3D Techniques with Digital Painting | Marco Bucci | Skillshare

3D Techniques with Digital Painting

Marco Bucci, Professional illustrator & teacher

3D Techniques with Digital Painting

Marco Bucci, Professional illustrator & teacher

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33 Lessons (8h 24m)
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About This Class

In today's competitive world of concept art and illustration, the boundaries between 3D and 2D are becoming ever more blurred. It is often expected of 2D artists to have some degree of familiarity with 3D tools and processes. At the very least, understanding some basic 3D workflow and tools can really help you reach a higher creative potential.

This video class will teach you fundamental skills needed to integrate Blender - an industry standard, and free, 3D software - into your 2D workflow. The lectures are broken up into three chapters:

Chapter 1: Blender Essentials. Marco will introduce and explain all the 3D tools necessary to follow the tutorials. A great way to introduce yourself to the software!

Chapter 2: A project that combines elements made with basic 3D modeling, grease pencil, texturing, lighting and rendering, with digitally hand-painted 2D scenery and characters. The result is a 2D digital painting aesthetic, but with real 3D depth.

Chapter 3: A project using a modern day Hollywood '2.5D' matte painting technique. Slightly more advanced 3D modeling (still suitable for beginners), combined with sophisticated camera projection mapping UV tools and digital painting to create a unique and dazzling cinematic blend of 2D and 3D.

Course features:

  • Great for beginner users of Blender, or beginners to 3D in general! 
  • Course uses Blender 2.8 - the latest release of the software
  • Using Blender's grease pencil as a bridge from 3D over to the realm of 2D illustration and digital painting
  • Preparing elements in 3D with basic UV texture mapping and rendering
  • Node and shader construction in Blender
  • Bringing your painting together in Photoshop with regular digital painting techniques. Full painting process shown, on two separate paintings, with discussions of fundamentals (light, color, value, composition, etc.) used throughout the process, as well as many other related thoughts along the way
  • Using digital brushwork to eliminate the sterile '3D look'
  • Using 3D ambient occlusion and shadow passes to aid painting
  • Using layers to help keep your process organized
  • Compositing elements back together for a final, striking image - all within Blender
  • All project files are included
  • Digital brushpack included


Meet Your Teacher

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Marco Bucci

Professional illustrator & teacher


Hello, I'm Marco.

I'm a professional artist with 15 years' experience in the film, TV, game, and print industries - primarily as a concept artist and illustrator. I also happen to believe that it's the duty of experienced artists to pass on what they've learned, with no BS and for as low-cost as possible. It's for that reason that I'm a passionate teacher. I currently teach at CGMA, and have previously taught at Academy of Art University, Centennial College, and more. 


