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5G and Wireless Communication for Beginners

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5G and Wireless Communication for Beginners

Cerulean Canvas, Learn, Express, Paint your dreams!

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35 Lessons (2h 32m)
    • 1. Course Promo

    • 2. The Intents behind 1G

    • 3. What is Frequency?

    • 4. Understanding Frequency Modulation

    • 5. Pick the right call recipient

    • 6. The issues of 1G

    • 7. Extra Story 01: The first ever phone call

    • 8. The Intents behind 2G

    • 9. It's all about 0s and 1s

    • 10. Debunking the "Cells" of Cellphones

    • 11. Catering the crowd with Multiple Access

    • 12. Securing 2G

    • 13. Extra Story 02: Impure Intents

    • 14. The Intents behind 3G

    • 15. Understanding Cellular Call Hand-offs

    • 16. Understanding Code Division Multiple Access

    • 17. Good but not good enough: Issues of 3G

    • 18. Extra Story 03: Setting up the Market Landscape with/without FRAND

    • 19. The Intents behind 4G

    • 20. Understanding Circuit Switched and Packet Switched Networks

    • 21. Understanding Antennas and MIMO

    • 22. It is / It almost is / It will eventually be 4G

    • 23. Nitpicking issues of 4G and 4G Statsheet

    • 24. Extra Story 04: Monopoly done right

    • 25. The intents behind 5G

    • 26. A quick look at 5G Targets

    • 27. Understanding 5G New Radio, Millimeter waves & Beamforming

    • 28. Best of both worlds with SDN for 5G

    • 29. Understanding what is and what isn't 5G

    • 30. Extra Story 05: A casual look at key market development for 5G

    • 31. 5G Standards are here!

    • 32. LTE for 5G

    • 33. What is New in New Radio?

    • 34. SDN and Infrastructure as Code

    • 35. Conclusion (well, for now)

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About This Class

UPDATE 2021!!!!

  • Expanding upon the role of LTE and NR in early 5G implementation. 
  • Discussing newly launch 5G standards.
  • Discussing future roadmap.
  • TDD and FDD explained.
  • Dynamic Spectrum Sharing explained.
  • Smart hand-offs and 5G-on-cloud explained.

5G, the 5th Generation of Wireless Mobile Communication has taken 2019 by storm! Some people are making optimistic expectations, some are making ridiculous theories while others are awaiting any and every update about 5G. If we look at a few decades in the past... 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G have changed our social, professional and personal lives drastically. Yet 5G is expected to be the biggest game-changer of all which is amazing but not surprising!

But, what exactly is 5G?

This question is simple on the surface but gets more and more interesting as you dig deeper.

5G is the fastest wireless mobile internet ever. It will serve ~10 times more devices than 4G and it will also empower Millions (let's say it again, Millions) of jobs! That's not all. 5G is like an entry pass for some of the following technologies to comfortably take over the commercial market.

  • Internet of Things

  • Industrial Automation

  • Mixed Reality

  • Self Driving vehicles

  • Unmanned locomotives and drones

  • Cloud Services

  • More progressive web and so on.

5G is revolutionary in many aspects. From antennas to frequencies, from networks to roll-outs; it's a major overhaul which was long-awaited and needed. But without understanding these basics, learning about 5G is like making lemonade without knowing what's a lemon!

This course is your perfect companion for the Journey of understanding 5G from its roots.

  • It starts off with the first generation of wireless telecom and takes key topics from every consequent update.

  • Every essential concept of wireless communication is explained with simplicity, visually appealing graphics, animations, and engaging narrative.

  • From what is an antenna to how can Cloud aid 5G, from what is frequency to how VoIP fits in mobile communication... You will get answers to all of your questions.

  • You will also get business insights via stories and case studies.

  • Mini assignments will keep you active and engaged.

  • Articles and Stat-sheets will add value and longevity to your learning experience.

That's not all, we have made sure that this course appeals to everyone because 5G will touch all of our lives equally. So, you don't even have to be from communications background! All you need to be is an average cellphone user! 

This course will start with easy and familiar beginnings and go to deeper and interesting ends. If you're from Communications though, some parts will be your quick revision while others will provide you largely overlooked but important insights! So whether you're a school student, an industry professional or someone in-between. There are different but satisfactory takeaways for all of you.

What are you waiting for? See you in the class!

Happy Learning :)

***** Please check out a Letter from the Instructor and other resources below. *****



Speed Test Visual Credit: Marques Brownlee (Youtube: MKBHD)

Isometric Graphics Credit: Freepik (User: Freepik)

