and asked him to find out. What are my competitors? Go today for this particular product into the So he goes on the collects a sample size over 100 data points and then he gives me this for less sheet. Now what do I understand out of us? Absolutely nothing. So what I need to do is I need to arrange this data in a format wherein it gives me some kind off the other stick information on which I can work than big action. So what way I create up this now? What I have done is I have created a instagram off the data that my marketing executive has provided no one. You see all your at the bottom. There's something that we call as a bins. If I go back the way TV issue, you will see that my price actually starts somewhere around 50. And those maximum up to 210. So what history Graham is doing is it has divided this and tired settle Buta into my people Benz. So it has divided is that I do a different things and every been size has a size off 20. So if you look at the border, this particular frequency this for range between 50 to 70 between. My competitors were putting the price for the part of between $50 to $70 the frequency of that 14 and so on it. So So what we understand out of the data is that a majority off my competitors are charging around $110.250 dollars for this party, followed by 150 to 171 171 100 light. So this gives me a kind of an indication as to to survive the competition on you stay in the market. What is the price range that I should be focusing on? And what is the price that I should be quoting for my front? So basically what the hist O gram it has done, or you is this entire cheap of data it has arranged in the form of bins and then for every bill in showing us the frequency. And based upon that, we can go ahead and make some decisions. So this is how history promise that now that is, understand, what are the benefits office? The benefits starts, but understanding at a glance no variation that exists enough crosses. So if I go back to this site this particular information, I cannot understand what is the radiation that I see over you? But when I look at this diagram, I can very well understand that What is the variation that is happening over here? Which means that is, ah, big frequency off. People who are putting a price between but very few companies does are putting a price between 192 100. I can go ahead and do for that analysis off the seals and getting data and based upon which I can maybe draw a conclusion as to what should be my high street. What should be my pocket, the shape of the Mr Graham fish your boss's behavior. So it's certain processes If that is a huge mediation, that is also so that's it. I have a company that wants in three different ships, and I also know that in the morning the productivity is very high. Part of the night. My part of the body is very new. So a lot of history between give me an indication off the variation that exists shift wise and then my further analysis off, what exactly is happening in every ship will give me appear an indication in terms of the action that I need to go. But I think often it will tell you to take the purple otherwise unseeing possible variation . Because this diagram will only show you the illusion, you'll have to do off further analysis to understand that causes obvious mediation. So this program is the force that it will just show you the video, and then your next step starts very dig people to find out what other causes off these mediations. The shape and size of this question will help identify otherwise, you don't stop. So as we mentioned earlier, the more the variation, the deeper you will have to dig into the data to identify what exactly is because it it is used to determine the capability of the forces and tell you guys normally distribute. So every process has some kind of upper specification living on a lower specifications. So let's say, if I'm manufacturing a pensive on the hike off, my pencil is maybe, let's say, 30 70 victors. And the variation that can talker in the height of defensive is maybe just one sentimental , so my pencil size can be 2900 meters or 31 cents. Anything beyond this will be considered as out off capability or out of specification livers. So when you draw his toga, history helps you identify whether out what you're producing is within the specification limits for North. Not only get his programs and you know which process needs improvement, they can also help you track that. Who, How? Because let's say I draw on this program. I identify variation. Then I dig deeper. I find out the causes off these variation. I am living Servin's actions on changes, but then, after implementing these actions, I would widen divide. If the variation has reviews, how will identify that I've drawn this diagram once again, and then that this portion will give me a clear indication in those but that my variation has reduced in police. Or is it still see a process that has too much radiation to meet specifications? No matter how it is center action must be taken to reduce radiation that so many a times human observed that the process is centered very well. So you know your your average or you're mean is at the center, but you can see that it is a huge mediation that you observed in the output. So let's say if I manufacturing off themselves under I dropped the pencil, should be present. So my average is the recently videos. But then I observed that one pences that manufacturing is maybe 25 centimeters, and the other one that I manufactured is 35. But there is a huge variation off the variation of approximately 10 units. Mr. Graham will help you identify the amount of variation within your process and then give you a kind over road map. Internal Look what action should be taken to. Go ahead and improvise your process and make it more gay people. So that's about this telegram. Now, in the next lecture, we will understand how exactly? Go ahead I'm designing history using my You're so, except 16. Histogram using MS Excel: Hey, welcome back. So let us understand how we design off Instagram using Microsoft Excel. So in our explanation off his problem, we took an example. Very. I wanted to decide the price off my partner based upon the competition in the book. And I had sent a marketing executive in the market who picked up 100 price points and provided me with the and then I converted that *** into a meaningful this program, you understand up Frequency District. So now let's try to achieve that. Using Microsoft takes. So this is the data that my marketing exhibited has? Well, I didn't on based upon which I designed this this still so let us know. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to select this body, copy this data onto another like it on with this data are selected. Let's click on the option insert and then go do go olive bar charts, click on it and then sell adoption. More columns once. If you go on more column charts good old out and you will see this option is stolen. So let's select his daughter and then click on. So, as you can see, Microsoft Excel has created his story for us, consisting of five different bits. The office have an option off mortifying turbines. As for our So how did we do that? So let's say instead, off 50 to 83 I need my been size to be. So whatever you do this, I will just, like, click on this data photo for my data series and under former Nazis, I will select this option. It's a steam diesel, and with this option highlighted, I go to see these options. You got this down at all and then select what is on once. If you go on a horizontal axis, you even see this option, which is been currently my been burgers. Let me just change that and then close this. As you can see immediately, Microsoft Excel has fortified the size of lesbians emission. The number of bills that we fight have now changed, but the lowest starting from 50 to 70 and my last bill, anything at one time, you do each having the will to win. Now that is good job delivers and then remove these brake lights. I get a lease. Once in our data labels, you can see the frequency your each and every day. And what we saw in our example is that the price range off 100 A 230 as the maximum people's. And that is the same thing that is really lifted in this his dog. Just to beautify this, she would just select this year. Both of you on removed the brilliance. Then I can just go with Jack elements. Andi select. Shocked, cited. And then just give this jarred, Uh, this is price against it. This is a crisis, and I give up, tighten my history. If I want, I get they just add aboard it support that I select this entire ground right Click on it. Do outline and then select Black has that color. Once again you go out like but you hate And then today do another one. I'm just increasing the birth of this. Okay, on my stove around this. So that was easy. Easy, easy. So this is how you create off hist o gram based upon the data Believers, I'm I hope you like this lecture. I didn't see you in the next 17. Scatter Diagram : Hey, welcome back. Now that this move through scattered idea It is again, one of the 7 42 So a scatter diagram is basically a graph numerical. Andi, it has eight. Sex is I don't know why this is and the data on the X axis disorders the independent video . But as it down thereby excesses defended. Why so? Because as the value of exchanges the body off whiting this about because there is some kind of relation between that. So lettuce startle and let us on this time, what is a scatter diagram? Very use it. And how do you punch? But this is how much scattered I use because I think sex is and it has a wire X axis has been bigger valuables on the biases as dependent videos. Okay, let's understand what the definition get. A lot is a graph where numerical data why is said to be paired? Because that is date on the X axis on y axis, you float independent variables on the order on the X axis on the dependent variable Wonder were leaving you can then from trendline, study the relationship, be even look at this, but legally do the example. But as I know, let's understand that that is an independent variable on the X axis and there is a dependent variable under Wise. So to give you an example, let's say the hardness off, particularly metal changes Asperger changing dark temperature. So in this case, my temperature reported on the X axis because it will be an independent media. But based upon the temperature, why accessibility? That is the hardness of the metallurgy and therefore, why begun spite if I didn't let's move ahead. So the very purpose of a scatter diagram is to establish a relationship between problem. It is a full effect and causes that are affecting. So if we look at that same example, that is, the changes in temperature causes the hardness off the maker routine dead. A scatter diagram helps us to build an exact relationship based upon the train line, so it will give us a kind of numerical formula that will tell us as to how much variation in the hardness this cost. Because of the change, India even look at these examples as we move stronger, the correlation stronger. The relationship on that is again. Better mind, by the way, fishing top relationship between us and we look into the example. So this is how a scatter diagram what look usually so a scatter diagram which has a Are we reaching relationship as minus one? What does this mean? It means that as my cardio XT freezes my value off, why goes down? So if you have to look at that same example, we can see that as the temperature increases the hardness off the weapon you don't use and if you get the below example very the artist last one last one means a very strong off the relationship, which means that the hardness off the method increases as we decrease the temperature so we can see that there is a positive relationship because our exes and crazy and so is but when it is negative, are excellent trees. But why would what between uses. So this can ready between minus one. You last one. If it is not the minus site, we can say that there is a negative polish. It means survival. It's on decreasing, as are excellent in. And if the value off our this positive, then we can say that there is a positive solutions between as the value of X increases the value of why resist as and then there are times very that is absolutely no relationship. If you get this exactly So yeah, you really get are saying if that is any relationship between accent because our so we cannot really establish any relationship off so there can be upon the relationship they can . A negative relationship there can no relationship whatsoever. So a scatter plot is used to represent a core relationship between there are compact, a correlation positive on negative variables that are positively called looking, moving thus cm direction. In this case, X is increasing. And so is why this is that positive, foolish variables that are negatively going to move it off. Don't get this example on this exact that the X is increasing. But why is constant an artist border that we're efficient. So the value of our little minds the relationship is strong. You positive off strongly Negative. Okay. What? It is really positive or this week negative. Let us get this example. So you're you're making an example of it. A student studies sports circuit us before the exam. And then these are the marks that this woman has scored in the and now we want to understand if there is any kind of relationship between the number off our study on the marks pokey. So what we do is we start marking the odds of study on the excesses. Any Florida marks off the on the Y asses. And if you look at this diagram been care for me, we observe that the trend line this movie upwards on. It is a positive correlation. Why? Because it is very clear and evident in the Tiger. But as the number of Arthur increasing