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1. 0: Oh, hi. You caught me putting the finishing touches on my blender photo shop class. We're gonna take some cool stuff that three D has to offer and some good old fashioned digital painting and mash him altogether. The class comes in three chapters in Chapter one. We're gonna do a basic overview of Blender. All the things you need to know to use these techniques. Navigating the interface, working with geometry, object mode, edit mode, cameras, lights, grease, pencil rendering. All that stuff is Chapter one in Chapter two will be using those tools in conjunction with digital painting to create a painting that truly exists in three D space. In Chapter three, we're gonna look at a different way of combining free D and two D in a common technique called projection mapping. This is kind of, ah, Hollywood standard matte painting technique that creates really stunning 2.5 D art. So we've got a lot of work to get into. Let's get to it 2. 1: Okay, This first chapter is for those of you who are new to blender. If that describes you, the first thing you'll want to do is start off at the Blender website, which is www dot blender dot org's and grab a copy of the software. As of the date of this recording. December 2018 Blender 2.8 is in beta release and quick note. Here. There are earlier versions of Blender 2.8 out there, and if you already have Blender, chances are you might be using one. I'll talk about that in the next section. Okay, so stay tuned. More importantly, though, Blender 2.8 has made some significant changes from Blender 2.7. So I'm happy to say we will be using the latest version of the software in this lesson, and I imagine that blender 2.8 and versions of it will be the main release for probably a few years to come. So anyway, when you're at the website, make sure you're clicking on Blender 2.8 beta, not 2.79 Okay, so blunder 2.8, and then from here, it's simple. You'll just click this download button again and you'll be prompted to choose your operating system. So go ahead and choose whichever one you have and Blender will immediately begin downloading. So go ahead and get that running and we'll get started. 3. 1: Well, everyone, this is it. This is blender. Can't you just feel the power at your fingertips or are you completely distracted by the confusing interface? Don't worry. I have some good news because we're only using blender to augment or enhance R two d work. Remember, R two D is still the most important part of this process. We actually don't need to learn most of blenders features. Also, thankfully, most of what we do need to know involves, like the basics of blender which provides foundation for all those more advanced things. So when this first chapter of the lesson, I'm going to go over all the basics that you need to know when it comes to navigating and using the program. Okay, Important notice here, folks. As I mentioned earlier, there are multiple releases of Blender 2.8, namely an Alfa release and a beta release. I recorded this entire chapter, Chapter one Interface Essentials using the Alfa release. Then the Beta came out. I did some double checking and sure enough, the interface had changed. Not significantly. But there are a few things that are slightly different. The changes were not significant enough to make me re record this entire section, not to mention that some of you out there will be probably still using the earlier version of 2.8. So what I decided to do is that whenever there is a change important enough to mention, I will interject with this breaking news soundbite and quickly show you the difference. It will always on Lee be an interface change like a button that used to be here is now hear things like that. The functionality of the tools are the same. Okay, thanks for that. Now back to our regularly scheduled program. So you've already seen me orbiting my camera view around this cube? I'm holding the middle mouse button or my scroll wheel on my mouse. If you have a scroll wheel or a middle mouse button, it's the same thing. Hold that down, and that is what you will use to orbit your view around the three dimensional world. Here. If I were to holds the control key and use the middle mouse button, I zoom in and out in a very fine way. If I rolled my mouse wheel, I also zoom in and out. But in a more step e aggressive way. So again, control is away. Holding control with Middle Mouse button is a way to go. Finally, and then you could describe the mouse wheel for quick zoom. If I were to hold shift and use the middle mouse button, I pan the camera laterally like this. And then, of course, I can always go back to regular Middle Mouse. You know, move this around, zoom in and out and those are your basic camera functions. If you ever get into a bit of trouble like I'm getting here, See, I'm going away from my cube. If the Cuba selected, I could just hit the num pad period key and the camera snaps back to my selection. So now I can, you know, go back to my regular camera motions and, you know, fixate on this cube that I happen to be working on here. Blender by default loads up a cube. It's become a funny thing that blender users do. The first thing you do in your scene is delete the cube. Anyway, we'll get to that in a moment. Let me bring that thing back. Another thing that blender is infamously weird for is it does not use the left mouse button to select objects by default. I'm sure most of us watching this video are used to things like photo shop or painter or other painting APS and, you know, even like just regular Internet browsing, we use the left mouse button to click. But in blender, if you use the left mouse button, this weird little icon follows you around and is very strange. Like if I want to, like, select that box or select another object in the frame like this light here, I can't do it. It's not selecting anything. So what's going on here? Well, blender by default makes you use the right mouse button to select things, which to me is just weird. And I'm not sure why anyone ever made that choice. But you can change it. Just go to edit user preferences right here, select with left and then hit, save use or settings, and you just x out. And now, if I wanted to select things, I'm clicking my left mouse button like a civilized human being. And, of course, it's now the right mouse button that moves this little cursor around quick interface interruption here, folks, and later releases of Blender 2.8. By default, you'll notice I'm not moving around that cursor. That's because Blender has swapped the top two tools you notice on the left. It's this tool that's on top, whereas in later releases its that tool. So if you're looking to work with the cursor, which I'll explain in a moment, just make sure you're clicked on that tool. Also, the user Preferences window is now just called preferences, and it looks a little bit different, but the contents are the same. Also in 2.8 beta left Click Select is the default okay back to the regularly scheduled program. Now you might be wondering, What is that little cursor? Well, in Blender, it's something called the three D Cursor, and you can see it is three D. As I move because I orbit the camera around it, you can see that it has three axes here, X, y and Z. It's useful for modeling. It's useful for positioning things in space, and I will talk about that in the future chapter. But for now, if you are ever annoyed by this thing, I just recommend snapping it to the center of the universe, which is where all these axes converge. Right In the origin point here, the shortcut for that is shift s and then you can just click cursor to center right here. Cursor snaps back to the center. And you could just leave it there for the time being In later versions of 2.8. Shift s now brings up a circular menu, and that option is called cursor to world origin. All right, just want to show you a few more cool interface things that are very handy notice. As I orbit around here, I can always look up at this icon here to orient myself in terms of where the X Y and Z axes are in three d were obviously looking and thinking in true three D space x y z axis not just X and y. This can be confusing for us to de people. This is where three D's, you know, a little technical, because if you're moving something, you have to know, Is it our along X wires? E blender 2.8 has a little handing diagram there to always remind you where those are and they're color coded for our convenience, and this is universal to the program. In its entirety, the X axis is always read. The easy access is blue, and the Y axis is green. You can see, though they correspond here in the three D View port as well as the little diagram up here . So if you're ever confused like, oh, which access do we need to move in? You know, just just glance up there and I know the Z axis is not showing in the view port right now. It will come into play later on as we begin modeling. Let's talk about more interface stuff, though I can obviously drag windows like this to make them larger or smaller. If I want an entire other view port, I can hover my mouse up here and you can see it changes to a little cross hair. If I drag that now, I have opened up another window. This is another initial source of confusion for people because, you know, if you don't know about this feature is very easy to like. Open windows like you think you're re sizing them like you think you want to do this. But You know, suddenly you're opening windows and it becomes a little crazy. And, honestly, you should practice. This is weird. As it sounds, you will get yourself into those conundrums I did all the time, so I just started a new file just by going to file New General. It opens our basic Cube seen again. Let's bring back just one window again. Click here, drag that window in. Now, instead of getting into a big meyer of Windows here, let's just figure out how to close it the way to close it. It's a little tricky. It's not that intuitive. For example, I want to close the right screen here, have your mouse so it's over the left screen. That is the screen you'd like to keep, drag it and then just drag it in and it'll you'll see this arrow. Release the mouse and it's gone. So if I were to let's say a word to recreate, let's say oversee. I'm even me. I still screw up here. Let's say I were to recreate this mess by making window here, making a window there. Okay, if I want to get rid of this top window that I just made Click this window Drag up, Boom. Quick. This window. Make sure your mouse is on the window. You'd like to keep dragon boom And there you go. You can get yourself out of any mess that way. All right. Next thing to talk about is the different views that three D programs offer us. Right now, we're just looking in basic perspective. You This is kind of a nice default view, but you can look through things differently. Let me make a new windows we've just learned. And on this window, of course, the cameras act independently. I haven't mentioned that, like, I could be in a different spot here in a different spot here. But one thing that's useful, I probably don't want both of these used to be in perspective. Maybe I want this one to be like a front view to do that. Hit the num pad one key and the camera snaps to an Ortho graphic front view. Now what does Ortho graphic mean? Ortho graphic in layman's terms just means that this is a flat view. This is no longer three D. Now I can still use my shift key with Middle Mouse and go up and down like this. I can use my control key to go like this. I can scroll the mouse wheel and I'm still in perfect two d view. If I were to accidentally just use my middle mouse, it snaps me back into perspective. So if I didn't want that, I could just hit the num pad one key again. Go back into front and do that. If I wanted to use a shortcut key to go back to perspective, that is the number pad five key. I'm back in perspective here, but honestly, if you're in a front Ortho graphic view or any Ortho graph if you and you want to switch back to perspective, just use the middle mouse and there you go. Now you can do more things than just front view. If I hit Numb pad three, I'm in the right view. You can see I'm reading it up here. See? Right, Ortho? Right. Ortho graphic. If I had numb pad seven, I'm in the top view top Ortho course. It looks all the same in this Seems we're just looking at a cube which is equal on all sides. But when you're modeling or working on a scene, you know, you might have several windows open each one set, two different views if I hit the num pat. Nine key. I'm on bottom. Ortho graphics. So we've covered all the sides, you know, front side, top bottom. Oh, and if I use control in conjunction with any of those I switched to the other side, so I hit numb pad one to go to front view. If I hit control Numb pad one, you could see it switched me to the back. I can hit seven and go to top Ortho if I hit control. Seven. It goes to bottom. Ortho Ortho Graphic mode is not only useful for two dimensional views, but you can use Ortho graphic mode in conjunction with the three D View. This is our basic three D view, which I've already said you can access with Numb pad five, but press numb pad five again. It switches to Ortho graphic three D and this is interesting. What what has happened here is it's it's flattened out the depth work to d. People here we know about horizon lines and vanishing points. Right? Well, if we're let me go back to my regular three D view by hitting Num pad five again. We have our vanishing points. Things vanish into our horizon here. If I had known Pat five, I have eliminated the vanishing point and that completely flattens the scene. You notice a few weird things have happened like the scale. Relationships between the boxes has been changed. The verticals are purely vertical. The diagonal lines are now parallel. It's just a different way of interacting with a three D view. Now, at first, you might be like, Well, how is this useful? Um, I actually do think it is useful. We will explore reasons to use this as we model our scenes. But for now, I just want