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1. Course Promo: five g. A new, faster network has the potential to transform the Internet. I bought a five g phone and then I drove to the nearest five G City. Now we're headed toward five G, the next generation of wireless, and they called for the urgent stop to the deployment of five G. They said that it's that's a lot off fire G talk. Seems like it's the perfect time. Dylan Hi, Welcome to this class off fudgy Fudgy is the ever optimistic upcoming fifth generation off wireless mobile communication After previous generations, empowering some off the most revolutionary aspect off digital lifestyle like social media and e commerce five g is expected to bring even bigger changes in sectors like health care , education, industrial automation, agriculture and a lot more. Fi G is considered as one of the major Billa's behind the potential off I OD success. But under the hood, fire G or any other wireless technology is much more than Jack topping download speeds and fancy mobile acts. This goes embraces that fact and takes learning off violence communication to a whole new level from technical concepts, toe business decisions, from antennas to spectrum allocation, Thescore takes you on an exciting journey off understanding wireless communication from the very basics and teaches its recent most advancements on strong foundations. Fluid animations will help you visualize and understand the trickiest concepts. Statutes will give you a quick way to memorize important numbers. Industry stories and case studies will give you deeper insight and reasoning behind the current situations. And that's not all. You'll be able to break away from some of the most frequent misunderstandings on top of knowing how fi G works. You will also get insight on what kind of job opportunities are ahead off you in fired your industry, whether you want to learn it as a student, as a professional or simply as a curious hobbyist, this course has settled takeaways for every learner. Having served over 22,000 students with 96% student satisfaction. We guarantee that you will have a sense of satisfaction, growth and accomplishment when you finish the course. Finally, since five G has a lot to offer in future as well, we'll make sure that this course days updated continuously and every major development off Fiji is explained, explored and delivered to you with utmost care. So what are you waiting for? See you in the class 2. The Intents behind 1G: Hello and welcome back to this class off fudgy without wasting any more time. Let's get straight toward all of us are here for that is the generations off mobile communication. If you're new to this, I guarantee you will have a lot of fun and insightful learning. But if you are someone who is already familiar with all of this and wants to jump straight to some latter generations like 40 or fudgy, I request you to sit through this because any generation of communication is not just a table off stats. Some plans by some service providers are the technology which was there in users hands. That's just the surface. In my opinion, every generation has its own story. There's always a solid intent to achieve. Then there are actions taken to fulfill the intent, and once everything is said and done, there are still issues which give birth to the latter generations. Naturally, we have divided the flow off this course in the similar manner as well. We will mention the intent off each and every mobile communication generation. Then we will elaborate widely upon the actions that were taken, the concepts that were used for invented In some cases we will define what the generation actually waas. And finally, we will see what kind of issues were faced by users or service providers and how they were solved. Eventually kick starting with the first generation of mobile communication. Let's talk about their intense. There was not a crazy laundry list off intense. The idea was pretty simple. They wanted to achieve long range wireless communication, and the long range word was relative. At that point of time, what they managed to achieve might have been long range for them, but it may sound pretty short range for you. Then they wanted it to be as clear as possible, which means least hisses and least noises. If you're a millennial, probably you haven't even heard the hiss is on the phones because they had just gotten so better. But initially, every phone conversation had hisses. You know, how do they sound, right? Something like this. Service providers and researchers wanted to avoid it as much as possible. More importantly, they wanted to set the stone for the market that was going to rise in an ever expanding manner. And while you may argue that was it all about money, right? In a way, you can say yes. The money was definitely there. But then it was needed. Because if there is no demand there is no market, then no innovation can sustain itself so naturally for something as big as violence communication which was completely non existent back then, setting up a mark, it was really important. And finally the creators were well aware that no matter how one G turned out to be, it would always be considered as the prime reference for every other generation. In next lectures we will see what actions were taken to fulfill the Indians We just looked at then have a nice day. Happy learning. 3. What is Frequency?: Hello and welcome back to the class off energy. We have seen the intent off one G. Now it is time to look at the actions that were taken to make one G possible. The first generation off mobile communication was analog. We will take a look into its deeper meaning later, but the most important part is that it was all about making two radios talk to each other. Initially, the talking usedto happen inform off information exchange. So on one end we had the sender or the transmitter, and on the other end we had receiver. Obviously, to make this conversation possible, we needed a medium, a medium which was accessible and comprehensible by both sender and receiver, and such a medium was an airlock frequencies. Firstly, we had simplex communication, which means the transmitter could only send and the receiver could only receive overtime. The technology grew, the circuits grew and the devices were ableto encompass, both transmitter and receiver. But there was still a bottle. One could do one off the to task at a time, not simultaneously, which means that if sender is speaking or Ascender is sending, the receiver would not be able to send anything back at that moment. Then, once the Sandestin is over, it was a sea western, and send a had to stay silent. This must call half duplex communication. Another one of his bottle neck Waas. It was pretty short. Ranged walkie talkies used to work with half duplex and their higher streams was somewhere close to 50 miles as an upgrade. Our advancement to all of this. We had full duplex communication where walkie talkies were replaced by the first generation analog mobile falls and their messages. I went through something called a tower, which consisted off aunt in us. It means that sender and receiver would not be connected directly. They would be connected to our tower, and the tower would have much higher range in case the distance between the sender and receiver was too high, which could not be covered by the tower. One tower would talkto another tower, and that way we would have a chain off towers between sender and receiver. You might be wondering what is frequency. In fact, it is quite amusing that despite the definition and concept off frequency being extremely simple, it is one of the most missed understood terms in the field of violence communication. Many times, people just can't seem to visualize it. If you are on the other end of the spectrum, that's pretty great for you. But for those who still get confused while defining frequency, here's an example. Take a look at this ball. It is jumping up and down in regular period. Considered this phenomenon, this ball going up and down as an event, and we are observing it now. If we try to pan out a graph off time was his height off the ball? We would get something like this, since the ball is continuously going up and down with time. The grass is not a straight line. It is not a co either. It is a well on. In this case, it's a periodic well, which means at the way foam is repeating itself after every certain period. In this way, form distance between any two. Identical extremes can be considered as a complete cycle. For example, if we consider two consecutive peaks off the graph, the ball was at the top off. It's something height at one point of time. Then it went down. It jumped back again and Thus, a cycle was completed. That's like the distance between them is called a cycle or one cycle A lent off. The cycle is in terms off time because your time is the X axis. If we marked down seconds on the timeline, the exact cycle or second, it's called the frequency off the event. Here the frequency is 0.5 hertz, which means that in one second half cycle off, this event is getting completed. It is important to know that the frequency can be higher or lower than one if it's greater than one. The event is completely finishing and also performing some off its next round within the duration off one second. Paris. If the frequency is below one herds, it would mean that it takes more than a second to complete a full cycle off the event. In terms off radio communication, the frequency can range anywhere between killer herds, megahertz or even gigahertz, which means that transmitters are receive. WAAS can deal with millions or even billions off signals within a second. Let's take a look at some of the frequency bands used for multiple purposes. In next lecture, we'll take a look at different frequency bands used for different purposes. You get a broader picture off. Health frequency is utilized for communication purposes, then happy learning. And I hope you have a my state. 4. Understanding Frequency Modulation: Hello and welcome back to the class off. Five g. In previous lecture, we talked about frequency and what ranges off frequencies are what bands off frequencies are used for different purposes. Now let's talk about another term called frequency modulation. Just for the record, the human voice frequency can range anywhere between 82 to 80 hurts. The particulars will change for a child on adult meal on adult female on anyone in between . So the first question that arises is how useful is this particular frequency for any wireless communication? And the answer is it is not useful at all. The thing is, this frequency is absolutely low. If we try to propagate it. Or in other words, if we try to send it across aerial medium, it will fade away along with the other noises. So if we want to make it travel further, we need to pack it with something so that the information within the voice is preserved, and yet it can travel farther than the normal reach off human voice, which generally just a few meters. But the case is different for the end in US, providing conflagrations and power and and asking generate massive frequencies that can travel hundreds or even thousands of miles. And you can consider this fact as the base inspiration behind the advent off violence communication. But how do we leverage this property off antenna? Well, that's what frequency modulation comes into. The picture on outside the process is pretty simple. We take the original frequency, which means the vocal frequency. We passed it through a hardware called modulator, and what we get on the other end is the modulated frequency. This whole process is called frequency modulation. No, let's define it. In case of telecommunication frequency modulation means including the low frequency data onto high frequency by altering its carrier frequency. These are so many new terms, so let's inspect all of them one by one. Firstly, the obvious one low frequency data means the one region rate, the vocal data, the human generated speech data Goddio. It's the high frequency signal that we are going to use to propagate or to transmit the voice data. Andi and good means wearing the carrier in a way that it represents the variation in the original frequency or the input frequency, as we have defined here. The low frequency now you can get a big picture of what modulation is. If we take a look at this figure again, you can imagine modulation as a kind off mapping, where we are mapping low frequency off human voice onto low frequency off the carrier band on high frequency, off human wise on do high frequency off carrier band. And obviously the end result is called the modulated frequency. So the process works something like this. What human speaks is the walker frequency. Where is what phone sense to the antenna off to the tower is the modulated frequency, so the modulator is generally installed inside your mobile falls, and if you want to see the back and forth off the whole process, it goes step by step. Lecter's the Speaker, which means us. Their users send the input voice to the mobile devices. The mobile phone devices send modulated transmitted frequency to the antennas on the towers . The antennas on the tower sent more related receiver frequencies, which means the frequencies, which are to be received by the intended receiver off the communication, do the mobile devices off the receiver. When it's the receivers. Mobile phone gives d modulated ultra boys do the listener. It comes from the speaker off your ear piece on your mobile phone. Let's summarize it again. User sense input voice through a microphone and receives de modulated output. Voice to speaker. Where's mobile phone? Sends modulated transmitted frequency and receives modulated receiver frequency. Generally, the hardware is installed as a pair off. Model it off both modulator and de modulator. So your mobile device has ways and means to modulate. Andy modulate frequencies in a way that it can talkto antennas when needed, and it can talk to you when needed, as well disposes a genuine question that can be hundreds off thousands off Mobil's communicating toe a single tower. Then how does the tower identify which message is for which user? We will explore this question in depth in the next lecture. Until then, happy learning, and I hope you have a nice day 5. Pick the right call recipient: hello and welcome back to the class off fungi. In previous lecture, we posed an important question that how does antenna discriminate between the intended user or the intended recipient and the other users who are also covered by the range of antenna ? The answer is, it doesn't discriminate. Yep, that's right. The antenna doesn't discriminate between the users. Then how does own message find its intended recipient? The message delivery process has evolved over time in terms, off security and efficiency. Let's take a look at how it used to work initially, as we mentioned earlier. The antennas don't discriminate between the users, so just like modulating the signal before sending it. The mobile phones also used to add a bit off their own data before sending signals stream or data stream to the antennas or to the towers. That extra bit of data WAAS called honest fingerprint are fingerprint was an included piece off information, which consisted a lot off details regarding the message, such as the manufacturer code off the mobile device itself. The art of model I D. Installed inside the mobile device i D, which means the instrument I D or the mobile phone. I D the battery I d. On use the I D. First of all, let's not confuse device i d. My manufacturer court, because manufacturer good remains the same among all off. The device is produced by a single manufacturer. Let's say there are five phones manufactured by Motorola and five phones manufactured by Nokia, then the manufacturer. Court off. All of the Motorola phones will be seen, but it will be different from the one used by Nokia phones and user I d means either the telephone number off user itself or and included words and off telephone number and other details off user. Now how and why is this important? Well, mobile phones network towers deal with two kinds of signals. First is the control signal, whereas the other one hits the data. Signal control signals are used to deal with essential processes of communication, like establishing the link between the two users etcetera. And while we are making the call. But while we are connecting to the user when we are not allowed to speak and what you hear is a ticking sound like add the Col connection sound like, yeah like that, the mobile carrier towers are establishing a link between you and your intended receiver. Let's expand further on this. Due to this are fingerprint. When you're sending a message to your cario, the carrier is actually broadcasting it, which means that the message is received by each and every user within the range. Off the receivers carry antenna, but only the targeted user's phone are intended. Users phone decodes it, whereas the other ones just let it go or filter it. The reason how and white hat happens is first of all, they might not even be connected to a call, which means that there D modulators haven't got a permission to decode your signal. And secondly, before the exchange off messages, the carrier takes young means, send us information, adds receivers information into it and broadcasts a control signal message in a way that only the intended receiver can record it. For everyone else, it will just be a noise. It won't matter at all. And while the connection is being established, the receiver is given an out of fingerprint, which acts like a key to decode the upcoming streams off signals. Just think about it. It's just like a public lock. Everyone can see it, but only the authorised person has the key to access it. Of course, this process was far from being perfect. In fact, there was a popular case off a Japanese mobile phone instrument called Poking 900 which made it really easy to bypass this complete process and eavesdrop on whatever signal it wanted to which, as you might have guessed, let too many security threats to summarize this process again. When we are making the connection between sender and receiver, the carrier antennas let the receiver and send the norm. Which ban off frequency is going to be available for talking on both sides, which essentially means that receiver will be told which frequency to tune into On. On top of that, the sea will will also get an art of fingerprint, which will add another layer off