the marks off help also please. And then if you look at the or efficient off relations value, it is 0.86 because positive and therefore we can see that there is a very strong positive relationship between the number of our studies on the marks off pain so higher the number off hours study Iroda marks off. But this is a positive relationship now that doesn't look at another example. So what we have done over your is reported that temper General the execs is and we had taken that strength of number he's under violence is and what have you observing? Over here we have off the that as the temperature goes on, increasing the strength of the material gives going down. So other ex increases the value of wise on stinky for Lee. And then if we look at our coefficient of correlation, it's very evident that it's minus 017 night, which means that this is a negative go relation. Why? Because X is increasing on. Why is decreasing? So we can very clearly say on through that Okay, as the temperature increases, think of the Arcadia is Bigley's. So now let us understand the benefits of scattered Plus it helps identify and test probable cause. How? Because by why which is my dependent variable little people changing As for the independent media so I can establish a relationship. Okay, if I have a problem Onda se, This is the problem that increasing in my quality or maybe in the kind of process that I'm working and this is the probable cause for it. And then when I plotted on an X and y axis, I can establish a kind of relationship between I can see that Yes, because off So wenzel reason this output is joining some kind ofa variation so I can build a relationship between these two. Very if it's by knowing which element of your post is calculated on how they're related, you will know what to control on what very effective quality characteristics. So if you look at that example that and you know that, OK, if we keep on increasing the temperature, the partners or the company's off, the material boots down and we will do it to a certain level of toughness are hardness in that big number. You then based upon the relationship that people, you know that. Okay, this is the optimal temperature that we should make a day on that will give us the kind of hardness or the kind of toughness that we're looking out in that. But so what we can do is we can control our X on, based upon which we can get there, value up. Why? So that is about scatter diagram, and it is also one of the most important tools in the seven quality. In the next lecture, we will understand how we Lord scatter diagrams using my fellow Texan on very relationship between defective independent 18. Scatter Diagram Using MS Excel: Hey, welcome back. Now in this lecture even learn how to draw scattered. I come using fight Andi, if you look at the index. Okay? In your resource. She I have given you examples off Saturday. So the first example shows a positive relationship on the 2nd 1 Sousa. Negative correlation. Let's click on the first of all. So, as you can see, I have taken an example where I'm trying to go late. Better a number off hours that student studies doesn't have to do anything with the marks off. So is edible relationship between the hours off starting on the marks. And if you look at the diagram Oh, you're okay. The scatter plot. Even notice that, Yes, that is some relationship. And there is a positive relationship between the hours of study on the marks off, which means that when the number of hours are increasing, their number off marks called are also okay. And what you see over here is the media relationship. So it showed how your wife you genius as your ex value. So why is equal to 0.7355 x plus 18.569 Okay, so this the question will always give you the value off while with respect to the value of X. And if you look at our coefficient of correlation, you just point audiences. Which means that there is a strong positive correlation between duh new video. Now that is what what example? And all you We have taken an example off strength of materia. And if you are out of this graph, we know this that yes, as the temperature is freezing, the strength of the material is going now on. It can be clearly seen in the example as well, because why is equal to minus 1.163 x less won 31 point The minus sign year really says that. OK, there is a negative relationship between, which means the beverage. It pleases the state of the Medea, please. On if you are the the coefficient of correlation for your is minus 0.79762 which means there is a negative relationship between. So let us use Microsoft Excel on learn how do near these scheduled Like so, what I have done is what boobies diagrams. I have a clean the raw materials or do another case and she so let us. Let's create the graft. Number one. It is for the our studies with poor relations in the box. So what I need to do is I proposed select this entire data and then I go with this option in sword. I'm not in start. If we go to the job, me, you see that there is an option for inserts cattle exploit unpublished. Let's look on. And then you have something called a scattered politically gone standard that year. And if you love the scatter diagram is now appeared on the Now I need to see the life. That trend line will tell me whether there is some kind of a relationship, a linear relationship between the X and the Y court. So how do I do that? That's what job deliverance and then like, this option train, as you can see by train line, is going upwards, which means, as the X value is increasing, the value is also increasing. Now let us look at the equation. So how do I see the immigration between the X and the life orders? Let's right click on my life when I see this menu. On the right hand side, there is an option at the bottom. It says Display aggression of judge. Let's put a check mark. Okay. As you can see, the equation has appeared. There is no minus sign. The X starts with a positive van, which means the relationship is part. And then people call this option is this May I ask where you are? Okay. And as you can see, the R squared value has also. Now, if I want to get pregnant, the boy efficient off coordination. I just have to take those where you know that you privacy is equal square deedle point 74 Dougherty And then I get the coefficient. I can then just go ahead and select it, often give it commands, border okay, and might get office. So let's look at my drop. But it would be once again. So on the x axis, what have I reported? That's good. Charter limits gone excited. And on my x axis, I have lost our dog. And on my y axis, I have blotted this. Okay, on if you observe, the relationship is positive because as the hours off are increasing, the equation is also giving us a direction that this is a positive correlation. Andi, once we take the square root, although r squared value the value that you get this 0.6 between this is a strong was