you to be aware that this is also an option. And again, pushing numb pad five gets you back into regular three D view. Now, I have been using the num pad quite a bit here. For those of you who are using a condensed keyboard, you may not even have a numb pad. Well, blender has you covered? If you go to edits user preferences, you can click this handy little button here that says emulate numb pad hit. I'm not gonna do it, but it save. Use your settings there and you can. You know you can use the regular numbers on your condensed keyboard or laptop keyboard. Sometimes don't have numb pads, and you know it will do the same thing as a numb pad on a larger keyboard. Great, and I recommend again you sit down with Blender and just practice moving around the interface. Obviously, if you're brand new to Blender, this won't be easy. I even have some three D experience before I started Blender and I still had to do this for my own good. So I recommend that another thing that's useful, you might have seen this little plus sign here if you click that and drag it out or the shortcut key for it is the N key. We get this handy little window that displays information about the selected object. So right now our Cuba's selected and I can see information about it. I can also see information about our general view and Cameron stuff. If I selected the this is a camera. If I selected the camera, the transform stuff here switches to the camera position, so I can always go back and forth with different objects and see that And over here on the left, we have tools that will allow us to move or rotator scale or objects. But that's something we'll cover in the next chapter. The shortcut to hide or run hide. This is the T key, and these shortcuts or universal, with any view like you could be in a front Ortho graphic view and the same shortcut supply and the one thing I should mention if I would open the window if I were to press the end key. The window I'm hovering over gets the command. So if I hover this window, I press and it does that over here. Does that. So just hover over the right window. And that is true for many of blender shortcuts that are the same per window. It's where your mouse is hovering. That window gets the active shortcut. Another quick interface tip with this tools menu on the left. If I press t toe, hide it, I've got this plus arrow. If I drag that out further, you can see that blender updates the display and you'll get actual words that tell you what these are. And this will apply to any view port and blender that contains a tool bar on the left. And again, if I press t to hide it than t to bring it back, it respects my scaling, or I can just press tea and then, you know, re scale it to whatever setting I want. Okay, so we've been talking about views, and there's one critical view that I have neglected to mention, and that is the camera view already mentioned. This little object right there is the camera, which when we're modeling a scene, is not so important. But when it comes to rendering a scene or later on in this very lesson, we're gonna talk about something called camera projection mapping the camera becomes critical for that, but right now we're not looking through the camera. We're looking through a kind of sort of God's eye view, or we can kind of see anything. If you would like to look through the camera, hit the num pad zero key, and now we're seeing are seen through the camera. The odd thing about this view that tripped me up originally is if I started to just use my camera tools. I snap out of the camera and that was always were didn't know what was going on. One way around that is to hit the zero key, get back in a camera view, create a new window here in this view, go back into regular mode And you can you have both. You have the camera. Here are regular godlike perspective. Here we have the n key to get rid of that and you can do this. But if you're like me, I find it annoying that in this view, if I just move the mouse, I snap out of camera view. So one handy tool with our little window open here, this little button right here, lock camera to view. Click that. And now if I use my middle mouse button, I am moving with the camera and you can see in this window I'm getting live feedback. You can see that camera updating based on my mouse movements by zoom in and out actually can see this is not a zoom. This is a true three dimensional move. That camera is moving in and out in space. It is not zooming. This is an actual dimensional move there, and there is a difference there. I can pan orbit and we can see that feedback happening. So that is the camera, Of course, just like in real life are three. D Camera has many settings like you can change the lens. You can change the dimensions of it. We're gonna talk about that in a later chapter. The last thing to mention is just the various kinds of information you condone display in these view ports. We've been looking through what's called the three D View Board here, where you can view your three D geometry, as we've been doing with our regular perspective. You. But we can look at other things rather than just three D geometry. One window that's important is over here on the top, right? It's called the outline Er, if we unfurled this, we can see the objects in our scene. We have a camera, we have a cube and we have a lamp, which is just another word. What's blenders? Word for light. They're called lamps and blender. That is what our basic scene is comprised of when we opened the program and, of course, clicking on them in the outline er selects them in the view port. Now each window, the outline er in the view port has a little button here it's in the top left hand corner. We have a bunch of options here. So of course, what we're looking through now is the three D view. If I went back in here, I could switch to the UV image editor, which is something we will look at a little bit later. I could make this entire screen the outline, er, if I wanted Teoh or another handy thing, Let me switch this back to the three D view. Let's make a new window and switch this view to, let's say, the UV image editor or the outline, er, whatever you want so you can cut. You can totally customize how you interact with Blender, which is one of the program's real strong suits. If you ask me so, yeah, we'll be using this view port switcher or editor type, as it's called in Blender to change the way we interact with our scene to close out our little discussion of the interface, you probably noticed these tabs here at the top. We've been completely in the layout tab and will be in the layout tab for 95% of this entire lesson. But the different tabs just give you kind of preset looks for different kinds of operations . For instance, UV editing. What this does is just simply opens. It gave us by default a UV editor over here, and it gave us a three D view port over here. It just kind of starts us off in a environment that might be favorable to certain processes . But yeah, like I said, for our purposes, most things we want to do will be accessible via this layout tab. So if you are new to Blender, I recommend spending some time here, set aside half hour, play around with these features, and when you're ready, let's start looking at how to create and edit three D geometry. 4. 1: Okay, let's talk about creating and editing objects and blender. Three D objects like this cube here are referred to as geometry or professionals will just say Geo and one of the most elemental things will be doing in Blender is creating and deleting and editing. Three D geometry already showed you how to delete the default cube push X hit, delete. And now we have no geometry in the scene to add some basic geometry into a scene. You quick ad, you go to mesh and to get that Q back, you can just hit Cube. When you create a piece of geometry and blender. We have a little dialogue here. You can increase the size of it. You can change its position in space. You know basic things. It's rotation. If I were, just delete that. Let's add a mesh. Let's go to UV sphere. We have a few more options here, so it's increased the size. You can see how it's made up of these faceted planes, right? If we just increase the segments, we get a higher resolution sphere in both in two different directions. We can increase that the second you alter the object like if you were to move it, you no longer have access to the initial creation tool. Instead, you can adjust the parameters of the last thing you did in this case move. But you can still edit all this stuff in other ways. But let's let's actually talk about moving objects around. Let's just delete that. Let's bring back. Oh, by the way, the shortcut for creating things and blender is heavy on shortcuts. If you haven't noticed already, and I do recommend learning them, it makes your experience with Blender so much faster again it takes so it takes a day or so of training. But you can do it. It didn't take me long, and I am not a above average computer user. Trust me. Eso If I hit Shift A. I have the same menu here, and I can hit Machin. Let's just grab our cube again. One thing to note is that geometries created where the three D cursor is. So with the three D cursor tool selected, which it currently is, I could say click over here and then shift A was at another cube. It's added there, this gun, you know, come in handy if you have a big scene and you don't want to always have toe navigate back to the origin of the universe here, every time you create something, you could just position the three D cursor in space on mesh Aiko Sphere, which is just a different kind of sphere. And, you know, there we go if it puts it where the three D cursor is so on a broad level, Blender has two main modes. Object mode and edit mode. We've been entirely working in object mode so far. You can see it right here. They can switch right here, the first to object mode edit mode. You will be spending 99% your time, at least in this class. In one of these, so object mode allows you to edit the objects on a sort of let's call it a universal level By click on the object. I'm just using left click to select right. Let's click on this basic cube. I can use the tool menu on the left here to move, rotate or scale it, so the move tool is here. You notice when I click that the the three axes pop up, which mirror the axes up here. I can click on the said and move it on z Z. I don't even know which one said Zia. Which one should I be saying? I don't know. Um I can go on the y axis. I can go on the X axis. Pretty simple, right? There is a shortcut key for this. I can use the g key. Why you pushed G I'm It just sticks to my cursor and I can kind of move it everywhere. And if I click it just locks it in So again, G move your mouse, click toe, lock it in Or if I wanted more precision Aiken hit G then X and I could move along x Or if I don't like X, I want why it Why move along? Why don't like that hit Z move along Z and that is how you can precisely control the you know, the directions Your objects are moving in three D because if you're working in the general three d view like I am here and I press g and start moving this thing around freehand, I can't be really precise because I don't you know, I'm looking at a two d monitor, but I'm working in three D space. It's very difficult for me to control. Like if I want to push this box back in depth in space, I can't really do that. Like I'm kind of pushing it up, not back. You see, you get into all kinds of problems here, so I'm gonna undo that Control Z is undue, by the way, like any other piece of software. So instead of moving it freehand like that, I would rather probably push G and then X. And again, how do I know it's X? Well, I could just see It's the red axis, which I know is X because of blenders. Handy little reminder up here, you know g X. I can push it back in space very easily without having to switch views. Because traditionally, you know, older software. What you'd have to do is like open a new view, maybe switch this over the top view, press G in this window and move it around. This actually is useful, though, because the top you hear, this Ortho graphic view is flat. I can now click and freely move. And I know because this is a flat view. I know that in top view, it's impossible for me to move this cube down and up in space. That or in other words, along the Z axis, it's impossible. This view does not have a Z access, so I can freely move this around a two dimensional view and you can see it live updates, obviously, in our three D view on the left. So this is helpful. I could go into front view, and in this case I can only move it in, you know, in either back and forth in space. In this case or up and down, I cannot move it side to side. If I want to move it side to side, I would go into the right view, and now I can move it side to side and up and down, and I cannot move it in the X axis. Quick note. Here, folks. You just saw me clicking the object in moving it around Freehand in later releases. I can't do that like I can't click the mouse and move the Cube. Instead, it just moves the three D cursor around. Or if I'm in box select mode, it's It's trying to select things. If you would like to move the box Freehand, you can either press G like I've already explained. Or if you want this simple click and drag functionality, you have to be on the move tool. And now, if I just click anywhere because the move tool selected, I'm able to do this In previous versions, I did not have to be on the move tool. That's it. Okay, back to the lesson. So the Ortho graphic views are nice for, you know, that kind of control. But honestly, what I usually will do is I will usually be in a view like this. This is just preference, though, and I'll just, you know, hit G and X and just move things this way. And then I can, you know, evaluate how far in depth I just moved that It all depends on you know your own workflow, what you like to see at any given moment. It's completely up to you. The rotate and scale functions very much operate the same. So let's click our cube. We can hit, rotate here we have Well, if you just