security to decode the message before the modulating it. And it's not just about security. If we don't have such a functionality, the whole violence communication will turn into a complete chaos. Just imagine you making a telephonic conversation with someone on just start listening to random voices everywhere. Now that we have seen the action part to fulfill the intent. Let's get a summarized overview off one G firstly, the obvious one. It was the first generation off wireless communication and no matter how flawed, how imperfectly waas, this is where everything began. So one G will always remain important to the history off violence, communication, The nature off one G was analog and it's supported simplex, which means one sided half do blitz, which means two sided but one at a time and full duplicate. The minimum frequency used to transmit the signals was 1 50 megahertz, which means that human voice, ranging between a few 100 herds, was modulated on two 150 megahertz on more it commercially initiated in 1979 in Japan. And then it was followed by Denmark, Sweden, etcetera as a fun fact. Currently, Russia is the only country which still supports one G by one off its carriers, and basically this was one G. In the next lecture, we'll take a look at issues off one G do then happy learning, and I hope you have a nice day 6. The issues of 1G: Hello and welcome back to the class off fungi. Let's talk about the issues off one G. First of all, as you might have noticed from the statute Devil Limited frequencies to choose from in case off one G, because each user had to be given a wider pan off frequencies corresponding to the vocal frequency mapping since the communication was analog, then, as one problem leads to another, this made the whole data transmission process which included the analog message as long as the art of fingerprint really bulky and there were no compression methods used either. Next, it was difficult to scale, which means that under the speculations when she was working, if the market grew, there would definitely be major performance issues. This set up this infrastructure was just not enough to serve the upcoming global market. The data was also lossy and limited. You can definitely not think off one g sound like the HD voice calls we make in our day to day phone calls. And finally, as we saw with the okey 900 case, the security off when she said it was not sufficient at all, and if the market was going to grow. Not only consumers, but government institutions and other sensitive data holders would also become potential consumers, which means that security had to be tightened and all of this bailed way for the second generation off. Wireless communication in the next section will dig deeper into duty. Till then, happy learning. And I hope you have a nice day. 7. Extra Story 01: The first ever phone call: the era was 19 sixties, the world was embracing wired telecom and was highly optimistic about trying something beyond landlines. Off course, we're talking about mobile force, but the term wasn't coined back then, U S. A. Was ready to lead the way, with two off its companies rooting for different ideas off portable telephones. These two companies were Motorola and A, T and T, but the ball wasn't in their court yet. They had to get approval and spectrum license from Federal Communication Commission's, or FCC, which is the U. S government body that regulates Wired and Wireless communications. 80. And he wanted to create a complete monopoly in violence communication with their idea of portability. Being Della forms attached toe automobiles like cars, drugs or buses, from devices to spectrum. They wanted to keep everything under their own belt. The idea had a couple of problems to use off. Portable phones would be strictly limited toe automobile owners and that to while they're using it. Secondly, it would leave almost no room for competition, which is not good for any sector off the market. Motorola, on the other hand, wanted to create true portability with handheld devices and We're rooting for a business model where multiple organizations could so different aspects of portable telephone E. It sounded promising. But back then it was just a thought bubble. The route. It was obvious they had to convince FCC that there model is the best. After years off, meet up in White House and prototype demo by 80 Andy. It was being quite clear that despite off Motorola's idea being better, 80 anti definitely had believed Motorola was running out of time. They knew that they had to generate government and public interest in their favor. And while they could not focus on both simultaneously, public interest would automatically generate government interest. They had also realized that the best way to predict the future is to create it. So after significant efforts in right direction in your 1973 Martin Cooper from Motorola invited journalists. He used to prototype portable phone, dine, attacked and card Joel Angel from a TNT. The call, he said, Hey, Joel, this is Martin on speaking, using a mobile phone really portable mobile form. This was the first mobile phone call ever, while 80 and he was shocked to the rest of the world It was a completely pleasant surprise . This event had become a global headline. Motorola clearly wonder Raise and Martin Cooper became the father figure off mobile forms. FCC approved Ahmadi, and soon enough they also rolled out first generation off violence forms commercially. With a flexible service provider profession, you can consider Dyn attack as the ancestor off the smartphone, which you're using at the moment in next sessions. Who embark on the journey to explore digital communication with duty. Till then, happy learning, and I hope you have a fantastic day. 8. The Intents behind 2G: hello and welcome back to the class off fungi. In previous section we talked about one G and how it was the starting point off something. It was going to be an absolute phenomenon worldwide, which is mobile phones, of course. But if one G was the starting point 10 Chuji was a bold declaration that mobile phones are going to stay. They're going to stay there going to scale, and they are going to dominate the market. To fulfill the sentiment off such a bold statement, the intent behind duty had to be loud, clear and precise. And so it waas duty was all about making wireless communication globally widespread. If one G started in a few countries, do G had took over more. They had to expand the scope off services provided by the Karius, which means that mobile phones were not just going to remain tools to talk. And you know how important that train of thought airs. Because right now chances are pretty high that you are watching this lecture on a mobile phone as well. But more on that later, finally, to make first to commitments come true, they had to make wireless communication cheaper more efficient and more secure, more secure because security was one off. The prime concerns off one G more efficient because that's how any technology should grow and cheaper. Because they had to appeal to a wide a glass off consumers, they had to make sure that mobile phones don't remain an elite privilege to achieve this. There was some really interesting and significant actions taken in the next lectures. We will take a look at them one by one and then happy learning, and I hope you have a nice day. 9. It's all about 0s and 1s: hello and welcome back to the class off fudgy. In previous lecture, we looked at the bowl in Dent, off duty, but to fulfill them. Strong actions were equally important. And 1st 1 of those actions was going digital calling going digital. Justin action might be underrated because it was beyond that way. Beyond that, you can consider calling digital movement. It was all about breaking free from the boundaries off analog communications, nature and embracing the huge chunk off advantages and simplicity provided by digital. The process of communication was still the same, though user used deployed input voice to the mobile phone. Mobile phones would transmit modulated frequencies to the antennas. Antanas would return modulated frequencies for the receivers on. Users would get the modulated Oprah poise, but the magic was happening. Inside the cell phone themselves, instead of just modulating, are mapping. The input was toe a higher frequency mobile phone, so performing much more complex set of tasks. The input data was digitized and then encrypted. You know what? Just at me Well, digitization or analog to digital conversion means turning the analog frequency for turning the analog input signal into a continuous dream off zeros and ones or, in other words, digital signal by sampling it at a continuous rate on turning the analog values into digital with encryption means quoting the digital data in a way that it becomes more secure from the users and and more difficult to interpret for hackers. If you want to know more about different ways and means off a toady or analog to digital conversion and different methods off encryption, you can check out the visual guides in the resource is section off this lecture. But if you're just satisfied with the fact that the input stream off data was turned into zeros and ones and then it was secured, we can move on this men at what user provided and what user got in return was the same thing as earlier input, voice and output boys. But cell phones and tower antennas were talking in digital language. They're speaking zeros and ones, and this was not a small feat. In fact, earlier, I called it not just in action, but a moment, because naturally the previous phones or the one G phones were not capable of performing this task whatsoever. Going digital meant users having to change their mobile handsets, and that was a big risk. What if uses declined tact. The mandate was necessary for everyone, and it was not just about the mobile communication. If you take other use cases as well, such as DTH, the transition between analog to digital always involved installing our purchasing new hardware. The genuine question is why to go that far. As you already know, humans are anything natural, speaks analog. But that's not the same for the towers, the frequencies generated by the antennas in the towers artificial. They are generated by the inputs provided by circuits. And when we talk about circuits and artificial out courts, the more discreet and precise the frequency is, the better. It will be interpreted for the same user going digital meant instead of transmitting a junk off different frequencies in the analog ban, the carrier would only transmit the data in zeros and ones, and one particular frequency will be assigned to zero, whereas the other one will be assigned to one and they will be far distant from each other , which means that zeros and ones won't get mixed up either. Within the same spectrum off frequencies, more users can Decatur now, because they're dedicated bands, a narrow down typically duty frequencies ranged between 900 to 1800 megahertz, which was way beyond one G. So we had already enlarged the spectrum. We were prepared for more customers. Take this example into consideration. Let's say you have to transmit between 1 to 99 numbers, and you're constantly throwing random number out of time. The one who is receiving might misinterpret some off the numbers, and the final output off the stream off later might be different from what you intended to say. Instead of that, if you just have to send zeros and ones, it will be easier for the receiver toe. Catch it even if you send it faster than normal rate. That is the court logic behind going digital. There are less chances to get confused between zeros and ones. And since the frequency off zero and one that far apart from each other, transmission, noise, reception, noise, Elektronik era, everything can be nullified when interpreting the data. There are lots of advantages off going digital over Anna lock. It starts with easier process and cheaper circuits. In terms of communication, you can cater more users more users means easier scalability. It is easier to encrypt on in court digital information compared to analog, which leaves the better security. It is more difficult for noise to penetrate the digital signal compared to analog, which means better quality. Off service is almost guaranteed and just by going digital from Manila were almost hitting all off the intense. This wants the step taken in the proper direction. Industry was ready to get a more consumers industry was ready to scale. So the next problem was not about feasibility. It was about management and addressed that we will talk about cellular approach in the next lecture and then happy learning, and I hope you have a nice day. 10. Debunking the "Cells" of Cellphones: hello and welcome back to the class off five G. Previously, we talked about how Fuji transition from analog to digital and how it was ready to cater more consumers than ever. In this lecture, we will talk about what it's selling approach of communication and how it plays a wider role in the success off both duty and digital. Let's say we have some geographical area and we're talking about relatively large area which houses at least more than one mobile phone towers say we have tower one and tower toe and both are operating at the same frequency, which is F one. If that is the case, then their frequencies will turn out to be noise for each other, and they might even end up cancelling each other signals out. And that's not what we want. So we need to make sure that if there are two towers nearby, they communicate on different frequencies. If thou one is using frequency F one hour to should you something like F two, which doesn't have to be higher or lower in particular, it just how to be different from everyone. Now if we take this same problem on a larger skin in a bigger geographical area. Their chances that many towers will try to use the same frequency and end up clashing with each other to resolve this issue. Almost hexagonal pieces off geographical areas are mark as a cell, and the whole area is divided into multiple cells, which creates a cluster off cells. In other words, the same geographical area, which was considered as a whole, is now considered as a cluster off different cells, and each cell houses a base station or a mobile tower. The logic behind this is pretty much simple. If one cell in a cluster is using frequency F, then no other cell within the same cluster can use the same frequency. Since the Callisto will be made off seven hexagons, there needs to be seven different frequency bands allotted to tell. But why, hexagon? You see it's about German tree. Try to divide the geographical area into circles. When you do so, you miss out on two important parts one the outer boundary off the circle and to the intersections off the circle. So the consumers traveling through or residing on those missing out parts off the geographical area would be difficult to handle because then the towers will be confused about which users to cater and which not do. Similarly, if we take square, it is difficult to cover an abstract area using squares. You will miss out a lot due to the edges Hacks. Evans is the closest you can get to cover the full area, often abstract shape and so entire regions. I'm talking about cities states. Countries were divided into hundreds and thousands off different hexagons toe act as the housing off the towers are bay stations. It also made frequency allocation pretty much easier because just like allotting different frequencies is important. Making the frequencies reusable is also important. The spectrum is limited. In other words, we can't just go around allotting random frequencies to random and tennis. That's not how it works. We need to make sure that we can reuse the frequencies as much as possible to cater as many consumers as possible. Within the ban available to a service provider, Cellular approach made it easier than ever. We mention that a cluster cannot have repeated frequencies, but it also means that outside the cluster the frequencies can be used again. And if we have a standard pattern. For that, we can make sure, at least on paper, that frequencies won't clash with each other. For example, check out these dark blue hexagons. They can share the same frequency without interfering with each other, and the process to map them is also pretty simple. Take one cell a lot of frequency, say if one moved to sell straight and one cell adjacent and the same frequency can be reused, So the ground for frequency allocation was set. Next challenge Waas how to utilize the allotted frequency as efficiently as possible within a cell. And to address that, we will take a look at what is multiple access in the next lecture. Till then, happy learning. And I hope you have a nice day. 11. Catering the crowd with Multiple Access: hello and welcome back to the class off energy. In previous lecture, we saw how cellular abroad off frequency allocation makes it really easy and smooth for service providers to utilize their frequency spectrum efficiently, and you reuse it smartly as well. Now let's talk about multiple access. It's not about a larger geographical area. It's about a particular cell. By now, you already know that in every cell there's a base station or mobile tower, which utilizes a certain band off frequency and within the same cell. That can be quite a large amount off users. Or, more importantly, that can be a growing number off users to make sure that carriers can cater as many users as possible by providing the frequencies they require whenever they required. The solution was multiple access. Multiple access, as the name suggests, means allowing more people to use the spectrum without compromising the quality off service . Consider this problem as a bunch of people sitting in a room trying to dock. The simplest scenario would be that there's only one speaker and everyone else is listening . It's like a broadcast scenario, and that's just way too ideal. If we take this infrequency stones. It means allocating the whole band to just one user. But that's never the case, right? The problem is not like that. It is more like we're sitting in a room full of people and everyone wants to say something . It is most likely that when everyone is speaking, they don't want to broadcast. The messages are intended for a certain group of people and most likely for a certain someone. But if everyone is speaking at the same time, it will just be noise. How will anyone be able to figure out what the other person was saying, especially