a good relationship between the hours of the months. Now let us move. What? Second example. So over you, we have the temperature on the strength of the money. Let's select this and I data once again before you insert. I love you. Select schedule. Okay, stature, diagram is not created. Now we need to go ahead and add a train. So as you can see, my trendline is moving downwards, which means this is a negative relationship. Let me confirm that with them equations, I'm going to right click on it, looking for my trendline. And then I see this regulation on job on on. So obviously asked where value you can see that the equation stocks with minus. But I mean, this is a negative. And therefore, when I take the square root off the r squared value Ivory Pekka negative five c minus squared. Oh, boy, 63 And that gives me a value of more. By this. Do you don't 0.7976 Okay, once again, give it a nice border. Okay? And, uh, Jack is ready now. We just need to add The active site is on the x axis. I have the on on my y axis. I have that straight. Okay, so this is an example. Offer negative correlation, because by values is decreasing as the X values, please. So as the temperature increases, the strength of the material for our immigration is also denoting back because it starts with the minus side on. Our coefficient of correlation is minus 0.79 Which means that this is a these strong negative. Cool. So this is about creating scatter diagrams using Microsoft. I hope you enjoy this lecture on. I will see you in the next. 19. Pareto Chart: Hey, welcome back. Now let's start off by understanding the six. You know what? If you get is but no, but it go. Charge is all support as a protective distribution right now on this basically off working in bars, Andi, values are slaughtered in decreasing order off letter frequency. So I left not what a charge are extremely useful for analyzing what problem needs attention . Plus, because that dollar box on the charge the T present the frequency really district Which variables have the greatest humility wonder given system. So our words, whatever other causes, we arranged them. You know, graphical form in the form of on the tallest Barbara is on the left, and then it moves on in the descending order. And Pareto chart also works on the principle that 80% of your results are produced because off 20% of the reason. It is also applicable in the real world that it is believed that 80% of the bed off the water is the 20% of the population. So let us understand what is a pretty good job on their. It applies in the world of quality. Have you constructed on what are the benefits of it. So what are jarred moved somewhat makes We will understand that on we will also don't help you. So first, let's understand the definition off supported chart named after Bill Federal Perrigo is a type of charge that contains both bars on buying drops. As you can see, that is a part of that. And then there is a line, bro. The individual values applauded in descending order by bars as humility Porter is represented by the line, but it charts are based on political principle or 80 20 with states that roughly 80% of the effects our cost back 20% of the problems, and it also helps us to understand the related important causes. So if there are too many reasons for a particular problem in the forces, then which are the ones we talked critical ones. But we need to put this all on rather than padilla apart in all the directions. If you focus only on these quite a few, it will bring about that change on improve the efficiency of your So let us look at this example. So this is a chart wherein I have collected data for my customer. Disservice! Knish. Andi, There are several reasons for my testimony being dissatisfied. So I have taken a sample. Andi, I have written down the frequency for every reason off the sides. So not giving the resolution contributes to 1 41 customers dissatisfied The wait time. The Nicola, maybe my customer care they have made in this and that country would stardom under than to customers be this communication body 28. My stuff was more fall. Victim 16 call back was north. I'm so you promised to call back to the customer. And he didn't know about the customer on time that wanted you 18 people being dissatisfied , my product quality or a tactic Father, What did you get it? Well, people being the satisfied and then there were billions. So between the probably yes and never wrong it warrants for judge them and director Mom and that one in five people be dissatisfied or were made for the traditional What company? So what I have done over you is I have been gone ahead and taken a humility frequency. So whatever dunaway you no resolution quarter goods to 1 41 but low resolution last wait for it to 240. How did I get this woman and party? I just added 1 40 but I'm 100 I got If I have to look at the cumulative frequency off no resolution. With time on communication barriers, I will have to add these leave albums. And that will wanted me to do 271. If I just go ahead and think that wasn't Asia on this. Is that accumulated? Then I also that measuring your might decide this Bush is because of that no resolution on wheat which partnered with 75% of my customers not being happy. So if I go ahead and lock up, but a booty given although that forever really gives me an indication that almost 80% off my problems are because of low resolution, I'm so if I want about these two elements together, I can solve majority off my because if you go back and look at this moment, you should envy 75% off. My customers are dissatisfied because so if I rather than focusing and putting my airport on all seven factors, even if I tried to fix these two even if I try to give my customers resolution here and they use the wait time by maybe employing more stuff are maybe putting an idea system in place. Or maybe you're designing some kind of trouble shooting mechanism that the customers can themselves Morgan to a website on, uh, big help of artificial intelligence and solve their problem on their own rather than waiting on you. So there can be multiple solutions that I can have a look. And only if I conquer these stories is 75% off. My problems will be sold, as that is the principle. Oh, what is it? You're focused only on 20% off the reasons which wanted to get people's in your problems rather than putting your effort on everything. So, yeah, if you are the no resolution and wait time, other vital few reasons which I said before this and go on, if I put all my effort including Bs to 80% off, my problems will be taken so that Esther and that principle of it it asks you to go ahead and put this under white and few Reeses for your probable causes. The benefits up buddy distinguishes between vital three important causes out of them. So if you look at this example, there were seven different causes but being the focus of the league for school because they wanted