freehand click it, you can rotate it on all access randomly. If I undid that, you can just click on the X axis, rotates it across the X Think of ah, rotisserie chicken on a spit. The spit in this case is the X axis, and I'm rotating that cube around that you can change, obviously, which access? The spit is on. And, um, I don't think I've ever used that analogy before. The shortcut key for rotating is are appropriately enough, and we can go our X just like the translate tool. Or we can click. Why are we can click Z and we have fine control over those things and you can see as I'm rotating this cubes yo quickly gets going, and that could be annoyance if I hold shift. I now have fine control over the exact degree of rotation there. Or, if you want control to the decimal, bring up the transformed box with our end key, and now we can adjust. The rotation here is well, like I can drag, click and drag these little areas, or I can simply type it in, you know, 13.2 and we get exactly that. So there are times and modeling where you do want to use math like this to get precise value in there. And that's how you can do that. The scale control, as I'm sure you guessed, is right there. We have the exact same thing. Scale up scale, wide scale on X or the shortcut key for scale is the S button. And we have the same thing. If you just press s drag your mouse, it scales equally on all axes. Are you go s ex? Why? See? And you notice as I do that it deletes like if I'm scaling on Z right now, right? If I hit why it deletes my Z scale. If I want to keep that, you have to click The mouse hit s again, Benzie and you can, you know, scale it. Additionally. But if you just change it without clicking your mouse toe, lock it in it deletes your scales If I scale way up and I'm like now I don't want that you can change it, you know, And it deletes what you've just done. If you want to lock that and you got a click and then hit s again and you can keep scaling and that's the same for translation or rotate. All right, let me clean up the scene and just go, New General, to start with a fresh slate here. There is also this universal tool which I really don't like. It's jumbled to me, but you can scale, rotate and translate all with one tool. So this is translate. We got rotate scale. You know, again, I just think it's a little bit unwieldy looking at all that stuff. I'd rather just go like this. Or better yet, I rather just used the shortcut keys, which I favor in general. Okay, let's get another cube back in shift. A mesh cube. There we go. I'm gonna talk about something called the Pivot Point, as you've been seeing, if I were to hit s for scale and I scale it, it's scaling outward from the middle of the object. So it's scaling the object equally in all directions. This is the default action of blender. It's accessed up here. You can see it set. The pivot point is it's called the Pivot Point menu. It sets the pivot point by default at the median point. That means when I have an object selected like this cube it searches for the middle of the Cube and its anchors, its transformation in the middle, which is why it's scaling out aggressive scale there. I could hold shift a little smaller, so it's scaling outward from the Pivot point, which is set to the middle of the object. And no matter where the object is, like, if I moved it up here and, you know, just hit scale again, it doesn't change. The ITT's looking for the middle of the piece of geometry that is selected, and you can see it's put that cursor right in the middle, right? So rotate. Same thing with with all of them. It's rotating around. You can see that spit is bisecting the object right in the middle. There, this behavior can be changed by altering where blender looks for the pivot point and one useful thing you might want to set the pivot point to be the three D cursor. This can open up different possibilities, and I just want to show you in this overview section, you know what the different behavior is. You can think of your pivot point as like the hinge. In fact, why don't I make this little cube into a door and I'll imitate door hinge. So if I hit S and X s x Aiken, scale it down to be more door like in Dimension s why scaled down And there is our door right now. If I were to rotate that door by just dragging here, you can see it's not. It's not rotating like a door because the hinge is in the middle of the door. Well, if I want this to be like a real door, I want the hinge to be on the side. So just hit, undo. You can see blender is set to use the three d cursor is the pivot point. But, you know, the three cursor happens to be right in the middle of that object. If I just moved my object by pressing G why and just moved it, say here. Well, now the three d cursor is where our door hinge should be. And because I already have the pivot point set to three d cursor, you notice the rotate widget now is where the hinge should be. So if I rotate this door, it rotates as if it were on an actual door hinge so this can come in handy in all kinds of ways, and we will no doubt explore them when we start modeling geometry for our actual scenes. And this setting is applied to all the transformation like scale. You know, it's scaling out from that point, you know, it's it's no longer scaling equally in all directions. It's going out this way. If I want to switch away from that, I can go here, go back to median Point and boom Blender has found the middle of the object again. So just a second ago, I was scaling this object, right? And you noticed this little box here it says, resize or scale. In other words, blender brings up a box just showing the last operation you did. And I guess you could just, you know, further refine you notice that it's switched back to as I drag this, it switched back to the three cursor mode, and I'm able to just refine what I did. I don't use this box that much, but I think it is pretty cool that you can, you know, blender prompts you for fine control if you need it and then here I'll have to go back to meeting point once I'm done with that, I don't use that feature that much. But it's there, and we're almost done here with object mode. Let me show you one more thing. Shift A. Let's create another cube. It must just put that cube. You know, somewhere over here they're just like that. Okay, this is called parenting right now are cubes air completely disconnected their independent objects. We can move them independently, right? That one moves there. This one. I could move separately. Let's say we wanted to connect them. That's an operation called parenting. What you want to do is first select the child, which, in this case, let's say I'm gonna select. This is the child and you'll see how this works in just a moment. Hold shift, then select what you want to be the parent. So this object you notice the colors change. You noticed the parents selection is a brighter orange. The child selection has changed to a slightly darker orange color. If I'm happy with this, I could push control P and Blender brings up a menu, says Set parent to Let's just click object. You notice that draws this dotted line between the two objects, indicating that there is now a relationship between them. If I were to select the parent, which is this cube here and move it, it moves the child with it. If I selected only the child, I can move the child independently. This could come in very handy. If you're modeling, say, ah, house and you. You know you're modeling a roof out of different boxes. You want to be able to move the roof all at once. You can parent, you know the different boxes together and you can move the roof as one unit not only move it but rotated scale it etcetera, a common method people use for this. Let me just undo all this parenting that I did get that dotted line to go away. There we go. So these objects are no longer in a relationship there separate. You just bring this closer just for ease and now we can see things a little bit better. I'm going to create a custom object to be the parent of these two things. I'm gonna go shift a and I'm gonna create something called an empty and I'll just click plane axes, so an Empty is aptly named because it has no geometry. It's Devo. It's empty. It's devoid of geometry. You can see I've created there. If I just push G Z, I can move it up here. It's just this little no and other software you might. It's called a No. This Empty has no visual information, but it can act as a parent to my objects. So if I click this than I shift, click that and then shift click that the parents is selected last. I can push control P and click Object. And now you can see it's apparent of both of these Children. I can now just d select things. By the way, the shortcut for that is the a key a has de selected or if I push again, it selects everything. So a is both select all and de select all s If I d select all and then selected the empty I can now move this and it is moving our objects together very useful when it comes to organizing a lot of objects in your scene. And of course I don't. You can't just move it. I can rotate them and things like that. And you notice it's treating the axis where the empty is that the spit has been drawn where the empty is and its roe it's orbiting around that and very useful stuff and again, stuff I recommend just playing around with to get used to it, you know, before putting it into actual production because you will undoubtably run into irk some little things that delay production. And you kind of want to work those out beforehand. For instance, I have a cube here, right? I go to rotate and I rotate it along the Z axis. Okay, great. But now, if you see my rotate icon, it's kind of wonky now because if I want to rotate it now back along, why, that's not the rotation I want. I want this face to rotate like I want it to rotate along its local access. Now, this is a global access. I'll show you the difference If I just go up here and switch from Global, which is on by default to local. You notice it switch. Let me go back Global Watch it switch now. Two local. Now I can rotate this the way I intuitively want Teoh by default objects air created in harmony with a global access orientation. But when you start moving your objects around, you'll be moving them into localized positions like this. So be careful with global and local you'll probably be switching back. There are other ones, too, but for our purposes there so rarely used that I'm not gonna cover them in this section. If I do use them in production, I will be sure to mention it. Okay, so that is an overview of object mode. Let's now take a look at edit mode. 5. 1: All right, let's dig into edit mode. Edit mode is where the rial heavy lifting serious three D work is done. It's almost like the object exists in two different worlds. Object Mode is deals with things that affect the entire object. Edit mode is when you can go into the objects kind of like lifting up the hood of the car and really making some changes to get to edit mode. We just go over here edit mode, and immediately you can see our object is displayed differently. By the way, the shortcut is tab. If I hit Tab, it switches me from object mode to edit mode. You can see it here. So now that we're in edit mode, also, we have a whole bunch of new tools here. Now that we're in edit mode, we can see what the object this piece of geometry is really made of, and that is it's made of vergis. Ease, edges and faces those. There are three main terms that will be using now what those are fighters pushed a to de select everything. See those little points? Those air, called Vergis, is an individual. Verdecia is called a vertex. This one and I'm switching up here. You can see there's three different things. So this is vert vertex mode. This is called edge mode, and edges are just the lines that connect to Vergis is this is called face mode. Face mode is well, these they're called faces. Another word for the Miss Polygons, but blender calls them faces. Those are the three main ways we can interact with our objects in blender So we have minute control here. If I go to Vertex mode, I can click a single Vertex and all my tools that we learned all my translation rotation scale tools that we learned in object mode totally apply here. So if I pressed G and Z, I can move that Vertex up and down Or if I had just press G, I could have moved it freehand If I went to say edge mode and I selected that edge, I pushed G and Z. I can I can do this if I went to face select mode and selected that face and pushed s for scale. I can scale this face and you can see the you know, we're obviously change. We're making some serious changes to the topology of the object. Now, on again. Once I'm done with that, I will just push a and just remind you. Let me just do that again. I'll select this face. Push s scale it. I am just moving my mouse freely. And I could hold shift for more fine control over this. And when I'm done, I just click the mouse again and it locks it in OK on. Then you still have the face selected. Just push a to de select what you have selected. That's the heart of edit mode Now in edit mode. Like I said, we could make some pretty serious changes to the geometry in our purposes here as kind of basic three d modelers. I mean, we're not we're not modeling the next Star Wars character here. We're modeling basic geometry that it's gonna help us with our two D paintings, right? One of the primary tools will be using is the extrude tool extra too. Oh, and that cameras annoying me. Let me get rid of it. And let me go on a quick tangent here. I want to get rid of this camera, but I can't click it. Hear me clicking. It's not selecting. Why is that? Well, it's because I'm in edit mode. In edit mode, you are only allowed in one object at a time. If I want to select that camera to say, get rid of it, I have to push tab to get out of edit mode back into object mode. Select the camera ex, delete it, select the cube tab back into edit mode and there we go. So when you're in edit mode, you are only allowed in that one object. So this should put you at ease. If you're in edit mode, it's impossible