when the other person is not sitting right next to them to solve this issue? The first approach. Waas. Everyone should wait for that done in terms of time, which means that if this girl wants to say something to this guy wearing a saffron T shirt , everyone else should remain quiet so that she can say whatever she wants. And she can also get the response in return. And others can follow the same pattern as well, which means that their conversations were divided by timed Don's. If we bring this solution the wireless communication, it means keeping the frequency man intact, only allotting it to each and every user for a limited time slot. How does that work? Well, it does work because the frequency that we're using its in mega herds, the antennas are capable of producing millions off zeros and ones in just a single second. And we don't generate that much voice data, so we don't need the whole band for the entire time off conversation. The Times larger would be allotted in milliseconds, and while the cell phones wait for their turns, they can do the background processing like turning the data into digital. And while you're transmitting it, other users can do the same. This pretty, efficient way, by the way, where user gets the whole band, but for a very limited time slot. This is called D DME, or Time division multiple access, which means allowing multiple people toe access the same frequency, but for a limited amount of time, dividing the users not by frequency but by name slops. The other way to go around this asking different set of people who use different pitch to communicate, does them in just shout do off them, can whisper and to off them can talk in normal voice, and the listeners focus will be concentrated to the pitch t want to hear that's called wended by pitch. If we map it to the frequency problem, it means giving a chunk off frequency out off the entire band for unlimited amount of time to each and every user. Instead of sharing frequency for a limited time, slots were keeping a short cut off frequency. All four are cells for incident. Amount of time. This is not a bad way, either. But when the consumers grew even higher, both of these methods are likely to fall shot. So the best way would be that everyone sitting in the room takes their time turn, and they use different pitches as well. This is a hybrid off DBM on FDA me. In other words, we are dividing users by time, slots on by frequencies. We are giving them a limited frequency for a limited amount of time slots, and it still works because the spectrum is just so wide. But there was still one aspect left to be treated, and that was security. In the next lecture will talk about security in duty and how it did some revolutionary changes compared to one G, then happy learning. And I hope you have an absolutely fantastic day. 12. Securing 2G: hello and welcome back to the class off. Fungi were discussing duty, and we have seen digital communication, cellular approach and multiple access. Now it's time to talk about the elephant in the room, the security in duty and to fulfill the intended promises on security. The approach was all about housing the sensitive data in a model in a way that it remains non exclusive to the device manufacturer or mobile device manufacturer, and it also remains always accessible to the user. In other words, it was all about decoupling, the mobile network service provider and the device manufacturer, even if the service provider was down. For some reason, the consumer could use someone else's service and all of this while making sure that his security is not compromised. To do that, a small storage chip was introduced. Called SIM, or subscriber identity module, it contains a lot off sensitive information like international mobile subscriber identity, short form I am as I, which was a result off making global mobile user database unified and getting rid of problems like false identities. Then Sim contained unique serial number for the same itself, a pin number dedicated to same key to unlock the AMS I information location, area, identity toe, Identify which area is local to the same and which falls under the roaming section. And finally, a few emergency contacts. And this was just the beginning. Or what time the storage capacity off sim grew higher in the size grew smaller so it could contain even more information. Like more contacts in terms of transmission. Mobile phones were now not just sending a stream off data with a pin on our fingerprint. They were sending sim information along with compressed and encrypted user data, which means the use of message, so s Breuder information, recipient information and time stamp. All of these things made filtering targeted consumer a lot easier and having 40 receipts less likely to happen. All of this information was digital, which means the phone was still only transmitting zeros and ones. And believe it or not, this whole chunk off information was still smaller. Then the an election off user information and are a fingerprint alone this baby way for a lot off mobile services like God's SMS, which stand for shark messaging services. Picture messages. Remember those black and white dots which used to create some pictures. Well, that's what we're talking about. Mm. A service, interactive quality tones and primary web browsing. And this was not a small feat from being just a facility or a utility to access. Mobile phones were becoming a culture, a habit off mankind. They were staying in the pockets all day, every day and the humanity waas growing around the cell phones. They were becoming the primary way of communication and telecom giants knew what this meant . Major companies like 80 anti and Risen in U. S. A. Airtel in India and water phone in Germany and Australia made sure not to hold back when it comes to investment for two G. And that was just the beginning. Do G had began a journey off global dominance to cell phones. We can throw more light on it by summarizing it. Really Do JI is the second generation off violence communication. It is the first fully adapted cellular network with digital transmission and reception. This answers one more question. Why did we cover cellular approach indu jee and not in one d was there nor cells prior to do Gee Well, in some cases they were, but they were never fully adapted. Do Ji was the technology which widespread the adoption off digital transmission, reception and cellular networks. The signal, transmission and reception, of course, mostly relied on a combination off DDM A and F DME, which means a hybrid at mostly 900 to 1800 megahertz. This was also called GSM, which stands for global system for mobile communication. The name itself suggests that the scope is not regional, it is global duty enabled a lot of extra services, just as we saw earlier, like multimedia SMS and primary web browsing through GPRS, Yuji started in 1992 and was spread across more than 150 countries, with most of the countries having more than one carrier. This matters a lot because having more than one carrier always keeps everyone on those in terms of competition. They know they can lose out, so they will always keep the quality of service in check. This was a major development compared toa one G, so the GSM and GPRS duty had literally achieved a lot, and it was also a lot cheaper than one G. I still remember first generation service, Breuder's charging for incoming and outgoing services simultaneously as well as call rates being sky high. That was changed by duty. It was accessible to all it was affordable to all. So what's duty? Perfect. Well, we will answer that question in the next lecture. Do then happy learning. And I hope you have a great day. 13. Extra Story 02: Impure Intents: total communication spectrum off a country is a massive band of frequencies which can be used for various applications by very service, Breuder's and Declines. The spectrum is divided into smaller bands, and each man is allocated to respective service breuder by the Norman body. Regulating the communications such as FCC or federal communications commissions in U. S. Distribution can take place where auction, where the highest bidder gets the largest or the most convenient ban. And if the bits are not high enough, pants are leased to the company's fulfilling necessary requirements at a base price. But unfortunately, this was not the case with India. In 2007 India was ready to expand that Luigi Networks to attract more customers and increase their quality off service. And to do so, the O. T. Or Department of Telecommunication, which is FCC equivalent off India appointed a new telecom minister in 2000 and eight. Telecom minister declared that the country was ready to distribute wider spectrum, but not to auctions or conditions. The spectrum was going to be distributed on a first come first serve basis. That was not the only absurd thing. The price off the spectrum was going to be the same as the last distribution, which had taken place in 2000 and one. This raised many eyebrows, including the ones off national finance minister, But everyone let it slide for 10 after a bunch off other biased actions. A major chunk of spectrum was given to companies named Unitech and Swan. If you're Indian student, you might be wondering that if these companies correct such massive deals, why haven't you heard off them or their services? That's because Unitech was a company with zero telecom experience. After acquiring the spectrum, they sold almost 60% off their stocks to Telenor and branded themselves, as you know, they had acquired 25% of the spectrum. But instead of providing quality of data services, they went for gimmicks like free night calling, and we can guess how that had done around. On the other hand, Swan also had zero telecom experience. After acquiring the spectrum, they did not even build a single mobile tower. Nothing was there. They had just got spectrum to share it on higher rates. And as if that wasn't enough, the amount they had acquired was almost 40% off the total distributed man for all, 65% off newly open spectrum went in the wrong hands and at some point of time was almost unusable. This resulted in a stagnated situation where mobile phone customers with no improvement in quality of service or north reduction off cost. It also resulted in slower start off Internet powered businesses like e commas and video content in India. In year 2011 Crime Branch investigation took place which ended up in imprisonment off the telecom minister. That's not are a year later, Supreme Court of India cancelled the spectrum distribution off 2008 claiming it was unethical. After adjusting the figures chronologically, Indian government realized that they had suffered a loss off almost $42 billion. This and other scams also resulted in the loss off 10 ruling party in 2014 general elections. To put this unethical scam on global perspective, Time magazine called it the second biggest abuse off power in the history off modern world . It is a seem for any industry to be victim off such practices, but only way to recover from it is to move forward in the next section will explore third generation off mobile communication, then happy learning, and I hope you have a fantastic day 14. The Intents behind 3G: hello and welcome back to the class off fudgy. In previous section, we discussed everything about duty, from intent toe action to issues, and we're going to follow the same pattern for three G as well. So let's start with the intent. Much like its previous generations, three G also had a pretty clear set off intense, with 1st 1 being the solution off the biggest issue off duty making mobile Internet foster and by faster I mean much faster. Another intern was regarding customer satisfaction, which means improving quality off service that was not particularly related to treaty. But it was a necessity off the time due to heavy competition and almost every new telecom company bringing something new to the table. The veterans had two degrees their service cost and improve important aspect, like call security and finally, something which never goes out of the bucket list off intense increased the number of customer base. Yep, growing the business is is as important as growing the technology. By now, you're already familiar with the pattern, so keep these intense in mind when we talk about the actions which were taken and implemented to bring three G to life in the next session, we'll start talking about the actions behind three G and fall deeper understanding around it, Delenn. Happy learning. And I hope you have a fantastic day. 15. Understanding Cellular Call Hand-offs: Hello and welcome back to the class off fungi in previous lecture, which a brief look at the intense behind three G. Now it's time to shift to the actions. Let's go in the difficult problem solving manner. We have already discussed multiple access. Previously, it was an efficient way. So multiple customers using same band of frequencies we used to share the spectrum by means off time slots on by means of frequencies. Now the question is, if the intent is all about increasing the customer base and growing the business, it is quite likely that you will have more evolving number off users under the same base station. And if the number keeps on growing, remain out of spectrum. So what to do? Arguably, you can see that we can just increase the number off cells, which means we can make the cellular network denser by making the range off the cells smaller and increasing the number off total base stations or total transmission towers. That would mean that even if the number of customers grew, the spectrum would be shared within same or less amount of people. But there's an issue, and it is called the handoff for the part of audience who are already students off electronic communication. You might be wondering, why hadn't we spoken off handouts when we were discussing duty? Because handoffs placed significant rule in this discussion, so we were never going to ditch it. But it makes more sense to cover it right now. Let's get further to understand handles properly. We need to take a look at something which we were taking for granted for a while now, which is how does the call get connected? This may seem like one of the most primary things to learn, but if we had taken that route and pile your head up with a lot of theories, you would have lost interest in the topic. So it is better to London topic when its importance comes into the picture. Let's get started. Let's say we have a cell tower also known as a base station, and we have a mobile phone users who is within the range off the base station or the cell tower to perform the action off, something known as connecting. To call the user first ofall sends a request control signal through their cell phone. These requests control signals are received by the base station or the cell Dow antennas, and they're verified. Once they're verified, these signals are processed. The request signal includes important details off Ala and receiver ends. So once the signal is ratified, the tower is ready to send the request to either the receiving user himself or to another tower or base station where the receiver is located. If the receiver is phone, available the cell tower since a confirmation signal to the mobile phone user. By the way, if the receiver is not phone available, that becomes a different case. And we received a different kind off confirmation signal, which you might recognize as one off the tunes, which play during the receiver off. Your call is busy. It sounds something like this. The person you are trying to call is currently busy, and that's how the call connection process works. But we can never assume that the users are going to remain stationary, which means that either the collar himself or the receiver matching their places during their own call as well. And while doing so, they me switched the cells, which means that Amy Shifter location from one cell to another. We have already seen that when we switch the cells, the adjacent cells never shared the same frequency. The frequency needs to be allocated again. It needs to be reconfigured. The user data needs to be sent to the edges and sell. And adjacent cell needs to make sure that it has enough resources to keep the call. Process continued because by no means can any telecom company afford to have its users face call terminations when they're switching the cells. So this smooth transition from one cell to the adjacent cell it's called handles. The name itself is quite suitable. The base station off one cell, hands off the information off the call to the base station off another cell, and the new or the adjacent cell takes care off the call to make sure user has a satisfactory experience. If we take this phenomenon in consideration for the solution we had proposed earlier, which was all about making the cellular network more tense and increasing the number off cells, it would also mean that we would increase the number off handles, and that is a problem. You might be wondering if handoff is a smooth process. Why Is it a problem? The thing is, handoff is not just about sharing the frequencies, the verification off the user verification off the location. Which means whether the user is still in the local area. Or is he in the roaming state, maintaining the security allocation off the frequency. Everything is computation, intense as well. It just complicates the network even more, which can bring more delays, mortal agencies and potentially more called terminations. So growing the number off sales, at least at this point of time, is not the best solution. You can say that growing the cells waas a rejected solution, which means it didn't work out. In the next lecture, we will talk about a solution which did walk out till then, Happy learning. And as always, I hope you have a fantastic day. 16. Understanding Code Division Multiple Access: Hello and welcome back to the class off RG. In previous lecture, we talked about handoffs and how denser cellular network was not to go to solution for three G. We also promised that in this lecture we will talk about a solution which did work out for three D and that is CD Emmy, also known as Go division Multiple access. So what is it? Let's check it out. The best way to understand code division multiple access is to have another take on the same problem we have seen earlier. The one with multiple people in the room and everyone having something to say. We had already seen two off the solutions available. First was about taking time turns, which could be