more than 75% of our problems. It tells you what the work. One off course. If I look at my diagram, I really know that I mean people this on the resolution force and then the big time. What is the point on if I start working on the billing error and maddening and it is hard to record the routing to like us the most Being dissatisfied 75% of my problems lies in the Boston reason. So my entire effort to be on improvising the 1st 2 reasons off the satisfaction it had superficial causes that whenever greatest impact. So if I saw the 1st 2 problems 75% off, my customers will be taken, girl. So it clearly do what you need to focus on force on. What is it that will give you the maximum all over with the minimum, so that is about to charge in the next lecture, even understand how exactly? Go ahead and design a RICO charge using Michael's off 20. Pareto Chart Using MS Excel: Hey, welcome back. So now let us quickly learn how to draw up a regular job using Michael's up. So for that, once again, we will go back bloodiest or few. Andi under Index, which likened, is option, but it on. As you can see, I have taken the example that we discussed in the lecture. I have customers were the satisfied with my product on myself. This and I went ahead and go sample over our 322 customers. And Austin, the reason for the of this size on my reason for dissatisfaction well, in these seven categories and these were the frequencies border see on based upon this particular information I created a what a good shot that gave me a clear indication that if I really want to prove myself is or the quality off my product, then resolution on big time are the two factors that really work. So now let us understand. How did we do that using Microsoft's exit. So what I've done is I have this GOP this on or data onto another blank exit. Okay, so first of all, what we do is even just some of the frequency so I haven't going ahead and using the formula equation some open bracket. It's like the rage. And then no. So I have taken over on 322 customers as my Sam. Now, let me calculate accumulated treatments. What do I mean by humility? Frequency. So how many customers like this side in spite? Doesn't know that. So the 140. But then I want to know how many customers are dissatisfied because off no resolution on great time. So for that I will go ahead on and use the bomb equality this value less. The number of customers were dissatisfied. You love me. Okay, So order The number of customers dissatisfied because of Beastie Reasons is 240. How did I get that? I just addict under 1 41 100. I'm too. I can just drag this. Okay, so I know that, OK, overall, if you look at the end off this series, my finding count is something 322. Which means if I'm looking at all the seven factors or are there are 322 customers. What? This science. Now I need to get rid of humiliated person. How will I do that? The humility percentage for no resolution is 1 41 Be right by my overall down. And Angela, please. This because my denominated is gonna remain common for all the seventies. So I'm with you, this four that pleases my you know, the end, and then drag this. You will know that the last rule, we'll have 100. Which means my calculation is it's allow that our data almost ready. Let us move ahead and the ADA, but a good job. So for that, what I would do is I would just select this entire data, and then I will goto, insert, click on insert column or by ground, and click on More Column. Once it got more quality jobs on the left hand side, you would see this option. Let's keep on it. And under his program called All Jobs, you would see this option. Just let's live on that option. And then So as you can see, the political chart is now clear. Now, how do we you can This so, as we say, doesn't potato. 80% off. Improvements can be born about if you put your airport One when peoples in the world. So what? I need to look in this particular So all your this lying re presents my cumulative frequent . Okay, that has these bar drop the present, the individual free quiz. What I need to do now is let's go ahead and look at this. 80% life, okay? And what we will do is even goto insert what a shame on like a light. And I will draw, uh, what is on the line? Starting from 80%. Okay. And moving off across. And then you rightly call this cumulative frequency lying. You will observe that you boys OK, so this one and this one. Okay, so this is for no resolution on this is part of it. These two lines fall below a deeper, okay, there is the other points. I evolved 80. So what potato is trying to tell me is if I focus on these two points, if I walk on my resolution with and if I work on my great time, I can drastically you through my faults. So rather than focusing on something as small as believe or maybe a defective border, I should be focusing more on brewing the resolution order Big time. I should be implementing methodologies and solution so that I give better resolution. And then my customers should not be waiting to receive their products or received up service. I need to work on these. Okay, So this is how you get up right now. What I do is I just give this Jack and I spiked it, okay? And then I would select this job and you with the nice born with this we have created up on . This is how you go ahead and get a great job using Microsoft's Excel. I hope you enjoy this lecture and I will see you in the next one. 21. Control Chart: Welcome back. Now let us get introduced to the 7th 2 off quality, which is the gun droid. So the primary purpose offer controlled charge is to read it expected on one of the benefits of it. Certain heretics. Whether the process is out of control and all those specification limits. It distinguishes the green specific, identifiable causes of evolution. And it can be used but statistical losses going. So let us get introduced to control charts and let us understand what exactly happened. Blowjob. How do you construct them on what are the benefits over control? That this is how exactly up front charge would look. We will understand how we construct them. But let's first understand that definition on what? What is it that the control jug tries to show us? So the country chart is also called a short because named after mortar. Sure on. It is basically a statistic contract, which helps so still data mining industrial process is the bill control and capable to meet the customer defined specification limits. So if you upload this graph very closely, this green line represents the average. The upper red dotted line represents the upper control limit on the lower Daughter 90 presents the lower control limits and this graph this photograph is actually trying this to us. Where exactly is that output line? Is it instead of slipping control is the process and started speaking country Are that outputs that we're getting out of this particular process are outside off specification live It's It helps us