for you to accidentally ruin a different object. You are Onley in like the world of this object here. Okay, so I was talking about extrusion. Extrusion is one of the main tools that will be using and one of the main tools that modelers in general use when it comes to shaping geometry, Extrusion works with faces. So, in face select mode here I will click that face and that will press the e key for extrude. Alternatively, you can find the extrude button in the toolbar right here, and blender gives it kind of guesses that the access that I might want to extrude along, which in this case, is the Z axis. And there you go. I've extruded this. I can click my mouse toe lock that in. I can push, say s to scale it and then I can push he again extrude. This looks like I'm making some kind of like wood stove or something. Maybe that's what this is. It's a wood stove. This is gonna be the chimneys. Let's extreme this again. This time I want to rotate this face. So push are and it's rotating randomly. I don't want that. So what I'll do is push Thea, choose which access I want to rotate along in this case, the y axis. So I press why and I can rotate this face along. Why left click toe lock it in at any point, I'm free to orbit around my model just like in object mode. Let's get this chimney, you know, moving backwards up. Push e again. You see it extremes along its local access. Like you know, blender does a good job guessing you know which direction you want extruded So it's extruding along its local access here. So I can lock that in push are rotated a little more and let's extreme one more time And there we go. We have our wood burning fireplace with the chimney, you know, going into a wall there. So if this is a wood burning fireplace, we have to have a little, you know, outlet here for the actual fire to exist in. And we can use the extrusion tool for this as well. And we'll use it first to add some geometry to this area because we don't currently have enough geometry to make a hole here. So what we want to dio is let's just select these two shifts electoral select more than one face, and that's true for edges as well. I can shift select, you know, multiple edges that can make a face. But we go back to face mode and let's just ship select those Let's push p for extrude. Now let's push s to scale that extrusion in left click to lock it in with push e again and this time will just slide back, push a to de select. And now we have our little fancy fireplace three D model. See how our model is intersecting the grid here. I don't particularly enjoy that. So what I might do Just go tap back into object mode, push G Z and just move that up a little bit. And I love you can hide the grid and blender. If the grid is a knowing you just goto overlays and just unclip grid and the grid goes away And you can also hide these axes. Remember earlier I said that Z exits didn't show up. You can You can make it show up by default is turned off. But you can hide all this stuff. I enjoy having them because, you know, just clues me into the perspective. You know, the depth of the scene I'm looking at, but I just don't like when the object intersex it so I'll just raise it up here, tab back into edit mode. Also, I should mention that all the things we've been doing like extrusion zand stuff, are available up here. So if I were in face mode and I had that face, I wanted to extrude it, I could go up to face and click extrude faces and do this as well. But I really, really recommend learning the shortcuts. They're just so much faster. Also, if you click on face mode, you can see you know how many more options there are. I am covering the things that we will need as basic three D modelers for our purposes. And once we get into modeling are scenes. I'll probably do, you know, one or two things that are beyond this introductory lesson. So don't worry. We'll get to some more advanced stuff as needed. But this is really the essential things that you'll do day in, day out and blender. And in fact, as I speak to you today, honestly, I don't know what half of these do because I'm not a professional three D model er I just use it as far as I need to use it. And I learned things all the time. You know, there are so many tutorials and courses out there that are specific, like advanced blender. Please don't take this course as the be all and all of lender. This is getting you guys into using blender for the express Purpose is of painting. OK, so with that aside, out of the way, let's move on with edit mode here now just undo a few stages. Another critical, very useful modelling tool is the bevel tool. What a bevel does is it takes thes perfectly unrealistic Lee digitally hard edges, and it turns them into something that's a little more realistic. You know, in the real world, we don't have perfect geometry like this. You know, things were weathered and they're a little bit rounded just from being used a lot. And a bevel can help emulate that. Beveling works with edges, so what I'll do is I'll select this edge here. I could go up to the edge menu here and save bevel edges, and it gives me this line here. And if I just move the mouse and the right way, I can start adjusting my bevel. It's a little finicky sometimes if I have just undo that against, like, the edge of the shortcut for that is controlled. B. It's the same thing. For some reason, this works a little nicer with the most sliding. I'm not sure why that is, but anyway, control be bevel the edge and we get you know we can We can really go minute there. In fact, if I just put the camera in a little bit. This is where I can use that. The last operation tool here. You could see that even though I unclipped the mouse, I'm not done. I can go back in here so long as it was the very last operation. You didn't do anything since that you always go back into this menu and you can really Finally, I can just click these arrows. I can really adjust this bevel for, like, a little micro bevel. Let me just undo that and we'll try beveling more than one edge. If I hold shift and multi, select these edges and push control. Be Aiken bevel, all of them at once, and that's gets a lot of work done very quickly, right? That's kind of nice. And then whenever you're done with an operation like this, you always have to push a to de select Now, because three D models consists of a fairly continuous flow of edges, you know, edges connecting Vergis is you can select edges by the loops they belong to, so you see this edge loop there called edge loops and blender. See this edge loop that's, you know, surrounding our fireplace entrance. If I held the Ault Key in edge mode held the all key and push that it selects the whole loop, I could select that loop that loop. I could select a horizontal loop. This goes all the way around the back of the object. This is handy because if I wanted to select that, you know, if I were holding shift, I'd have to, like, go around the object and select each one. This gets really annoying, right? Holding out clicking. Any edge here will select its loop. I can click this one and will select the entire loop across the model so you'll probably be using Ault Edge Loop selection quite often. You will also probably want to add edge loops to your model toe. Add more geometry. Let's say I needed an edge along this vertical plane of the fireplace for whatever reason. For modelling purposes, I need to add more geometry for this Blender has a loop cut tool, and the shortcut is control are or its corresponding icon right here, and you could see as I move. My mouse blender is showing me where I can add loop cuts or edge loops, and this is the one I want right here. So when it's active, I'll just click the left mouse button, and now I can slide that edge loop exactly where I want it. You notice it's spanning the entire three D model. Sorry, it's a bit cut off at the top, but you can still see it. Let's say I want it right in the middle. I could just go there, or if I just under that, if you want it right in the middle, it by default puts it in the middle. So if I just click click, it goes right in the middle between those other two edges. Push a to de select and there we go. I've created a new edge loop, which I could now all select. With that, um, I could do something else here. Let's say I wanted more geometry. Push control are and I find this. If I wanted more than one, I can roll my mouse wheel and add all kinds of new geometry. Let's see if add three edge loops, click it and slide them into place, and I should point out that this edge loop goes all the way around the model so it's at an underneath right. It's all connected. Edge loops, by definition, are connected with adding that edge loop all the way along the model. Push A to de select. I go into Vertex mode. Of course, it's also adding verses you can't have edges without ever Toussie's on. Also without faces. These are all individual faces, right? And I could say, Take that face. Extrude it. You know all kinds of possibilities. Open up. You know, I could make an airplane. Now leave. This is it's now a fireplace airplane. How's that for creativity? And there we go. We have our basic model in this is that this all started with the Cube 10 minutes ago. It's amazing where you can end up when your three D modeling the potential is huge. That all select trick is not just applicable with edges, but in face. Modi can hold all too and select face loop. I'm not actually sure what Blender calls these, but it's, you know, essentially, it's a loop of faces. It might be called face loop. I'm not exactly sure. And, um, or I can, you know, if I just click that held shift click that I could just like those two. Let's say I wanted to extrude these at the same time. Just push E for extrude and scale it in, or there's another tool that's common. Let me just undo that is the inset tool. So that's shortcut is I or you just go to face and you can go to inset faces and what this does, is it? It just scales them into themselves like this. You can do this with the extrude tool as well, but the insect faces just specifically keeps those. It keeps the face on the same plane usually what this is good for. Ah, quick to lock that in then. Usually this is coupled with an extrusion, you know, to make a hole in an object or something. Allow me now to direct your attention over here. These options, if you recall, did not exist in object mode. If I tab out of edit mode, the those options are gone. Get back in here. These air, just all the things we did. There's extrude, There's inset. There's bevel. There's loop Cut. The knife tool is something we haven't looked at yet. We might do that later, but there's just a few different tools in there. They all do the same thing, so you can find him here. You can find them here. You can find them with shortcuts again. This is up to you. It is to play around with the interface, and you'll find many different ways of doing the same things. One thing that tripped me up a lot when I was first learning Blender is I would create new objects while in edit mode. So let's say I wanted a new cube, right and I have the three cursor there. I would push shift A and I would add a cube and there's my Cube. The thing is because I added that cube in edit mode, Blender considers it part of this object. So if I tap out of edit mode, I'm in object mode. You can see that both are selected like it's one object. And so if I go into edit mode, I'm editing, You know, the faces and stuff on both of these objects. Even though they're physically separate, Blender considers them one object. This is often, in my opinion, not the most desirable things. If I just undid that because it could get you into trouble because all of a sudden you can't edit them separately, which is something you probably want to do sometimes is edit them separately. So let me just undo it and just get rid of that cube. Make sure that when you're adding new geometry, you get out of edit mode tab out of edit mode, then add shift A. Add the Cube, and now it's two separate objects and I could go into edit mode on each of them separately . So I'm now in edit mode on the Cube, and if I tap out of that, I can type into edit mode on my fireplace airplane, and they're both separate. So just be careful when you're adding geometry that you're not accidentally convoluted ing your same object now. Sometimes you might want that like, Let's say we want let me delete this box. Let's say we want a box to be attached to our little fireplace. Here I go into edit mode and I add my box. Okay, I had my cue back and just for the occasion, let's open a new window. Switch into right view with all my face is here selected whips and OK, here's a problem. I want to select all those faces. Well, I could just hold shift and, you know, rotate around here and select them all. And that's cumbersome. Another thing I could do is push be and this is the box select mode. Now the problem with the box like motors. It does not select faces in the back, but it does get a lot of work done at once. I can go back here, push be again and select those. That's a fast way of selecting things. So now I have my box selected in this window. I can press G for I guess it's grab. I can move this around right and position it. Let's say I want to put it here. Let me just switch this view over here and pushed g again. Let's move it here, See if I didn't push G. By the way, it would like select the face because I'm in face select mode and that's not desirable. So make sure we under that make sure you're pressing g again and then you move it. It will trip you up a little bit at first it still does for me again. I'm not a seasoned professional, so I still get tripped up by this. But anyway, so now we have our box here, and let's just push as scale it down just a little bit. What I want to do is I want to connect physically, connect this box with my little fireplace thing. You push a to de select. Essentially, I want to connect that face to that face. And believe it or not, there is a proper and improper way to do this. The proper way to do it is to delete the two faces that you are going to be