translated to Time division multiple access. And the second was about sharing different different pictures, which was about frequency division multiple access. Well, here's another one. Take an ideal case off thes people being users off different native languages. Just think about it. What if every set off people in the room are speaking different language? It means that the unintended languages will just act as a noise, and focusing on your particular conversation will not be a big issue here. The woman is speaking in Hindi and the man is responding in Hindi. The bearded guy and his partner are speaking in English, whereas the other two are speaking in Mandarin. The advantage is the woman doesn't know Mandarin and the guy with the bear doesn't know Hindi or Mandarin either. Which means that whatever the other people are speaking is your noise for him, and he can simply concentrate his focus on the English conversation. This is called divided by language. Now let's translate this into the context of telecommunication. Earlier Indu jee we were working with relatively low frequency and the users were divided by time tones and pitch. I said relatively low because the frequency was higher than one G, but it was still lower than what was allotted for military purposes. The divided by language solution was also implemented for military personnel as it granted more security and efficiency. But more on that later, we need to replace the notion off language with goat, and once we do so, it becomes code division multiple access for consumers. Wait, what gold? What division? What are we talking about? Let's expand on this further. As you already know, the antennas transmit and receive data phrase in terms of code division multiple access. The data frame was divided into two parts. The court portion and the data portion. The court was different for each and every user, and it was exclusive to him. Instead of time, frame and frequency, they users were now identified by a unique code. This simplified a lot of things. The court could be one of the two types. Either it could be mutually autobahn record, which was used for military purposes. Or it could be pseudo random court, which was used by consumer service providers. Thes scores were used to identify the users, which means that every data frame carrying a particular chord belonged to the same user. Now it was up to the base station or the antenna off cellular tower to determine which frequency range to use. To transmit this particular frame off data. The base station was not limited or bound by any assigned frequency. It could use whatever it had within its own pool. Because the user was not identified by the frequency conficker. He was identified by the court it possessed while doing all of this. We had mentioned earlier as well that the frequency band was enlarged due to less user information or compressed user information within the cord and larger frequency, we could transmit more data in each frame. This allowed many forms off later to be introduced into the world off mobile communication . Apart from voice calls, users could also make video calls or video streaming. They could do heavy of opposing compared to do G. They could share or receive geographic coordinates to map applications. Or they could be exchanging endless data for social media applications. And just like how we used to map the users earlier in a particular box now, the users boundaries had increased. A single users data could travel from any off the boxes or even more than one boxes at the same time. That's why CD Emmy was also known as spread spectrum technology. Because the user information was spread across the spectrum, it was not limited to a particular conflict frequency. The proper three G adoption off. This technology was known as high frequency W C D M E, where w stood for wideband. This had a lot of advantages. First, ofall high frequency meant less noise because the higher the frequency goes, the lower noises can penetrate. It also meant it was time to say goodbye to jamming because now the frequency was so high the jamming was not possible. Pseudo random cord improved the notion off security. It was more difficult to track the calls alleged innately, unless the carrier itself Freud, the information. And all of this led to smooth the calls, smoother handoffs and higher quality off service, which fits perfectly with the intense off three G. This technology was so powerful that it gene the notion off mobile communication. And that's why most off the three g waas built around different protocols off CD and May. These are just different names for different specifications off the same protocol where W. C. D. M. A. Had the highest frequency band where CD anyone had the lowest one. But this doesn't allow us to judge these protocols. The size off the frequency band does not always define the quality off so exploited by carrier or even the data speed you might get under the certain protocol. The thing is, mostly the spectrum size depends on the number off users so highly populated areas are most likely to have mammoth sized frequency bands as less populated areas in just work with smaller bands as well, and they can still provide better connectivity. With that said, it's time to summarize treating trivially. It is the third generation off wireless communication. NTT DoCoMo in Japan was the first to commercially launch it with W. C. D. M s support in 2000 and one treaty channels were 1.25 megahertz wide, compared to 200 kilohertz off duty. Don't confuse it with Spectrum Limit or the Frequency man allocated to the base station. They are different things. Channel indicates frequencies allocated toe a particle. A user. Where's the band? Indicates frequency available to the whole Bay Station. And by the stats, you can say a three D channels was six times or more wider than do the ones. Mix it with the compressed user information, and you will realize how the data frames off. Three G Good income pass really complicated and lot size data such as video calls or video streaming, which brings up the next point. Higher data rates. Tighter security due to high frequency and better quality off service just and we have seen with the W C D. M E. Most importantly, this spot a necessary shift in the paradigm off how mobile communication was treated and the phones were not just calling device is anymore. They were turning into smartphones the devices that could do a lot more that could house abs, which were as smart or as functional as computer software s users were literally holding small computers in their hands, and users could do a turn off things with it. Techstat, social media, gaming, education, APS. Everything was now on the tip of your fingers, which is nothing less than amazing. And this was the third generation off three g off mobile communication. In the next lecture, we will talk about how humanity's greed never stops and something can never stay perfect by looking at the issues off three G did, then happy learning. And I hope you have a great day 17. Good but not good enough: Issues of 3G: Hello and welcome back to the class off fungi. Previously, we took a look at Cdn May and we also describe treaty. Now it's time to talk about issues off resume. You might think three G was almost too perfect. They shouldn't be much issues with Fiji about from growing requirement off Internet speed etcetera. Well, it turns out things were less optimistic as far as the issues off three D were concerned. Let's take a look at them. First of all, the adoption and roll out time off three G was much longer than what the technology could afford, because three G was all about higher frequency and better infrastructure service. Breuder's had to roll out upgrades to the infra right after establishing Koji as well, and not only that they had to take part in multiple auctions to increase that total available frequency band. These actions were not short lived. It almost took like decade for the world to get covered under Fiji, nations like Japan and U. S were the initial wants to get a hold on three G. Even at this point of time, there are still places in the world where three g has not been adapted fully yet Second High Frequency CD Emmy did allow cheaper call rates, but that didn't make much of the difference in terms off mobile Internet pricing. Three G mobile data was absolutely costly, and we had mentioned earlier that three G had paved the way for mobile application market. And, well, perhaps we're not waiting for three D Internet to be faster. They were just getting smarter. Mobile phones were needing more Internet than what the cellular companies could provide, and that May 3 g a second priority compared the WiFi. In fact, you can still see notifications off heavy applications insisting you to download them using WiFi and not using your mobile data. This notion was not healthy for the market off Telecom service providers reducing the cost was now on the top off the bucket list. And while doing so, they had to make sure that they met the ever growing data requirements off the smartphone world. So the simple question waas, what next? You ready? Higher, further faster babies 18. Extra Story 03: Setting up the Market Landscape with/without FRAND: innovations keep the world moving. Bait fire well off the smartphone. Every innovation has its own significance, but some are more complex and layered than the other ones. For example, the evolution off smartphone in walls. Innovation in multiple aspects such as the U I. The software and the communication Mahdi use beat a person or organization. Thes individual and focused innovations can be a great source off monetization and recognition. That's why, then recorded with precise details such as the time and place of creation, the creator himself demonstrated proof off working novelty or uniqueness and other details . Such a record is called a patient. The Peyton's are acknowledged by globally recognized and register organizations and their granted to the creator or innovator. Since the world is moving at a pace like never before yearly, there a lot of patents by a lot of people and they very significantly in terms off usefulness, importance and uniqueness in case of wireless communication. Some of these Peyton's become the base behind any technology or standard. For example, hardware modulated design for Syria. Me, such important Peyton's are called STP is all standard essential patents. To put it simply, recipes attract a lot of attraction and can bring a lot of money in terms. Off license royalties generally, once thes Peyton's, are recognized as recipes. There are a lot of companies asking for the license to use them. And, of course, different companies have different budget limits. It becomes an important decision about whom to grant the licence and at what price. Acquiring the SCP licenses can literally shape the market. It can decide which companies are going to stay on the top off the competition and which ones are going to fall back. This makes it more important than ever that the distribution off a sippy licenses is not done in any biased or unethical way. And that's where Friend comes into play. But what is friend? Even though it sounds like a type of error for friend, be assured it isn't France is the acronym off Fair, reasonable and non discriminatory. It's a voluntary agreement between the organization, which defines the standards and a sippy holder. If A S a P holder voluntarily agrees to follow friend guidelines for licensed distribution , it not only stops them from making attempts off market manipulation, but you can also get them prosecuted by court. In some countries, this was important to maintain a healthy growth off well established companies as well as giving opportunities to the budding ones. Or at least that's what they thought. On paper. Implementing friend can get really complicated on legislator grounds, mostly licensure and licensee companies are from different countries. And if any one of the country's does not consider friend as a base for prosecution, the issues can remain lingering forever. One such case happened between Swedish telecom giant Ericsson and Indian smartphone manufacturer Micromax Micromax was using recipes licensed by Ericsson, which had volunteered to follow friend. But eventually Exxon started putting conditions on SMP licenses and forced Micromax to buy extra licenses for Peyton that they didn't do in the choir. Micromax tried to take it to the court, but to come he got bankrupt and had to shut down before the case could even get resolved. That's not all. The existence of friend has divided global telecom companies into two major factions. Those who support friend and those who don't. And since France is voluntary, both factions can put up their opinions loud and clear. The supporters acknowledge the fact that they have used previous patents as well. So it makes sense to distribute Jeep or royalty free licenses, while opposition acknowledges that change in business and market trends, and they think that it is obvious to make profit out off their heart on innovations. While the supporters are concerned about growing companies, the opposition is concerned about their own security. And on top of that, just because they haven't volunteered for friend doesn't mean they will necessarily do unethical practices that is practically unarguable. And finally, whether the opposition has any will to join friend in future is always a thought in process . Some off the major companies who decided not to volunteer for friend was Samsung. It DNT Qualcomm, Verizon and Bobby. They also happen to be the biggest investors in delicate R and D, and the recipes have just increased over time. So it's friend less fair and more charitable. Well, no, but the companies have clearly showcased their priority, and also the nature in with the smart phone and telecom market will grow further. Contrary to software market s appeal, Essences will play a major role in the finance off the giants, and that is how the market is shaped In the next sessions, we will explore Forgy Didn't then happy learning. And I hope you have a fantastic day. 19. The Intents behind 4G: At this point, it might be easy for you to figure out the intense off a wireless com generation. They're mostly based on solving issues with the previous one while defining something new for itself. Forgy had a clear vision to provide wired broadband great speed and bandwidth on while a cellular Internet. As always, it also wanted to make telecom cheaper, better and more expensive to be fairly honest. After an already revolutionary treaty, it was easier said than done in the next lectures, we will take a look at the actions that were taken to make Forgey possible. Until then, happy learning, and I hope you have a fabulous day. 20. Understanding Circuit Switched and Packet Switched Networks: Hello and welcome to the class off fudgy. While three D was built on a strong foundation, off duty for G decided to revamp the infrastructure of wireless communication from its deepest roots. It started with changing the network switching method. So what used to be and what changes were made? Let's start with what it used to be and that is circuit switched networks. Imagine that you have to geographical areas A and B, both a fairly large and the house. A number off base stations took over the entire region with one master switching center or MSC VSE stop to embassies, an MSC stock to each other. If there's another third area, all three embassies would communicate with one another as well within a particular geographic area. Bay Station Sends Data Streams to Master If you're wondering what is a data stream, it is a stream off encoded data sent by your mobile device in binary. The streams are then transported wire towers. If a user in Area A wants to connect to user from Area B, he has to do it while multiple dollars, including MSC's and his data stream, passes through an actual physical or aerial link between these towers before being delivered to destination user. For decoding. MSC takes data stream from physical BS, sees one by one and switches the connection links accordingly. Such an arrangement is called circuit switch networks. The circuit switched looks something like this there used to apply physical switches for data stream routing. When circuit switch networks were implemented earlier, the wireless community had a lot of expectations from it. So what they fulfilled in reality, they were created toe handle, rapidly growing Internet traffic. But in reality, the topology wasn't as capable as people thought. Internet agree way too fast, and circuit switch networks were not sufficient to rectify the Internet growth. Since circuit switch networks had dedicated physical connections, they were expected to sow more reliability. But when traffic is way too high for physical switches to perform switching operations, many connections are dropped. Or come these issues. Packet switch networks were invented back it switch networks ask one question and take its answer as their base philosophy. The question waas. If more than smartphones work like computers, why can't they talk like computers to expand upon it? Let's save to smartphones. Want to share some information like image where Internet. Then there are supervisors on both and off the communication. While the sender is sending the image, it can't send it as a whole. Therefore, the image is encrypted and turned into multiple small blocks. Each of these blocks are given meta information like block number and send a receiver. Details travel smoothly. Then the center supervisor. Let's receiver, supervise and know that it is sending a chunk off data in 16 blocks or packers number as 1 to 16. Accordingly, once the receiver is ready, the process begins. Have to send up in the Civil War in the same geographical area as earlier, meaning a and B. Now the data can transfer to multiple parts simultaneously. Because it is divided into packets, the sequences can be corrected even if there were delays or drops on route. This whole arrangement is known as packet switch networks. Once the sending process is completed, receiver checks if all of them are present. If it comes to know that few off them were absent, it can always ask for remaining copies to send out. After counting the number off packets, the receivers supervisor comes the order off package. If it is messy. They can be rearranged, then there, decoded and decrypted, and the receiver gets the same image that was sent by the sender. This is how the packet switch networks