in differentiating common causes and special causes of aviation. So what happens is, let's say that is a process is you always know that the output of the process cannot always be constant. There will be some amount of radiation that is expected within A, and this type of variation is majorly because of a common cause. But let's say some other external factors reserved into the outcome completely going out of the specifications. Then you know that there is a special cause for that particular. So basically, of control charge will help you in identifying common cause as well as a special cause. And if there is a special cause identified your process, then you can go ahead and further investigate as to what is the reason for that, especially cause So there are different types of control jobs for different types of data. All control jobs will have a central line. Okay, so this green line average is nothing. But the central life on the central line usually presents the average or me. And then it has two parallel lines, one about the average on the other one below that happened and the other one is called the upper control limit. And then the lower one is corners of the world. And usually the distance between these two line is three Sigma three sigma from the central life for the upper Control. Liberty is last three Sigma, about the central line on the lower control. Liberty is minus three sigma below the central. Okay, so this is the center line. This is the upper control limit, which is last three. Sigma signifies nothing but standard deviation on. If you want to differ as to what exactly is standard deviation on? How do you calculate it? He's a report to the earlier part off this particular force. Very studied up, Bates. Extensive. And then we have the lower control limit, which is minus three sigma, which is nothing but finest three times Now before we proceed any further and learn as to how you construct up Android, there is something that you also need winds. That and that is continues as well as discrete data. So what I mean by discrete data. So if I go ask for the definition a random variable that can take certain values along it into it's called Aza This Gregory. So no, let's take an example. Guards crossing by a point. How many cards can pass through a home are through a particular area. You know, Given specified time, I can see maybe fight dead 50 so I can count these numbers. I can count the results off a point bulls because I know that can be two outcomes. You can be ahead or it can be a day. Anybody sauce the point. Five things I can always count how many times I received the head, how many times they received a deal on a student taking a glass. I know that in a classroom that can be five students, 10 students, maybe 100 students or 1 50 students, so, in other words, are random variables that can only big certain values, and it is counter you can count it. Then it is called as a discrete data that, as you could get, thank you use so of continuous random variables. There's something that can take anywhere you at any point of time along. And indeed so let's say if I have to see a big off ah, break. Or maybe I can say temperature off a room. Now these things can take an even on when I see any value, it could be 1 63.55 because he wanted to 3.552 it could be 1 19.23456 So the values that they can take this unlimited okay, because it can take anyone along that freedom. So basically, if you can count the number off time, something happens, then it is disagree, and continuous variables can be broken down into smaller and smaller parts. You can increase the decimals. You can see it's 10.1. You can see it's 10.11 or you can take the end 0.111 making them virtually impossible with God. So that is the difference between continues on this, please. Now, why did we learn? Continue time, discrete data? It's something that we will understand that didn't go into construction off dead religions . So basically, if you have to construct a fine approach, I you have to follow the flow that you see on your screen. So first of all, it's very important that you identify the type of data that you are going ahead and creating up control chart for Is it a continuous data or is it up this three days and then , based upon the type of data you decide what kind of a graph are you going to create or what type of control child are? You can struck for this particularly. So if the leader is continues, then you can draw an X mark job M r stands for believe range eggs, But auto charge X bar. Esther that has Internet eyes discreet. Then you can create the sea jog you jog on a beach, are put up. If you look at this floor, your observe that, then the data is continues in us Another. What is the sample site? So if the sample size is one, then you create the X m R X much. If your sample size is between who there, then you create up expert, are I? If your sample size is greater than or equal to 10 then you create a expert s job. Now it is moved to the this three day. So if you observe, that is a decision box that you see over and it has a question mark and it says on if you see on the left hand side it says by pretty expert unit. And if you look at the very front sight, it says one defect unit on also for that defective. So let us understand what is a defect and what is a defective. So let's say I have a people. Okay, people, and let us assume that the keyboard has repeated and all these have to be functioning properly for the keyboard. Go to the beach. So if I go, my keyboard is not functioning at all. Then I can see that it is up defective people. But let's see, if out of the city one is not functioning properly, then I can see that my keyboard has, while you having a defect may classify a particular product in Judah. Effective, but not necessarily. I can see that this broader has four defects but it is not defective. You can still function without these four characteristics on. If I'm talking about an example of a keyboard, let's see if the shift key on my keyboard is not function. I can still say that my cable is not a defective people because all the one ship is not function. I can't stand the people another ship, because every keyboard has a set up to ship is. But if I have to look at the defects, then yes, one shift key on the keyboard. Not because so that is about the difference between a defect and, uh then once you had 25 other, it is a effect on it. Is that defective that you're looking out for? Then we look at what is the sample size sample sizes. Let's see if I have maybe 10,000 units to inspect. I'm picking up a sample size off. Maybe then sometimes I think this emphasizes fight. Maybe next time I take a sample size off three of my samples, I just wants to in the days off defects. Then I will use up. But if my sample size people changing, sometimes I take a sample size of fight. Next time I take a sample size of thing, then I take a sample