connecting. So if I click this face and this is helpful for other things, too, and push X, it will bring up my delete menu just like an object mode. Except now I can delete many different things, right? I want to delete that face so I'll just click faces. So I've now made a little hole in my box. Same thing here. I will quick, this face pushed X delete faces and I've cut a hole here in both of my objects. Okay, This this is going to be helpful in the future as well. But in this case, just follow me here as I connect these two things, I now need to make a new face or four new faces as I connect this piece of geometry to this piece of geometry. What I can do here I can go toe edge mode, probably the fastest way. Click that edge shift. Click that edge and push F for Phil and Blender calculates the exact polygon to fill it with the exact face toe ad. And then I could do the same thing. Click this click that pushed F Go Here, click this click this F Go around. Click this shift. I'm holding shifts to click multiple ones, right F. Now the reason we have to delete those faces before we did that is because if I didn't do that, the geometry would become oddly duplicated in here. And Blender just doesn't like that. So just be careful when you're joining faces to delete the previous faces first. And so you know. Now we have our cube connected physically in with our crazy chimney fireplace airplane thing, and that is the usefulness of adding a separate object, a separate piece of geometry to another object in edit mode is when you want to connect them like this, Go back out and you know we have our object. It's now looking more like a duck with arms yelling Hooray or something! Fireplace duck, airplane yelling Hooray! So you thought you were buying a painting class? Little did you know. Okay, another couple of handy things. This one actually has nothing to do with edit mode. It's more of an interface thing. See how I have two windows here? I've kind of crowded my top displays. There's there are actually options beyond the frame that I cannot see toe access those you hold the middle mouse button and drag, and you can get at those hidden ones, you know, same over here. Also, I want to make a slight addendum or correction to something I said a few minutes ago when I was in edit mode and I pushed the be key for Box Select, and I selected this. I noted that it does not select what's behind it now. While that is true, if you would like to select what's behind it, you can do that by going over here as I've just shown you these buttons here control how you see the model. These 1st 2 are particularly important by default. It's on this one, the solid shading view. You can click wire frame, and now we see through our model. If I pushed B and Box Select now and then went back into this mode, we can see that it has selected what's behind it. So that's a way I could have avoided a few minutes ago. I could have avoided orbiting around my entire box to select that, so that's helpful. Another option is this one here. This is a mix of the two. It's not quite why it's not quite wire frame. It's not quite shaded. It's It's a mix these air all modes that you might enjoy working in. Be careful, though, because you can see through the model that you're basically doubling the amount of geometry you can see, which is confusing. So usually I'm editing in this mode here, but I've just given you a case for the box electoral. Sometimes it's helpful to go in here box select, and even in this hybrid mode it does select the box Electoral goes through the geometry helpful stuff, another very helpful thing that you will use all the time is called proportional editing. By default, proportional editing is turned off. Its menu is accessed right here. It's currently on the disable option. So let me show you what that means real quick. I can go to Vertex mode here, click this Vertex push G and move it and it moves a singular Vertex, as we would expect. But oftentimes you don't want to edit your geometry this way cause it's to non intuitive. Maybe like, I want this point to like, if this were a clay model and I were, you know, moving some stuff around, you know, other stuff would be affected by the pressure and by the pull and push of things. So this is where proportional editing comes in. So I'll just undo that. I can turn this on by simply going to enable The shortcut for this is Oh, by the way, and this is a connected menu. But right now, let's just leave it on the default of smooth. What happens now? If I select that Vertex, see that circle that pops up that is showing me the radius of influence of the proportional tool and you can see neighbouring points are moving along with my alteration here. Now I can increase or decrease that amounts of influence if I while holding my mouse button , moving this point around. If I scroll my mouse wheel up or down, you can see the circle gets bigger and the influence gets greater. So now it's almost like I have this thing on like an armature, and I'm moving an entire arm of it or, you know, I go the other way, go smaller. It's going back to essentially just moving this one point around. And the cool thing is, this whole thing is interactive. This whole time, I have not clicked the mouse toe. Lock it in yet. So I'm moving this in real time and you notice that, as I like go to smaller on it, un does what the movement is so you can kind of audition movements like I could go really big and just squish it around like this and say, No, it's way too much and then just scroll the mouse and it under does the editing that I had done. Now, the second you click the mouse button like if I did this and then clicked. It locks it in. And then, of course, you're free to select another point and continue editing just to demonstrate what the different proportional modes look like when editing ago. Head push. If they create a mesh plane, I'll just scale it to a good size tab into edit mode, moving it up so the grid is not in our way. Push a to de select. Now let's push control are for the loop cut tool and scroll my mouse a few times, so we have a bit more geometry. Let's click that click to lock it in. Let's push control are again. Scroll the mouse a few times. Click twice, locked those in, push a to de select things. All right, so now we have a mesh that can support a lot of editing in Vertex mode, which we have up here. I will click this middle point push G and Z to drag it along the Z axis, and of course we have our limited editing it. Let me push Oh, turn on proportional, G said. And now we have this. Now this is where you can see the different profiles, the different curve profiles that Blender offers. This is the default one called Smooth. I go back down here, we can go up here and let's say I go sphere Well, G said. And now you can see that the Taper is more like a sphere, like a spheres trying toe punch through this plane here. And it's a simple is that there are different ones, like sharp. You know, it'll make up more of a point. Constant feels more blocking. So depending on the geometry or the object that you're modeling, you might use different proportional editing modes. And, of course, at any point you can scroll the circle and alter your radius of influence, and you're often running like a professional three D model. Er, okay, I think that's all four edit mode. For now. Of course, in our actual art production, which will get into after this chapter, we will be using these tools more fluidly, and, you know, some uses might come up that go beyond what I've explained here in this chapter. But these air the basics of how you'll be modeling your stuff in edit mode. All right, let's move on and look at another essential tool in blender 6. 1: So there's another area of blenders interface that we have not probed into yet. And it's this area full of icons right here. Just a quick release version. Discrepancy, folks in Blender 2.8 beta. That same menu is now vertically aligned here. The icons are basically the same, and they're in the same order. So should be no problem to follow. Along in this section will be looking at this particular icon called modifiers. You can see when we do this. We have an ad modifier thing and you click that and there's a whole slew of modifiers we can add to our objects. So you can see here I have a cube that I just scaled into a shape like this. And you know what? Before I do anything here, the best way I can describe modifiers is actually linking back to photo shop. I'm sure we're all super familiar with photo shop, or at least with similar painting APs. If I made a new layer and painted, you know this in my layer window, I could go here to the adjustment layers and say, make a exposure adjustment layer, and in that exposure, I could affect the entire, you know, painting that's underneath it, right? The exposure is not changing these in a destructive way, meaning if I just hid that I still have my original painting. Like if I painted a few more colors in here, if I just painted some random colors and adjusted the exposure, it's not actually changing what I did. It's simply overlaying an effect on top of it, right? And at any time I could click back into my adjustment and, you know, go and change things as I see fit. This is called nondestructive editing. Of course, if I then wanted to commit to my changes, I could select on my layers flatten it down, and now I have essentially committed to the effect. But if I didn't do that, if I just undid that I always have the effect on this layer that I can adjust blenders modifiers are just like that. If I went in here and say, added, an array modifier are Cuba's been duplicated? Now I can adjust this. I could change the offset to say, Go here. I could change the number to say three. I could do all kinds of stuff. I could change this value, which kind of offsets them on, and you can see that our cube is interacting with this modifier. If I tabbed into edit mode, you notice that on Lee, the original Cube is edit herbal. And that's because only this original cube exists. These are created by the adjustment layer. Or, I should say, by the modifier, If I edited a point, you can see that all the cubes update to reflect this change. And, you know, in this case, Blender is trying to preserve the spacing that I've told it. Teoh. That's just a particular feature of this modifier. Or if I went back into object mode and hit, rotate along Why, you know every object inherits the translations and rotations and scale ings and edits of the original model. If I were then happy with this and I wanted to apply it, I could just hit the apply button and there we go. Our object is now fully edit Herbal independently because I have applied it just like in photo shop. When I flattened down that exposure adjustment layer, I can edit these boxes fully independently. They are separate pieces of geometry. Not that you have to flatten down your modifiers. You could keep them forever. Edit herbal if you wanted Teoh. Okay, I think you get the idea. Let's go back to our basic seen here, one particularly useful modifier that modelers use all the time. Like any any Pixar Disney Sony movie that you see like every character would have this modifier on it. It's called subdivisions surface. So again you click the modifier thing, which is under this button. Click it go down two subdivision surface. I'm in object mode. By the way, subdivision surface, it basically takes your object and rounds it out. And of course, we have our modifier window coming up here. This is the smoothest adjustment here. It has two different ones. The view, which is what we're looking at now in the three D view and the render, which is how the object will render, which will cover later. But in the view, if we went to say two or three, you can see the object gets more finally smoothed out. I like a value of two or three. Usually. Now this is a very crude rounding because our original model had so few points, the more definition your original model has, the more you can control the rounding, so I'll show you what I mean. If I tabbed out of object mode into edit mode, we can see both my original model, the control mesh. It's sometimes called or the control geometry. And we could see our rounded object as a result of our modifier. If I pushed control are for the loop cut tool, and I added some geometry. You can see I have a live update of the newly smooths result, and you know, the more geometry you add to your model, it affects the waiting, I guess, of the smooth results. If I put this particular loop cut there and let's say I did it again, control are and put that Luke cut their. Now let's say I pushed a toothy select went to face select mode And let's say I grabbed these faces holding shift and again I'm using the amusing the see through options so I can select faces through the models. I don't to rotate around right and then pushed I to inset it and then pushed g to extrude. Walk it in pushed s to scale it. I can edit my model. This way you can see it updates. If you ever want to see just the smooth, you can tab out into object mode and see the result. Looks like I made, like a bullet or something. If I go back into edit mode, you can actually change the way you interact with this with these buttons here. If I turn this off, I only get my control mesh if I turn it back on to get this back. If I turn this one on, then it's almost as though the control match doesn't exist anymore, although it still does. But I get to see the points as if this were the actual model. You know before, if I turn that off, I can Onley edit the points. If I went to Vertex, Modi could only edit the points of my control mesh right, which is which is great. But if I went into this mode, it's as if these points now stick to my newly rounded surface and I can edit this and I can use all the same options before I could turn on proportional editing and do you know the circle thing we talked about in the previous chapter. All these things still apply. This is an extremely powerful tool because it allows you to get high. Resolution results with low resolution models will be using this feature in our first