work, and this Mr Supervisor is known as TCP, or transmission control protocol, which is the heart off the Internet. This has multiple advantages. For example, earlier, with the circuits, which spread spectrum, Weiss and data were treated differently and was sent on different ranges of frequencies. Now the data and voice can be treated equally, and they can travel together as well, sending y school data along with Internet. It's called Rio I P, or Voice over Internet Protocol. Some off the applications extensively, using the I P to make free Internet based calls our Skype dual line WhatsApp and hang out. And they all worked pretty well. So what are the pros and cons off this arrangement? It opens up more panel data transmission possibilities with an opportunity to utilize spectrum more efficiently. On the other hand, the connections are not as liable as circuits, which networks due to the links not being dedicated. It is power efficient, but it may cause leading sees and finally it is cheaper, much, much cheaper. But this contradiction comes to the price off high chances off packet losses. If we sum this up, the process are too lucrative to let go. So ideally, the focus should be on making up for the cons to do so. Let's ask ourselves some questions. First of all, why does the connection reliably to get compromised? The answer is simple. If we compare GSM envy Hoiby Channels, a GSM channel would have dedicated users to so who only use voice. On the other hand, the I P Channel might help both voice and data users. So when both channels are packed, GSM easily refuses new connections, while GOP doesn't deny them. But the channel gets crowded and reduces connection reliability. Second question is what causes laden sees and losses. Let's take a Toby example again. Ideally, in case of GSM connection, the data would have traveled directly from a Toby on a dedicated link, but practically even thes dedicated area links. How obstacles which can slow down the data stream still mostly the content remains intact. On the other hand, we your I p makes data packets take all optimized Rob's due to wearing amount of signal, reflections and other herders some packets might reach later compared to others, while some might fade away or not rich at all. So now we know the causes behind the issues. But what about the solutions? Solutions are quite simple, though. We need to have stronger signals which feed as less as possible with higher bandwidth it and with more Rapps. So much so that we might also be able to send backup copies off packets instead of them getting lost. It was definitely easier demanded than done. We had reached a pinnacle off what could be achieved with legacy infrastructure. So it was time to revamp it. In the next lecture, we will see. How did that happen until then, Happy learning. And I hope you have a fantastic day. 21. Understanding Antennas and MIMO: Hello and welcome back to the class off I G. In the last lecture, we talked about revamping the infrastructure and what could be the better thing to really RAM then entered us. But before revamping them, let's understand what entered us are and how do they work. If we simplified dozens off textbook definitions available, an antenna is simply a device that communicates wire thin air vibrations that we call frequencies to understand it's working. Let's take the basic most antenna as an example. First, if we take two right angle conductor pools and pass electricity through them in this direction, it creates an electric field, which goes outward from the positive end of the current flow. While going inward to the negative end. This concept is called Half Will Dipole Antenna. If you're confused about how the name came into existence, you can take a look at the way of representation by tweaking the roar and the current being passed. The direction and size off the electric really can also be tweet. For example, if we wrote it one off these rods 90 degrees, it becomes an omni directional antenna. When I speak the word omnidirectional, this is what most people think off. But you see, that's quite not how it works in an omnidirectional antenna. The only directional in nature comes from two major propagation lobes instead of one. These lobes create omni directional coverage, but it also has a couple of blind spots. These are the cross sections off the lobes. If we spend them and look at the top angle off the coverage. It looks like this doughnut, but the doctor area signifies the blind spots, but it's pretty small compared to the coverage area. So far. These antennas are good but not suitable for high frequencies for high frequency propagation. Take this arrangement into consideration where we have a current feeder attached to the poor. Political oppose. If we marked the current direction, this is how the whales would propagate. But that's ideal situation. Practically, we would get small amount off downward or backward propagation as well. To control it, we can have another rod even bigger than the one attached to the feeder, and we can call it the Reflector as it reflects the waves from unwanted directions. Similarly, we can also install guide rods to make the propagated waves even more precise. in their focused direction. Such an antenna is called a directional antenna. It's pretty good to throw high frequencies at relatively far distances, but the antenna is just one directional. What about the other ones? Keeping the earliest situation in mind. IFI output. Multiple directional antennas toe a multiplex are and input streams off data packets. Studio multiplex, sir. Then we can create an omnidirectional propagation structure which supports high frequencies as well. These groups off and owners are called array antenna. And this technique is called my mo, which stands for multiple in multiple. Out. What it provides is stronger signals, higher bandwidth with more outs and more pallor transmission Exactly what we need it. So the wait was over In the next lecture, we will define Forgy till then happy learning. And I hope you have a fantastic day. 22. It is / It almost is / It will eventually be 4G: hello and welcome back to the class off. Fungi were ready to define for G, and this time the task was given toe i t. You or International Telecom Union, which is simply a lot of companies and government agencies under United Nations coming together to define standards off wireless communication. According to them, Trivoli, 40 is the fourth generation off mobile communication. It had minimum speed off 100 MBPs, with peak speeds upto one gigabits per second. Quite impressive. It was also the first ever. All I be communication with Rio. I be joining the Internet. It had potential to open huge markets for video streaming and cloud based services. Some of the initial implementation off 40 were carried out by Wall Way as hardware provider and Netcom as service breuder in Norway. All of this is pretty cool. But what about some of the widely used and hurt terms like for GLT, Rio lt or even lt advanced. There's an interesting story behind it. After 40 was defined, it was a major task to roll it out across the world. The rollout needed skills, time and, most importantly, money, so the companies had a small proposal, they said there I do. We help come significantly far from three g. We agree that we have not reached the performance Treasure off 40 but we're progressing and we will get there sooner or later. How about we agree upon a constructive solution deployed Better experience to the customers . This sounds pretty fishy, but they actually meant waas 40 was way too much for them to catch up that they needed more money and investment and they would miss out majorly on the 40 smartphone market hype. So they were asking idea to make forge requirements less strict off course I do. You can't do that once it has defined for G. So instead, they allowed companies to sell half cooked for G by calling it lt or long term evolution. This by definition, meant we weren't going to get the real 40 anytime soon. And if that's not enough, they were pretty sure that since majority of customers don't really know what is 40 they will think either lt itself is for G R. Lt is something better than 40 happy times, right? Hey, Siri, you're the best Theo Bingo! Boom! Love that one. After a few years since for GLT was sold as 40. Once they had reached required milestones like minimum speed and top speeds along with Rio I. P. They couldn't simply sell it as 40. That wouldn't be so attractive. So their branding it as lt advanced or something else like lt Advanced bro. In fact, some gutsy companies are also going far enough to call the by definition 40 as five g with , of course, an e trailing it for evolution. Sadly, it means 40 never got released the way it was defined. And with five g on the words, it will eventually just dust off. But on the bright side, healthy advanced is actual 40 in most cases. So we do get four K video streaming, better quality off services, required stats and upgraded tech. Fair enough, right? Totally. So this was 40 with all of its gimmicks and glory in next lecture will take a look at the issues of 40 then happy learning, and I hope you have a great day 23. Nitpicking issues of 4G and 4G Statsheet: Hello and welcome back to the class off RG. Pointing out issues with 40 is mostly neck picking. But since we're on it, as we have seen, it had impatient rollout, which meant that customers were tricked into buying half cope. 40 plans on top off that most of the times they also had to switch their mobile phones to leverage. Lt advanced. And finally I o T V is coming. And fortunate works are far from enough to solve it. Well, so what can solve it? Well, you guessed it right in next session will explore five G Until then, happy learning. And I hope you have a great day. 24. Extra Story 04: Monopoly done right: When it comes to Telecom, India has mostly been lagging behind the developed countries. After redistributing the duty spectrum post 2008 scandal and opening up three D frequencies , telecom companies like Airtel Bs and Water Phone Idea and Giacomo were having a stronghold with their loyal customers with different needs. While the price points off, their services may have been different, the price range was pretty much uniform. So what the customers happy with that? Not so much. Rather, it was quite the opposite, since most of the Internet based provisions were getting bulkier on data, customers were quite fed up and there were many reasons for it. The services were unreliable. You would get Ray less than promised data speed. At many places across the nation, the three D rollout was particularly very slow, more than half off the nation or still stuck on GPRS mobile Internet. And we all know how slow that Waas. On top of that, telecom companies were also indulging in leaking customer tedious to third party for spam and wrote easements. And ironically enough, India is one of the countries where WiFi hasn't been the mainstream way to access Internet public WiFi are either extremely slow or completely non existent. To put it into perspective. Around 2000 and 14 if a hours American was streaming Netflix and Spotify by using Siri for productivity improvement, an average Indian was annoyed at buffering YouTube videos. But at the praise goes, there's an opportunity hidden behind every problem and Reliance Geo. We're optimistic enough to recognize it. They were a new company trying to get into Indian telecom market, but the part wasn't easy for them. They had three major challenges to overcome in market. It was already crowded and dominated a nation full of customers that were less likely to try anything new due to previous disappointments and demand off unreasonably cheap services . Surprisingly enough, Geo managed to or come all tree off them. They beat the crowd with co existence. They generated excitement among customers, and they prided affordable mobile Internet that everyone was waiting for. Sounds too good to be true. So how did they do it? Let's look at all of the aspects one by one. First of all, the cheapest services. Forget cheap, deployed it free Forgy LTE data to everyone for almost six months and past that time window . They offered the cheapest Forgy later plants in the market. How cheap calling Waas and is totally free. And for mobile data, take a look. India is 0.2 cents. What is that per per gigabyte? Get out! Yeah. No, Yeah, really? To accomplish this, they stuck toe exclusively forging mobile network. No backward compatibility for two D or three D devices. You might be thinking that it was a societal move, since every potential customer would have had to buy a new four G smartphone. To solve this issue, they launched affordable and portable WiFi routers, which would run on 40 cellular networks. Second co existence, As we had mentioned earlier, the market was already crowded by telecom providers, so Jordan tried to replace them. Initially, it took advantage off the fact that most off the users were having dual SIM forms. Sergio became a second mobile number for every customer. This was a very convenient setting for Indian audience. In fact, it works so well that many people decided toe become Internet users. For the first time, businessman labors senior citizens, school students. Everyone got connected so fast and affordable mobile Internet, and they started building their lifestyles around it. Social life, commas, entertainment. Everything got ruined around Internet, and adoption wasn't so difficult because thes services already tried and tested by developed countries and privileged society off India. All of this had to pay off gee across the 1st 50 million customers in less than three months and eventually toward almost 25% national market share in two years. Just two years. This made Reliance Geo the fastest growing mobile network in the world ever. This was Monopoly done right. The next section will finally embark upon the creme dela creme. Off the scores satisfy G, then happy learning, and I hope you have a fantastic day. 25. The intents behind 5G: Hello and welcome back to the class off I g. We're finally here. Let's begin with the intent behind five g. It is supposed to be designed by keeping I ot and I previous six in mind I o. D stands for Internet of things where I P v six stands for Internet Protocol Version six, which is created to so billions off new Internet using devices that are going to come into the future with strong the Internet than ever. It is also aimed at making more solved ABS and less computer adapts to make flagship phone specs lighter without compromising the experience or all. Faggy is aiming for a smarter world with multiple sections getting I ot and AI enabled, like health care, government and transportation and, most importantly, money. Five g can potentially be the most lucrative technology for service providers ever. Now that we have talked about dense, it's time to go toe actions. To be honest, since Fi G hasn't been fully defined yet, calling the corn developments actions would be quite unfair. We should rather call them targets in the next lecture will explode targets off RG one by one. Till then, happy learning, and I hope you have a great day 26. A quick look at 5G Targets: Hello and welcome back to the class off fudgy. So let's see what we are targeting here. We're talking about smart homes, variable and mixed reality applications, self driving cars, artificial intelligence, Internet of things beyond home automation and multitasking users. These are fancy hopes. Why? To bet so much on fudgy. What role could fight you play in it. Let's check out one by one, starting with smart homes. It is another term for home automation. I OD. Gateway devices can be used to connect to the home appliances with multiple protocols like Bluetooth or WiFi. When these appliances are only connected to the Gateway device, which is essentially a specialized router, the gateway is connected the global Internet and its own cloud based services. Next up, speaking off mixed realities and wearables, they can be used for multiple purposes. They're essentially displayed, mounted on various gear, which allows applications to impose or augment graphics on certain things to make them more intuitive. It can be used for entertainment or promotion like ads product inside to make it more user friendly interactions to make boring stuff more fun and, most importantly, to rectify the paradigm off education by helping students visualize all concepts with much , much greater depth. But how does it work? Well, it uses camera off her smartphones or the one mounted on self to capture images and identify objects on celebrant. Objects are identified, the frames are sent to the cloud and injured un. They get animations and sound effects with appropriate scaling and image processing. From the cloud going on, we have the dream project off many, which is soon to be commercial reality called self driving cars. Love them or fear them. You can't not be intrigued by them. Cars will continuously need to send the location to the cloud, and appropriate route will be provided to them, along with instructions by performing real time analysis off geographical situations and traffic. Any error and they can be accidents every single second. So when there's later Z are unintended delays between requests and responses, it can be suicidal for such applications. Speaking off artificial intelligence, just think off it as smart assistance, which you use to predict your speech and don't useful information or do useful actions for you. If all of that competition is left on phone, they will be completely toasted smart, everything is still relatively far in the future and still seems much like SciFi. But once it comes into action, not just analytics, intelligence or actuacion, all of them will have to be done where cloud servers. And finally you would need smartphones, which can handle all of this while making sure they can still make cause all of this is way beyond 40 because since everything will be connected to the Internet, everything will require local or global I. P s the Freeport descent or con perspective and add these devices on full scale toe on current architectural. There's no way that any multiple access can handle this amount off individual connections. So what to do? Well, in the next lecture, we will talk about the first solution will then happy learning. And I hope you have a fantastic day. 27. Understanding 5G New Radio, Millimeter waves & Beamforming: Hello and welcome back to the class off fudgy In the section off RG. In last lecture, we