size of 50. Then I would create if you look at defectives again the same. If my sample size is constant, then I will create up. And but if my sample size it's on ready. So that's about the flu. Depending upon the type of data and whether you're looking at the effects are defective. You can use the appropriate control Jack for your what are the benefits of a control Jer Going pro chart helps you in predicting process out of control and out of specification. So if you go back to our diagram, it clearly shows that if this party will appoint Waas within the upper Truman, then I could have said that my processes within started speaking. But because this particular point is beyond my upper control limits, I can see that. Okay, there is some problem off here. I need to go ahead and in this because the process does not seem to be satisfied because one of my output is way outside the upper control distinguish between specific, identifiable forces off. So as we mentioned earlier, every process will have some kind of variation on this is known as a common cause on you expect that kind of abuse. But when dilution happens to go to a special court, you can easily identify it on a soldier. And then you get investigates the reasons behind us and then can be used for statistical process control. Yes, because you want the process to have minimal radiation on you. Want all your off would still be in the upper control limits on the weapon, and that is when you you can see that your process is moving enough statistical control. So control charts help you identify statistical process control. If I told there are any elements that are beyond the statistical process, control and identify them, you can go for the investigation on that on based upon your investigation to identify the causes. And then so that's about control jobs. In the next example, you will understand How do you can step appoint pro job using Microsoft's exit 22. Control Chart using MS Excel XBAR Chart: Hey, welcome back. Now that it's look at an example off the job on how we designed it using Microsoft's. So once again, you know. So she you get the index. I have taken example off different. When is the ex body guard? Export is nothing but the average. And then I have taken another example. So let us look on the export. Okay? No design this job. I have considered this particular did. Okay, So what I've done is over a period off a B party from Plus Jen No. Six top again Every day. I have collected five samples off guard it. Okay? An object that dimensions off the sea. No. As for the average, the dimension should be 3.5 with the tolerance level plus or minus, boy. And what I've been doing is, I mean, digging at sample size or fight on west again. Then I took another sample of pasta. I got on five. I did the same for second John or John. And every time I kept on thinking quite what I did then was calculated the average off my five samples every time that we and then I calculated now based upon my ex bar values. I went ahead and more to go. Thanks, but Okay, So this is how my expletive charge This is my me here. Andi, this is last three. Standard deviation. This is minus three. Standard reforms. My upper control limit on the weapon. Respect. And then I went ahead and floated up. If you observe that, is this one point? Okay. What is that? Well, point now, if I go year, uh, this is the let's see, which is the 12 point? This one? Why do you want? Okay, now if you observe my operative word specification limits. Okay, Uh, 4.5 points a respect. But this particular well point okay, is going out of my upper control. So I can say that my process is not within that is going through. And I need to investigate. What is causing this special variation in Okay, then let's look and, uh, are no again. What I've done is I've taken the, respectively, just for my five samples. I have calculated the average off the raid I have with my upper control limits at last three Sigma. I know what No. What we sick mother is my last three signal. Okay? And I have against Lord Victor Gras for my and if you off the not even a single point over your okay moves outside my specifications. This one almost touches my upper control limit, but not cross because her falls beyond this particular. So I can see that yet my process isn't so I just Okay, and this is a good cross. Okay, so this is a rage job, OK, But we also call it our That is not how we create these charts using my vessel. So says this is my raw data. I have already completed this raw data off like she Okay, let's start working on. So I have the data for the week and I have taken fight samples. So first of all I need to calculate my expert expert is nothing but okay, Average off these pipes. So for that, I will use the bomb this equal average open rockets and then said like this. And then, as you can see, it has calculated my ex partner. I need to just So the expert values cancel it before the end. Now, I need to calculate the but except does not have direct form. So basically, what is that? Age range is nothing but the difference between the maximum value on the minimum. But if you remember, we learned that the study aviation. Okay, so Well, you're I use the formula this equal maximum value. I would go these fights minus the minimum value in my seemly. So it gives me a value of one and then I just drag this information and I get that the age , border and diet. So I have my ex, but and I have my the So now what? I can do it. I can start working with these values. And he is my egg spot. And my are a lot of jobs. So now let us post begin by constructing the export. I If you look at the expert charge in the provided this or shoot, you see that once I can't believe my expert. The next value that I need to believe this life X deba, What is Exe de bottlenecks Double. But my ex double bar is nothing but the average off my ex bar value. Okay. And if you Although it remains, go on staying through. Okay, The let's can't believe that so I have once again created this year. What I want to do is I'm going to select my expert values. I'm gonna select all my values. I don't know, based these. That's a so I have my ex parte about use in this. Now let me calculate its double. So what is my ex double but my ex double, but is nothing. Average off all my expert. What is it like this entire and then laws that okay. And another, please. This because my range remains cost whatever. Living with less effort. And I did this for once, and I would drive these values. So as you can see my ex double bar values have you made up? Now, the next thing that I need to calculate is the standard. If you want, you can once again therefore to a lecture cities that we discussed. What exactly is us standing number? Calculated Standard deviation using, except use of formula. This STD. Okay, stance, gold standard deviation. And then I said, like this entire. So if you have the my standard deviation value