art demo. Coming right up now, if I were happy with this model and I wanted to flatten it down and work with it like this , I could always hit the apply button. And there we go. Our model is now existing as the result of the modifier, and you can see that there are many more points added. The reason there are more points at it because more points means smoother geometry. This could be a downfall because now we have so many more points to work with so often I don't like to flatten this down. I like to keep it in the modifier stacks. I'll just undo until I get this back, you know, Now this allows me to just maintain Ah, nice modeling, workflow. But I just don't have to worry about so many points. But yeah, you know, if I went back into Facebook, this is tons of funds like that. Face extruded up, screwed up a little more a to de select go back to object mode now is actually one more thing I wanted to show you. If I get out of this mode, you can see that our object is round, but it's still faceted. We can see every little face like I want this to be smooth. This is not a matter of simply increasing the smoothing here, because even as I increase the smoothing, it's still faceted like should. Shouldn't this be smooth? Let me go back to two, because increasing this too much will really slow your computer down. And that's we don't want that right? So what you can do this is actually not a problem with the resolution of the model. This is actually the way blender is choosing to display the objects. All you have to do to change this to a smooth, shaded version is go upto object and say shade smooth and there you go. Blender basically calculates the angles between faces, and if it's under a certain angle, it will just show it to you as if it were totally smooth. And this is usually how you'll want to view rounded models. And if you want that back. By the way, you can just go shade flattened. It brings it back. So shades move This something you'll use quite commonly, one last little thing about the modifier window. You can stack them. So if I now put an array modifier just like it did before, we have both our subdivision service modifier. Here are array modifier. Here you can collapse these for handy viewing. You can turn them on and off. So if I didn't want to see my subdivision service modifier, I just click this monitor button. This is the hide and unhygienic button. Essentially, You know, I could go down to this one and hide that so you can get quite complex with the amount of modifiers you're using and you always have the option of hitting apply and flattening them down. So that is the modifiers window. We will be talking about a few more of these modifiers as we work specifically this UV project modifier, but that will be covered later in this video class. For now, let's move on to the next thing 7. 1: All right, folks with grease pencil. I'm gonna go out on a limb here and say that the grease pencil is probably what brought most of you to this video in the first place in Blender 2.8, the grease pencil has dramatically changed from previous versions of the software. In fact, just a quick history on the grease pencil blunder that team a blender never thought the grease pencil would be as widely used as it is. It was originally just implemented as an annotation device, and in fact, that annotation is still in Blender 2.8. But it is now separate from the grease pencil, the annotation tools right here, and it's very easy to use if I clicked on it and use my right mouse button. I can messily scrawl out little notes like Grease pencil, And the reason this is handy is because for those who are actually working in three D software, like on a film or something, you can make revisions and just have your revision notes implemented in the actual scene. If I simply orbit the camera around you see, it's just a flat two d piece of writing in three D space, and it's very handy. And, of course, to D artists like us. We took this tool, saw possibilities beyond simply annotating things, and we would draw our own scenes with it, kind of expanding on three D geometry. This is the technique I briefly showed in one of my YouTube videos, modeling some basic geometry than adding to it with the grease pencil. And, of course, in the following chapters, I will break this technique down more thoroughly as well as expand on it. But in this initial Blender overview chapter, I just want to show you what the interfaces like and then we can probe deeper. Later, While we're talking about the annotation tool here, there's a few different options. You could go toe line and draw various straight lines. You could annotate, polygon and draw various polygons with the left and right mouse buttons. Not totally intuitive, but it's there. And of course, you have an eraser, which does more or less what you'd expect. Let's just start a new scene here. Blender has, ah whole new custom tool set for the grease pencil, so let's dig into that. First thing we'll do is conduct the old ritual. Deleting blenders. Default cube. Let's push shift day. You might have noticed there's a grease pencil option here. Let's bring in something called a blank. A blank is like an empty, which we looked at in a previous chapter. Except this. Empty tells the grease pencil where in space to draw two D objects and like creating any other three D geometry, we could go down here and changes location. You can see that little empty object moving around. That is Thea again. It tells Blender where to draw something. So let's just say Let's just plop it there. Now that we have this object in our scene, you can see if we go to our collection here in our outline. Er, it's their G pencil. Um, now that we have this object here, I can go click on this menu and go to draw mode. This was not there. Before Blender detects that I have ah, grease pencil objects so it adds the draw mode. Click on draw mode, and I have a bunch of different brushes. Another release discrepancy. Note. Folks, If you have the beta version of Blender 2.8, those brushes air no longer listed here. They're right here under this little icon to see all of them there. It's the same brushes. As far as I know. They're just listed there. OK, the fill bucket and the erasure are still listed in the toolbox. Okay, Back to our regularly scheduled program. So anyway, you have a selection of basic brushes, your pen, pencil marker, eraser, etcetera. And remember what we learned in the previous section. If I pushed t, I get the plus sign, I can drag this out and, you know, I get the names of every tool and now you can just draw. I'm using my tablet just like you'd expect. It is pressure sensitive to see if I press soft that press hard. We have the response you'd expect. The option for that, by the way, is up here. If I turn that off, it's no longer pressure sensitive. I turn it on. It is. Every tool reacts the same, and every tool has the same kind of top options. The brush size is here, or the shortcut for that is the F key. You see, I can drag my radius now it's a little weird. The radius, like that looks like a huge brush, and it does not correlate to the actual brush size. In fact, it's not even close, but it's still intuitive enough. You can just hit the F key, set the size and find the stroke. With that you want the's strength is up here. This is, you know, simple opacity similar to what you'd find in any digital painting software. Just grab the eraser tool and just get rid of this. Someone to show you something. Okay, I'll go back to the pencil tool. I'll just increase the size a little bit and you notice as I draw. It's a bit choppy, and when I let go of my tablet right now, it's smooth. The object. There's a bit of post processing done to the strokes. This is something that strikes me as annoying, and I don't like it. Thankfully, we can turn it off. You can just go to any all the tools of the same. You just go up to the options button here, and you can turn off post processing now. If I do it, it doesn't do any post processing. However, The brush strokes are a little bit jagged. There's these faceted edges. I kind of want that to be a little smoother. As far as I know, the brushes are a little bit in perfect. It's not. It's not. The same is drawing in photo shop, but you can get a little closer to what you'd expect. So the default settings air like this. I just tooled around with some of these settings and came up with something more like this . I don't know if those were the ideal settings, but at least for me, it seems to enable me to draw in such a way that the software retains the original brushstroke pretty closely. It's still a bit faceted, though, and I don't think this tool is perfect. Thankfully, this shouldn't bother us too much because we're only using this to interface with our objects on a kind of ah initial sort of rough past level. Any serious painting or drawing work we do will be done back in photo shop, so we're not looking for the perfect brush set here. And who knows? There might be some improvements happening to Blender as we speak. The software development team is always on this, and maybe it's just a matter of me experimenting more, but I have not found a way to totally eliminate the smoothing issues, at least not in Blender 2.8 Alfa. But if you're watching this video and you have a better solution than when I'm doing, please do not hesitate to email me. But back to the grease pencil interface. We have a little drawing here that I did. If I orbit around as you saw before, this is simply a two dimensional drawing that exists in three dimensional space. And the key thing to understand here is that blender, by default, makes the drawing perfectly perpendicular to the view that you started drawing at now, that was a mouthful of words. Let me explain what that means. For instance, if I were to orbit the camera to a very different location, say, here and I went back to object mode where I could push, shift a, make another grease pencil blank and let's just move this one there and over here, and just like before we go into draw mode and I draw something and I orbit the camera. Now you notice that the drawings have very different orientations. This drawing my initial drawing faces this way, whereas my second drawing faces that way. Because I was drawing these from two different perspective views. Blender oriented them to two different orientations, and that makes perfect sense. I mean, we don't want three D perspective skewing our drawings, but the problem is in this perspective, you you know, we're always moving the camera and, like once you have drawn something and you move the camera, it's very hard to get that position back perfectly. So what I recommend doing is when you're using the grease pencil to draw, I would recommend using the camera, which is this guy here as the view port through which we see the drawing. So what I'll do is I will just delete our grease pencil drawings so we have a blank seen once again, and I'll do the thing I did in an earlier section where I'll select the camera. Actually, I don't even need to select it. I'll just press the num pad zero key, and it snaps me into the camera view. In this view, here I will hit the lock camera to view Button. Then I'll just move the camera to something that's kind of flat and just looking into space , just something that will give me a sort of a basic perspective that I could draw into. And now what I can do is lock this camera down so it no longer has the possibility of moving accidentally. And to do that, you just click these lock icons here so quick. All 63 for location. Three for rotation. You can't scale a camera, so don't worry about that. And now, if I click, click my mouse and try and move. I can't move. The camera is totally locked, so this is a good start for our grease pencil drawing, so I'll go shift a grab grease pencil blank. Just open this little guy up and let's move. Let's put one right up close to camera. Say, right there. Okay, I'll go back into draw mode and with my pencil, I'll just just keep this really simple the straw house with the chimney. It's important in the door knob. Now. I'll go back out into object mode, make a new blank, and let's just move that one. Say back, they're back into draw mode and I'll draw another house. All right, so if I slated a new window here and just got rid of these unruly dialogue boxes. And on this view will hit the num pat five key to go into just regular perspective mode. Actually, I'm in perspective. Ortho five again to go into regular. You can see that you know, my objects have been drawn apart in space. Also noticed that they are oriented just on a slight die on a slight angle which matches exactly perpendicular to my camera view. So in here what I can dio is if I were an object mode I can select any one of my grease pencil objects in C. I could select them here in my outline, Er and I can apply any operations of them like I can hit s and scale them. And my, you know, they are treated just like any other object in blender scale You can you can rotate. Maybe I want to go along the local access for that Or if you want to bring in your tools, rotate you can, you know, get your visual icons back, which is always handy. I do like the visual widgets. They're also let me just kill this window and go back here when I have a grease pencil object selected this foreground house. In this case, I can go into sculpt mode, and I have a whole bunch more tools here that I can use. And this reminds me of the liquefy tool in photo shop. If I had the grab button and used my right mouse button, I could, you know, liquefy things around and again. I can push f scale up the brush and grab these lines and sculpt them around. I could do the push tool. You know, it just they just do different things, just like And if you've ever used photo shops, liquefy tools, it's pretty much the same thing. You could also smooth out your lines. This one's kind of nice. It just applies a bit of smoothing two things. So even though my drawings are very crude in this introductory chapter, don't worry. We'll be doing half decent art later. I swear you can see the potential that