saw how it was impossible to fit all of the future Internet enabled devices into current multiple access schemes. The first step toe overcome this is to expand the frequency man as always, but this time there's a lot more organized thought process behind it. And that, too, for a reason. The new proposed solution is called Fi G N R or fudgy New radio agenda off Hygiene. Your radio is to open up new bands while recycling old ones. These new man's include frequencies as high as millimeter veils, which is even greater than six gigahertz and off course. While we're added, we need utilize them efficiently. This demands three actions in total first reclaimed the Analog Man's but completely shutting down one G Second improvised the use off dodgy treaty and 40 bands to make sure they're not wasted on third open up licenses for millimetre waves. Gladly, the reclaim part is almost done. Nobody uses one in the world anymore. Well, about from Russia. The do G three G and four G bans are still divided into circuit and packet switch networks . The emphasis is to switch all of them toe packet switch networks, but eventually stopping the support for circuits. Which ones? But why? Well, if we look at consumer and so s Broida landscape, the consumers are divided into groups off duty three G and four G users. If the consumers keep this division up, the so S Breuder's will have a harder time, since they will have to keep backward compatibility settings and duty infrastructure up and running all the time, which can be costly. And eventually the cost will be recovered from the consumers, which means no cheaper plans. Instead, if they slowly move consumers to three g and rely before G, they can make those networks even cheaper while opening up frequencies for better uses. Pretty similar but less radical approach than shutting down one g finally opening up the new frequencies Let's have these time, was this height frequency Graf again, this time, high frequency means the event is happening too many times in a second. The wheels are really tick and the man is really wide. It can house more users than ever, and that is essentially what we need. But there some potential issues on saying potential issues because they are still being argued over and yet to be proved. One off those issues is low frequency and pass through objects directly, which was the case still now. But the same cannot be said for high frequency. It might get absorbed by the objects. On top of that, it will definitely travel much, much less distance compared to low frequency. You do the Wayland being lower. So what to do? One possible solution to house such high frequency is this. Remember how we used to place one BSC poor cell which had omni directional or array aunt in us? We can replace those antennas by multiple area and in us with much higher frequencies and much focused rails in much more directional fashion. This is called beam forming ah beam instead off a wail and one very conform large number off beams at different directions in a lot cell area, multiple off such beam forming antenna arrays can be placed to counter the short distance problem. We have already seen my mom that can be taken to a next stage by having even more outputs, multiplex and even wider inputs processed this is called MMO or massive my mom. But that has created a fear off users having their whole life around and tell us, apart from the installations being most time taking and potential chances off antenna robberies. What else can be so mad about it? Well, there's a significantly large faction that believes that since the large frequencies don't pass through our bodies and get absorbed, they can cause cancer. And it can cause damage to other elements off environment like birds, animals and trees as well. While the rest of the people argued that the chances off such high frequency causing cancer is as low as getting cancer by drinking one cup of coffee a day, yes, in theories, those chances exist. But that has never stopped anyone from ordering the federal cappuccino. But a world full of antennas is not the only crazy thing. Remember Facebook. They're planning to spread Internet or flying carbon nanotube airplanes, while Google wants to do it with hot air balloons. 10 aren't the only ones in the stopped down Internet race. Amazon wants to do it with drones, while the slap plans to go 50 steps ahead and do it. We are satellites. But these are all Moonshots, and whether that will happen or not is highly unpredictable. The world is still divided in case off opening up the frequencies, so to look at their debate, let's check out the cheers and fierce off new radio. While new radio, interior employees, massive sustainability and wide spectrum, its implementation is going to be anything but standard. It will take enormous time while it fulfills the dream off, making all I be communication cheaper with cheaper data plans. Millimeter veils have potential health risks, which are yet to be verified. And while agency control is a dream come true, more damage to environment and biodiversity is certainly a nightmare. Times like these make you think that maybe it is better to say a few species off sparrows rather than making Siri capable of keeping my refrigerated orange juice perfectly cool while I wake up on my alarm. And yes, that's definitely a responsible way of thinking. It should be appreciated, but great minds at least give one shot to get the best of both worlds. And how do we do that? In next lecture, we'll see how we can make the world a better place without putting it into chaos with fudgy , then happy learning. And I hope you have a great day. 28. Best of both worlds with SDN for 5G: hello and welcome back to the class off five G. We were talking about trying to get the best of both worlds. Well, let's start with getting some fundamental acknowledgements. First five G has a different set of consumers. The earlier generations were just user themselves along with their cell phones in case off agit Oh, the customer can be a person with a smartphone and autonomous taxi or autonomous home appliances as well. They're going to be connected toe de Internet. I ot has never said that it's strictly needs to connect to cellular networks. And as far as Internet is concerned, the second acknowledgement is that it's a major entity. Phones, computers, Deng gers, land cables, fiber optics. Why find out us blue dudes? They're just so many ways to access and spread the Internet. But you don't necessarily have to stick toe one network policy. You cannot think of whole world covered with nothing but cellular towers. That's simply not how Internet works of course service Breuder's want to own as much money as they can so devil poetry that their network will handle everything, at least for now. Division to monopolize Internet to Single Technology is not just irrational. It is also irresponsible. Five. He doesn't need to take over the Internet. Five. He needs to expand itself by co existing with Internet in a constructive way. One of those constructive ways is STN. All software defined networking before we dive deep into it. Let's have a fun little game. The game is called named the devices. You will get a picture off a popular and looking device. You will have to identify what type of device it ISS. You will get 10 seconds to guess. And don't worry about points prize winning or losing its just about doing a fun little exercise while learning. With that out of the way, Let's get started. Here is your first device. What is this? It's the WiFi Noto. Here's your second device. What is it? It might be a bit trickier than before. What? I know you can do this. Correct. It's a switch Now. What is this? Bingo. It's the firewall. Next up. What is this? Oh, that's a cheat code right there. You read it, right? It's a load balancer. Finally, something. Everyone is family of it. What are these? And you're right. Yes, all of us here. All five devices. Don't worry if you got one some or all of them wrong, because, after all, it was on about learning. These pictures are pretty bulky to move around, so let's swap them with icons. There we go. Now let's place them in the right order and connect them. It seems like the solar is connected to the firewall, which then connects to the load balancer, which leads to switch. And finally, the router. This is a full fledged network, of course. At any point of time, we can have more than one off each elements to make more complex tech rocks. But let's take the simpler one for learning purposes. I understand it's working. Let's take a bunch of data packets with different security policies. If the server wants to send these packets to their out US first of all, they have to go to firewall that the firewall well done mine that two off the package are good to go, while one might call security threats. Then the load balancer distributes them evenly. A couple off switches, which turned out them to the intended router, all of the's network elements and the links between them is called the Network Lane. On the other hand, there configurations like port number protocols, firewall rules routing algorithm at such a considered as the control plane off the network . Until now, these two have been tightly coupled there, handled together, and they're visualized together as well. But if we separate both off these planes apart, we can get a new topology where the elements can now be centrally controlled through servers. To do so, we need to take two steps. Firstly, replace some off the hardware with software like firewalls and load, balance us and define them within this hours and secondly, much the rest off the elements to the servers by handing over their configuration rights or by giving the means to access their configurations. Then all we need is just one console to control the whole network. This concept is called SGN, or software defined networking. By definition, it is a network architecture but separated network and control plane by making the network centrally programmable and manageable, using software applications to manage consistencies and meat cutting edge requirements off low latency bandwidth applications. It is widely being used for cloud computing, but it has huge potential to extend for fudgy and allow fire G to seamlessly integrate with other forms off networks. As we had mentioned earlier. Faggy has many solutions possible, and not all of them are applicable everywhere. Having a load off high frequency antennas and a forest would be like wearing a raincoat on a beach during summer. It makes no sense. But if we restrict such solutions to limited industrial prum ices, it has massive potential to bring large scale automation for industrial coyote. We can't have a server for each and every tower out there, so it is important to extend something like as Thean faucet solutions. This can enormously reduce the time off deploying the network, and it also brings infrastructural agility. It provides finer control with better speed. Separating control Plane from natural plain allows control plane to be much more secure while network plane to be much more scalable, which fits their natures perfectly. And since the solution would be blindly applied toe unnecessary places in Charles, longtime safety off humans and other life forms. In the Lex lecture, we will take a look at what is the reasonable current state off Argie that then happy learning and have a fantastic day 29. Understanding what is and what isn't 5G: Hello and welcome back to the class off fudgy. In previous lectures, we saw some solutions to count off allergy problems with such constructive solutions on the plate. The fifth generation off wireless communication is the first attempt to bring millimeter waves to mobile communication. It is important to know that it hasn't been defined yet, and there is no standards set, which can be called fudgy. But there's a vision do so a 1,000,000 connections per square meter, compared to 4000 off them by 40. It focuses largely on low lit and see, and it is aimed to solve diverse network scenarios. Since Vijay hasn't been defined yet, there some misunderstandings about it as well. It is better to clear them out. Forced misunderstanding. It is 100 times faster than 40. No, it isn't. It simply isn't. The misunderstanding has been caused by two reasons. First, the people who underestimate 40 due to misleading lt offerings. But that's not even the major issue. Most off, these believers are confused between Layton see and and download speed. Yes, five G is aimed to be much faster in terms off Leighton see, but 100 times better download speed hype It's just a sales gimmick for G had big download speeds upto one Gbps, while fi G Standard hasn't even been set yet, so it is too early to claim any such thing. Second misunderstanding is that beam forming will be the mainstream network provision, and you'll probably have a couple of moments hours in your hall as well. Not happening. Five G has diverse set off users, for which it has different plans. Average user gets slightly better than 40 frequencies What industrial Iot. The users can get critical agency with high bandwidth, which may demand being forming infrastructure, but that's conditional, not applicable everywhere. Next up, many people thing that since five he hasn't been defined. By now, science is just getting slower. That's not true, either. There are just not enough trials, theories and result to define faggy. Yet customers are mostly satisfied with 40 since it comfortably means that daily usage requirements and countries are also skeptical about opening up millimeter waves. On top. Off that, I to you would also take care of facts like market should be trending by the time fighting arise, and there should be sufficient funding with major players to explore it out. A quite popular opinion is more automation means less jobs. Yes, there will be less labor jobs. But on the other hand, development jobs, white collar, corporate jobs and businesses can grow significantly. So Jobs won't. Radio's still simply shift for betterment, so it is logical to embrace the change. Lastly, I won't even elaborate that five gigahertz WiFi is not fudgy. They're completely unrelated. So in terms off five G, this is John. John doesn't know the difference between network latency and speed. He thinks all applications need similar infrastructure. They don't. John doesn't get business perspective off technology, and that's why gets a freed off changes. Don't be like John because you know nothing, Jon Snow. 30. Extra Story 05: A casual look at key market development for 5G: fudgy has not been defined yet, but a few times and technologies help come up. And that is more than enough for telecom companies. Toe and cash. The dumb five g There are some initial offerings with the title five G in some part of the world's, but they are for different features. These offerings are mostly influenced by three type off industries. Gypsum may cause smartphone, Miko's and telecom providers chips that manufacturers include companies like Qualcomm and Intel. They're essential because they will be the one to provide the options for on chip models. Currently, Welcome has commercially launched two variants off I G models, while Intel has demonstrated one off them. These stats will grow and change over time, since many companies, which are lagging behind, we'll try to catch up soon enough. Next up on the smartphone. Make us if there are no fighting smartphones. Fighting networks are quite meaningless. Samsung, LG and Wow We have launched their initial Fighting smartphone models, with most of them being an upgraded version off their already successful for G variant. And finally, we have telecom providers. Some telecom providers have tried Peter runs on five G, while others have started offering commercial fighting plans to the customers. Water Phone in UK and A. T and T and Verizon in US are offering five year plans for customers, while SK Telecom in South Korea has demonstrated five g for both customers and industry purposes with different network infrastructures. But as we have mentioned multiple times by now, five is still very, very undefined. So what are these companies offering? What are these smart phones compatible? Tow? It turns out there's awake but common ground between the current offerings. All of them are sticking to the n R or new radio features off i g e. We have already seen the concept off new radio in theory. Now let's see how they have applied it. In practice, New radio offerings are divided into two main categories. An essay which stand for non standalone networks and S A, which stands for standalone networks. Norm. Standalone networks are much like traditional mobile networks, which operate on cellular towers. They use subsets gigahertz frequency, which are still much higher than what we have used, with 40 but lower than the millimeter ways Multiple uses Speed tests at veterans have noted peak speeds up to 2.5 Gbps, which is quite impressive to say the least upgraded infrastructure used to cross to my more with omnidirectional antenna and networks aim for regular consumer usage. All you need to do is a Brady off smartphone and data plan, a certain at what options are available at your location. Standalone networks, on the other hand, at the real game changers for now and stuff using traditional cellular approach. They're using beam forming toe a two millimeter whales, which have showed massive speeds upto five Gbps. During tests. They have used four x four my more, which can be considered a step closer to massive my move with millimetre will beans. But we have seen their drawbacks and how they have to insult unreasonable amount of fantastical entire cities. Well, that's the thing. These networks are stand alone. They are not made for entire cities, rather their limited doing industry campus, which is a much, much smaller geographical area. Compared to a lot city. They can install dozens or even hundreds off Internets, depending on the size of the campus. And such high bandwidth can be used to create smart automated industries with devil coyote or industrial Iot T Such networks can enable drones, cameras, self driven vehicles and other infrastructure elements off industrial campus, and normal users have nothing to do with it. As far as compatibility goes, there are 40 phones which do not support five g, so they're out of question. There are five G E supported phones, which use Feig even available, and switch back to forge Even five is out of range. There are also some exclusively five G phones in the works, but they haven't been commercially launched yet. And to be honest, as long as five isn't stable, launching a five G only phone is not a great idea. And since the industry has recognized it as the starting point off Fire G rollout, it's important to take a look at true cheers and fears off the current fi G their short term. And they will change over time. But they're essential nonetheless, starting over. JIA's gunfighter is offering much better speed and responsiveness than 40. It is also moving slowly towards industrial Iot t, which has massive potential for being the next revolution, and lastly, we have much better laden see control, which is very useful for accurate multitasking and for leveraging cloud computing with mobile APS. As for the fears, the current state of commercial fighting is even costlier than 40 and if the trend goes on , it can be extremely costly with upcoming features. On top of that, many countries are slowing down the rollout by being reluctant to open up even the sub sects gigahertz spectrum. If that wasn't enough, they also SCP lessons in issues with dramatic cases like Wow, we ban All of this can be fixed, but lastly, there's a broader issue. While these plans and offerings exist, that isn't a real reason to move off argie plan, which means buying a new smartphone on upgrading your data plan. The marketplace doesn't have ABS or uses, which can leverage this high speed and responsiveness off course. All of this is highly temporary. The fast will change spectrums will open up and new ABS unlikely to bring surprising features by fighting network stats. But honestly, looking at the past records off telecom providers and con state of smartphones, it is better to wait for even more substantial upgrade, which can bring real change to her this lifestyle. Till then, we can watch five g grow while watching falling phones crack out 31. 