has beauty know what is my upper control limit? My upper control live It is nothing but X'd, but plus three times my standard. Okay, I'm since my standard division is gone. Stood in this calculation I've been once again and then I once again I will reduce the designates to just And similarly I will calculate my No. One control America bitches Nothing. But it's Deba minus three times by standard, which is constant like this. Once again, just change it to a more basic values. And Dr Now, with all my data ready, let's go ahead and instructor So what I wanted to resemble to select this and diocese and then I'm gonna click on insert, we'll do line drives and then I've been civic. This voice option is life. And as you can see, my graph is almost created. I need to for my okay. So I will be charged intimates and I will be moved up and then I do not want the legends irritable on. I do not wonder. Great nights. Remove the great nice. Okay on I don't know. Now that meatball her done or my suppose that you can drag this up and if you opt out of the lower controlled limit for years So what we need is you Okay. I can start off my job from one fight because anybody who is my job will not fall below one needed. So let me this right. Good for my taxes. And then I've been said the minimum body do. And then then I would just invited this charge. Okay? And then I just need to specify my upper control of it. And so, for that, I insert what shapes and I'm going to select me. I wouldn't say this is my this formatting home consent. Then I will. Just specifying what I told him. It answer. This is my central life. I would never do that. This one home, James. Okay, then I would just select my chart. I like, Look on it on, then. Give us the latest back then. I didn't need the border living once again. And then, Okay. As you can see, no. If I want, I can even be. It's with this. So you can just I think. And if you want to get at the tables, but it looks a little blood. Just move now, okay? And as you can see, like control Jack, expert chart is wait. I just need to get excited to see job. Take it and it's but export. Okay, this is how you create up going pro charge using Michael. And if you observe this job very closely, you will see that this pretty to the point. If you just I like this, you will see the value 4.21 which is over a year. He is falling outside hot upper control living on. Therefore, we need to investigate why this is happening. Okay, So this is how you create a control judgment. Microsoft, On the next lecture, we will understand. 23. Control Chart usin MS Excel -RBAR Chart: Hey, welcome back Now In the last lecture belonged how to create expert Andi. Now, in this lecture, we will understand how we create our So if you remember in the last lecture we had already created, huh? Big up. Okay, so the data that we use for dissecting the drought So we had this expert date already created on a range data already created now to conserve my our bar jog. I'm will use this being I'm going to select this gator. Oh, here and then go do. Ah, Blank. She and I don't do these this lido. Okay, so my entire arranged the diets based it. Okay. And now that stuff we head and reader for the company. So just like what we did for X bar, Jack. Oh, you mean you can't believe the are brought in? The experts are calculated x double, but were you calculate the r and R, but is nothing but average off all these leads? Somebody used the formal up is equal. Do average select this weed and then lose that. Okay on, because my rangers wannabe constant with this and I'm like, yeah, and then I was just so I have my arm. Now, let me calculate the standard on the formula used for standard evolutionists STV e open packets. And we're finding the standard deviation for any selected. The last time that you get is also now that is capital it up upper control and up a cadre limited. Nothing but our bar value plus three banks Standard be okay, so we got out of control. Since our that evolution is gonna be on stage, we highlight it. And best And then just I just use a good to. And now I can feel it wasn't know what control is? Nothing back. My body value minus my standard. And I really, once again to do this, do this on because my standard is one of the main Boston. And that's like this, uh, I get up. Did you know? Yeah. Border. And now, with my data selected, I didn't goto insert and I go to buy, and then I just stretch this out a bit. I was removed off the lights. Okay on, I'm keeping the legend Nobody. One that gives more peace for your Andi has it. Let's go ahead and update that someone has to make this dark biking. And I'm gonna say this is now We will just give the call out for our offer and limits. So I go to insert with years on select and plus I will go and then maybe like upward control, select the follow on, then go home and then a line of text. Now I just go ahead and leave my door controlling it. Magaria, I would say this is my No. And now I just need to specify in my central life. So I was going in store shapes and then, haven't you? This time I would selective color eyes. Yes, and I recall this sense they know both home on a land based Listen. Now let me just give my shark nice borders. I wouldn't take the job like on it without line. Lincoln Once again, click on outline will be and selectively, you know. Okay, So as you can see now, my our bar chart is ready. So if I look at this chart, very close me. None of the points are falling beyond the limits. So this is a status legally but drawing Ross's but on any of the points, then outside the control remix, then That is a special cause that I need to go ahead and rest. This is how you design Autobot, Jack. Using like yourself. I hope you enjoy this legs. Lecture on that brings us to the end of the CDs off this course. Thank you. 24. Congratulations: Hey, congratulations on completing the course now that you read so far, I'm really sure that you must have become an expert in using the seven quality dudes on its implementation using Microsoft. Except so, as I mentioned in the beginning of the course, that quality is an ongoing process. It never stops because once you reach a destination, your new journey begins there. So with these seven weapons by your side, I'm really sure that you will be able to drive a culture of continuous improvement within your organization and will be able to tackle majority of the quality problems that you face in your day to day life. If you like this course, I will be looking forward to a feedback from urine because your feedback means a lot for me that will not only help me create better courses in future, but will also help me improvised. This goes further If you feel that I should add something more to this course, please come And in the question and answer section and I will ensure that I get back to you . I hope you like this course. I wish you a very good luck, Andi. Maybe God bless you.