5G Standards are here!: Hello and welcome to this class on File G. For those who have bought this course recently and are watching it continuously. The previous videos explore 5G in mid to late 2019. And now we will be looking at the state of 5G in late 20-20. Previously, we had seen that some telecom companies had launched the premature version of 5G called 4G or 5G under evolution. That was almost a year ago. Since then, a lot has changed. But before we explore the changes, let's see how the customers respond to the file GE. In the US, a majority of consumers couldn't even access via G because network was simply not available. On the other hand, in South Korea, though people could access the network, they wanted to roll back to 4G because the services were not meeting their expectations. Why? You may wonder? Because phi energy E was just 4G injected with higher bandwidth. And that is not how you evolve an entire generation of wireless communication. Even if we assume that the telcos wanted to evolve their 5G offerings, foster the global coronavirus pandemic didn't let that happen. As a result, under File GE, the smartphones were getting hot quickly and their battery was not even lasting a single day. This certainly didn't make the consumer satisfied. So how things change now? Yes, 5G standards are here. But before we look into them, let's understand who made these standards. Across the globe. We have multiple organizations maintaining a harmony of telecom infrastructure rollout. Alliance for telecom industry solutions are ATIS In the US, AIIB and TDC in Japan. Dsb SI in India, ESI in Europe, dta in South Korea, and CTSA in China. When they operate individually, they regulate telecom infrastructure rollout or spectrum allocation, or sometimes both in their respective countries. But when they unite, they form an entity called 3GPP, or third-generation Partnership Project. The name simply indicates that they had joined hands for a smooth global rollout of 3G. And since then, they have handled the subsequent generations of wireless telecommunication standards. They published their work in form of releases. And each release may contain overview of telecom standards, market insight, and some future directions of where the technology should be heading. The release 16, published in July 20-20, and release 17 published in September 2020 are really important because they finally clear out what the actual initial stage of 5G should be and how it should evolve further. While reading the documents of those releases can be confusing for an average person. We can simplify it in a way that it becomes more comprehensible. According to the 3GPP standards, 5G broadly focuses on four key concepts. Lte or long-term evolution. Nr, on new radio, SDN, software defined networks, and going beyond smartphones. If you think about it, this is pretty much in line with what we have seen earlier. Then why are these standards important? Well, what we saw was technology in its raw and unpolished form. They raised more concerns and gave less excitement. With these standards. The concerns are addressed, the excitement is raised higher and the performance is improved. In further lectures, we will look at how new standards refined each of the terms we have mentioned before. Dylan, happy learning. And I hope you have a great day. 32. LTE for 5G: Hello and welcome back to this class of 4G. In the last lecture, we saw how the 5G standards revolved around four main points, and LTE is one of them. We have already seen how LTE works. So is this the same LTE? Lte was never supposed to stay the same, and this message was also hidden in its full form. Long-term Evolution. Lte keeps on evolving and you need to adopt it as per the requirements of the generation. Non standalone 5G networks take two important aspects of LTE. Frequency modulation, which means adjusting our tailoring the frequency with respect to the data. And do flexing, which means separating the up link and the downlink. In case of modulation, NSA Phelge uses OFDM, which stands for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. But wait, multiplexing, aren't we talking about modulation? Though? Ofdm is a type of multiplexing. It can also be considered a modulation technique. Different data streams are transmitted with the chronological phase difference of 90 degrees, making them orthogonal to one another. This creates a safe separation of signals and make sure that they don't create cross interference. And ask for do flexing. Let's look back at the TDMA graph that we had studied earlier. You may remember that every user was allotted a time slot to utilize the frequency band. It is easy to understand, but we overlooked a key detail. Could they use the same frequency band as both Up Link and the downlink? No. Blink and the downlink bands were different from one another. So the user would typically get a time slot to utilize frequency from both Up Link and downlink bands. But that was way back with 4G when the lease spectrum used to be quite narrow. Now, we have really wide bands available for LTE. So do we still use different bands for a blink and downlink? No. Do utilize the man in most efficient way. The user gets different time slots for up Link and Down Link communication. The slots are separated by a guard interval to avoid interference. The interval is in milli or microseconds, so a normal user doesn't get to experience the delay. This is called time division do flexing. In other words, separating Up Link and Down Link. Mytime. Its counterpart involves allotting to different frequencies from the same man with a separation by a guard band. It is called FDD or Frequency Division Duplex sing. The 5G standards recommend to use TDD and or FDD as that duplex in method two, so as many consumers as possible. And to be honest, it is nice to see LTE being valid for another generation as it would definitely reduce infrastructure deployment cost to another complete overhaul. In the next lecture, we will see how the 5G standards street, the new radio. Till then. Happy learning. And I hope you have a great day. 33. What is New in New Radio?: Hello and welcome back to this class of Phelge. Gnu radio is not a new term for us. We have already seen that new radio specs aim to discontinue 1G and reclaim its band and open up millimeter wave bands beyond six gigahertz. We had also seen that in our research suggested beam forming and massive MIMO for high frequency transmission. Some initial 5G offerings also used them, but we still had customer dissatisfaction. So how do the new phi G standards aimed to turn the tables? What is new in the new radio? 3gpp release 1617 don't suggest changes in how we interpret the new radio. All of the aspects mentioned earlier still hold their weight just as much, but it offers refinements. The first complain was about lack of 5G service availability. This was not just about a few cities not having phi G deployed yet. Since high-frequency waves travel shorter, the cellular towers deployed for 4G weren't enough to provide them non standalone 5G. On the flip side, the people leveraging 5G, we're having heat and battery issues. The best way to solve them is proper frequency management. It is not just about the smartphone batteries not being bulky enough to hold 5G for long. Most of the consumers don't even need 5G for the majority of their applications. For example, when you're under a 5G subscribed cellular network, you should at least get faster 4G when 5G is not working. And when the consumer is using lightweight applications, for example, calling, they can safely be put on relatively slower speed 4G, while they can be switched to high-speed fire g as soon as they get on bandwidth. Heavy tasks such as streaming Netflix or maybe a video conference, or even multiplayer gaming. But this is not as simple to achieve. A 5G and 4G are operating on different spectrums. To resolve this, 4G and LG are recommended to be integrated in the same frequency. But 4G only users being kept at a quality of service promised threshold, while 5G users accessing the best service available. And when 5G users are not doing bandwidth heavy tasks, they can be put on low-speed 4G to let the transmitters and battery chill a little. This is called DSS or dynamic spectrum sharing. It allows more users to be served under the same frequency band while keeping the smartphones held it. That is a win-win for both telcos and consumers. But that is not all. Smartphones are called smart for a reason. They have sensors that make them aware of their own current situation without manual user input. Most of the modern smartphones, HOW front cameras, accelerometer, and a proximity sensor. They are already used by the smartphone operating system for memory management and for putting applications on standby when the user is busy doing something else or he's away from the smartphone. This self awareness is used. Let the smart phone network know that the phone is in an idle state. The telcos can put the particular device on lower data rate and only so essential services like phone calls or SMS. As the user reaches out to the phone, the OS, since a wakeup signal and switches back to high data rate. This puts the phone to unnecessary rest and cools it down significantly. The situation seems to be getting already better. But wait, we're not done yet. Remember handoff cellular base stations way of transferring user to another base station as the user moves. It was pretty awesome for its time. But think about it. Can it still live up to the user expectations? We are not talking about mostly telecommunications and rare multimedia consumption. A user can be moving from one cell to another while streaming a v log in full HD or even 4K down the line. Missing packets greatly end up causing glitches. On top of that, even the cells have become smaller due to higher frequency of base station antennas and lower travel range of signals. There'll be more handoffs and before I, II, more glorious than before. And that's not what we want. So how to fix that file? Gnu Radio recommends base stations to be ready and complete the handoff before the user even changes to sell. This is done by letting the adjacent cell know when the user is about to leave the cell. This way, there would be practically no delay and the user experience would be less compromised. To say the least. The best part is this does not even require hardware overhaul, since such functionality can be rolled out simply by our software to the base station by respective telcos. We're seeing a trend here. Every generation brings some groundbreaking changes and pads them with incremental changes to keep the user experience, mood while enabling them to use newer and heavier applications. Cumulatively, these changes the device temperatures down, reduce battery consumption, and improves the quality of service by smoother handoffs. And it clearly leads to better customer satisfaction. The changes in GNU radio are progressive, and that is not even the entirety of file G. In the next lecture, we will see how far we have come with the software defined networks. Till then, happy learning, and I hope you have a great day. 34. SDN and Infrastructure as Code: Hello and welcome back to this class of algae. Software defined networks are a generation defining concept. The potential to achieve rapid scalable network deployment with automation is one of the biggest reasons why market is betting so high on the promises of Fauzia influenced applications like IOT, industrial IoT. Earlier, we had seen that the SDN merges the network plane and the control plane and allows configuring the networks remotely and easily. But how? In the traditional network setup flow, you need at least one person on each end of the network to make or change software or hardware configurations. And as always, some configurations can be more elaborate than the others. This is how you would set up or tweak one new network. On the other hand, in case of SDN, one operator can remotely set up multiple networks by simply providing configurations through special software deployed on admin servers. These software called infrastructure as code tools or IAC. Some popular examples of such as code tools are Chef, Puppet or Google Cloud Vbc. This has so many advantages. For example, we know that IT network solutions follow Clans over models. Where we have a service host or a server that accepts and responds to requests from multiple clients. Most of the times, these application specific networks need to be isolated. In other words, we need to make sure that unauthorized third-party does not interrupt the communication, or even worse, still. Therefore, unlike telecom networks, where everyone is traveling through the same drain, IT networks act more like a bunch of private cars carrying fewer passengers. These networks are mostly logically separated. In other words, a bunch of such small isolated networks can very well be a part of a large physical network, like a datacenter. In telecommunication language, such networks are also called Networks lysis. They have existed since decades, but have coming contexts because File G, along with SDN, provides opportunity to create such networks lysis to almost everyone. Each such network slice can be a stand alone 5G network. Earlier, such networks, lysis were exclusively connected using wired networks. Since wireless networks were mostly incapable of providing required speed and latency control. And all of this is not even the most promising bought. Typically, as we have seen earlier, a standalone application network follows a client-server model. Clients can be smart devices, computers, or smartphones, where servers are powerful computers running product-specific applications. As physical machines, servers are really costly. So we need to make sure that we utilize them to their optimum potential. Therefore, operator's turn these servers into a bunch of logically isolated virtual machines, each running their own operating system and serving their own application traffic. While this is efficient, virtual machines are still logically bulky. They can eat up to 3200 gigs of storage and two to 16 gigs of RAM for typical uses. Many times, these resources remain under-utilized and companies end up buying unnecessary amount of additional servers, costing them lots of money, which can be utilized elsewhere, like employee welfare or even marketing. To solve this problem, we can how contain us? What containers? What are they? Containers fulfill the same logical isolation purpose of VMs, but with much less resources. If a server can host tens of VMs, it can host thousands of containers, which means thousands of potential isolated network hosts, which means way more network slices then before an even more granular isolation. It saves game-changing amount of cost in the list of infrastructure as code tools. Some are dedicated to container creation and management. For example, Docker and Kubernetes. This makes standalone 5G networks more efficient, cost-effective, scalable. And the best part, all of this is cloud native. So you don't even have to buy or rent physical servers to create an IT startup. I bet it is pretty clear by now, but this expands the scope of 5G networks way beyond just smart phones. Apart from smartphones and smart home plan says, they can also be used in industries, workplaces, datacenters. While the cloud infrastructure is yet to turn wireless, the solutions are already being developed. One such classic example is SIM card enabled Wi-Fi router. While they are available with 3G and 4G as well. Companies like Nokia and Ericsson, or turning them into mainstream products targeted towards standalone industry solutions. Of course, these developments will not happen overnight. Complete 5G takeover is expected to happen within four to five years. But now solutions seem more rational and promising to File G landscape is not just limited to telecom companies and hardware industries. Niche network shines. Cloud providers and cloud native solutions are also becoming a part of it. Your startup or your current workplace can also fill this mosaic by leveraging the advantages of algae. We hope you enjoyed this update. As 5G keeps growing, we will make sure to update you further with market insights and technical implementations. Till then, as always, happy learning and I hope you have a fantastic day. 35. Conclusion (well, for now): first off all a huge tanks toe all a few wonderful students who enrolled in this course believed in us and stuck till the end. We really hope that we solve your right and we hope that the course met your expectations. With that said See you with updates Happy learning.