you have with the grease pencil. The grease pencil also gives you the option of layers. If I went back into draw mode and clicked on this pencil icon here, I have my layers window. So if I just let's say I wanted to draw windows on this house, but I wanted to do it on a layer I could just hit the plus button. I have a new layer and draw window and, just like our modifiers have the monitor button here, hides and unhygienic layers. So this is nice. Not only do I have to different grease pencil objects existing in two different levels of depth, each one has its own layer set. So it's really like Photoshopped in three dimensions and another really cool thing I could do. I can select my camera up here, go back into object mode. Actually, I have to unfurl it and click this camera, and I get you see my lock icons that I set right. If I just unlocked them, I now can move my camera in space through my little scene that I've created. I could go into the scene out of the scene over orbit around the scene. You know, pan around it. I can interact in three dimensions with my two dimensional drawing. This is something called 2.5 D. It's become the visual effects standard in modern day Hollywood films. Now we are really going to explore the potential of creating art in 2.5 D later on. In this lesson, this chapter is just an overview. I want you to become familiar with the interface first. So then I could just talk about doing the art later. But just while we're here, let me just show you one cool thing. I'll make another window again. Kill these menus. Let's switch this to a top view. I will make a new blank grease pencil switch myself over to draw mode. You just move this in so I can see and we'll draw a little wind. The road that connects these houses just something simple like this. Let's switch over to a front view back an object mode. I can move this down so it shares a ground with the houses in the switch to another view. It's moving a little bit over here now in camera view. I could start dahling through the scene, and because that road was drawn in top view, it actually spans the depth between these two houses, so I don't always have to draw perpendicular to my camera view. I can combine different perspectives and truly have drawing in two dimensions. Meeting movement in three dimensions really, really powerful, and I hope you can see the potential here, my crude drawings notwithstanding. So we'll be using this tool extensively to plan out our illustration and Chapter two. But for now, we have a few more essential blender tools to familiarize ourselves with, so let's move on. 8. 1: If you are a new user to blender, you might look at a scene like this and say, Wow, that must be kind of complex to set up Well, no, actually, it's dead simple. I'm going to show you how to do in just a moment. Blenders, rendering engines air Really amazing. Not only in my senior rendered preview, I can orbit the camera around the scene like this. I could move objects if I wanted to and get really time or near real time feedback from the rendering engine. I can select a light, move it around, see the shadows increasing based on the angle of the light. As somebody who paints light, it's really cool to have a computer kind of calculate this for you and just see the possibilities. It has lightened shadow. It has reflected light. It has ambient occlusion. It's really quite amazing. So let's start a brand new scene here and look at how to set up our own lights and materials to get started with our scene. Let's just take this box will scale it up a bit, go into edit mode and then now switching to edge select mode, let's just shift select some of these edges control. Be bed with them a little bit to give our box a little edge that can catch the light. Push a to de select that selected these edges and control be and bevel them a little bit again just to give the objects some kind of definition that will help catch the light just because the default perfect edge of geometry is very unrealistic, So this will give us something to work with. Now let's tap out of edit mode and just push G and Z to bring this box up along the Z axis . Shift A to create a plane, and you can see it there. Let's push asked to scale it up a little bit, and we have, ah, little basic seen. What we can do is we can duplicate this box with Shift D and that will duplicate it. If I just click, then asked to scale, I could just make some smaller ones. And here's where some other views might be handy. So let's just go into a front view and I could just Well, that was a mistake. I didn't mean to drag the box, and now I can't see what's behind it. So what I could do is I could go into a wire frame and pick the object of their then pushed G. And you know, now I can move it that way. Or I could always go unfurl my collection and select objects here, which is I recommend getting used to this view. Actually, it's very handy, but in general, if I just clicked and dragged, I could do this. So now I could just make sure my boxes are placed on the floor And if I wanted to move them in perspective, I can go, you know G X g. Why? And this Move them here. I can rotate on ze ship This box shift d Let's duplicate that hit Z to shift it up here. I'm looking at my right view, Teoh, see if I can put it right on top of that box. There we go. Rotated on Z just toe offset a bit and then in this window just for I get back a little bit , just just to give our seen some kind of interest and get some shadows that actually define some different forms here with push, shift A and add a sphere, because why not? Let's scale it up just maybe a little bit. In this view, Let's move it out and maybe I'll switch that view over to the the right view. Hit G and just move the sphere. G X, Bring it out here. Let's scale it down just a little bit and then position it on the ground. Schiff D duplicate scale position. Just have a few objects in our seen here. Let's just do that one more time and put that right there. Okay, great. We have our little basic seen here. Now the next thing we want to do is something fundamental to how blender will display are objects. First of all, remember these little buttons up here? Well, this one displays it with lighting. It's called a rendered view. What blenders doing now is using its internal rendering engine to show us a rendered view. And the thing to know about Blender is it comes with a few different rendering engines, and in this entire video class will just be using one. And it's not to the default one to switch it, go over to this camera button and right here it says render engine by default. Set to E V. E. V is a brand new rendering engine. Comes with Blender 3.8 exclusively and well, guys, I don't know how to use it yet I have never used evey blender. 3.8 is pretty new, so I have not delved into this, but we don't need it. Dropped down the rendering engine box and go to cycles cycles has been blenders, tried and true, rendering engine for years. Now it's extremely good. You notice the moment I click into cycles. It's calculating very realistic light. Just like before. I instantly have shadows. I have ambient occlusion. See under that box, there is a bit of ambient occlusion under the sphere and be in seclusion. It's really amazing. Now if I just selected this box, pushed G. Zed moved it up a little bit just to raise it above the floor, then hit a to de select. You can see that Ambien inclusion is just so suddenly calculated. It's really beautiful, and I could orbit the camera just like normal full modeling capabilities here. I could tap into edit mode and change the box if I wanted Teoh. You know I could do all my modeling activity here. Now, when you switch into rendered view with this button up here, blender will slow down a little bit, depending on your graphics processor in your CPU speed, everyone's gonna be a little bit different here. My computer is not a powerhouse, and it still manages rendering basic geometry pretty well. Obviously, if you plan to become, you know, professional three D artists, you'll want to trick out your computer in the optimal way. But I just have a basic and video video card. Nothing special. All right, this grid is kind of bothering me. So what I can do is just select everything in the scene here by holding shift. I don't want to move the light. We're gonna talk about lights in the second, but just gonna select everything that's not the light and not the camera. And just push in the screen. Just pushed G. We just move these all together, this moving above the grid, just push a to de select everything. And while we're here, let's just get that box kind of back on the ground and okay, let's start with materials by default. You've no doubt noticed that everything is this basic, dull grey material. We can see the materials box by clicking on the object in question and going over to this button right here and by default were presented with a whole array of options, most of which we will not be using. In fact, I don't really like to look at all these things the bit overwhelming. I just switch the surface from this principle be SDF, which is the thing that includes all these options. I just switch it over to diffuse for now. This will give us what we want. If you want to change the color, just go into color. And you know, we want that box to be read. Go ahead and pick your value and saturation here and we have a red box notice all three boxes got that material because these were these two little boxes were duplicates of the big one. So their material also got duplicated to change that click on the box. You'd like to change the material on there's click this minus button that will delete it and kind of give it this default grayness again. Click the plus button. Now we'll add an empty slot. Click this plus a new box, and now it's created material 0.1 and you can rename the Sioux new box material and then in that new box interior by default again, it loads up this principle be SDF, and I'm going to go ahead and switch it back to defuse. And now we can change this to a blue color or whatever we want while we're at it, let's just pick the sphere and this is weird. There should be a material there, but remember, I deleted it. Every primitive object you make comes with that default gray material, and just a minute ago I deleted it. So the sphere has nothing, so I could just go ahead and click the plus button, which will create a blank slot. Then click and you, which will create a new material. And I'll just click this And you know what? Let's just make this a glossy glossy just makes it reflective. So with glossy, you can change the roughness from like chrome to see the updates here, Low roughness gives it up like almost a perfect reflection, like a mirror ball, and change the roughness up will reduce the mirror effect and break up that reflection to whatever degree you want. And then let's just give this another color here, okay? Those other spheres did not update because again, they're material slot was deleted. If I wanted to give an object any of these materials, I'll just click on the sphere and then in here add the plus box to create the slot. And then in that slot I can pick from my existing materials instead of clicking the new set of clicking here. I can click here and go to you know, my new box material, which was the blue one, if you remember, or I can go to my sphere material, which was called material 10.1 You know, you might want to start naming these things and we'll get into that in our future. Demonstrations in this class will will be diving way deeper into materials than this. This is just the overview. When they grabbed this sphere, add the slot, add the material. There we go. OK, great. So one more thing weaken Dio is tell blender what the environment color is again by default . It's this basic gray color and just like real life, blender will use the environment to create bounce light. If our world was just gray like this, there'd be a lot of gray coming in from our environment hitting the shadows. And that's what blenders doing right now. It's using that gray to provide ambient light into the scene. This graze very dull, though, and completely unrealistic, so you might want to change that. To do so go into this world tab, and I like to click the use nodes button. It comes in handy later, but you can click the color box and you see it's this basic default gray. And as I change it, it changes the environment of the view port as well. And you notice is, I just added more more lights to my environment. Blender calculated an increased level of ambient light, which is exactly what you'd expect in the real world. So you know you can set this to let's say, bluish to imitate kind of sky or something, and you could just change the strength to whatever value you want. And we'll play with combinations of this balanced against the light source in just a second . And if you don't like seeing the background being completely blew like that. You can click back over to the camera buttons, scroll down to the film tab and click Transparency. This will still use the ambient light, but it will keep your background just flat gray. This is all just based on how you'd like to preview your scene. Oh, yeah. Just to recall something we talked about before. See those faceted spheres? I can click on that, go up to object and shade smooth. Right. And I could do that for every sphere. Okay, let's look at some lighting. Now. Lights and blender are called lamps, and this is a lamp, and a lamp is an odd word. But anyway, quick note here, folks. It would appear that the Blender team heard that comment because lights are no longer called lamps, they're just called lights. This is a default scene. You can see it's called a light, not a lamp. Also, if I pushed shift A, I could go down here and add a light, which in previous releases of blender, this would say lamp. So if I ever say lamp, it means light. Okay, Back to the lesson in the outline er, here you'll see our lamp or lights in later versions. The controls you'll use to control these lamps is also in this section. It's this icon right here and again. The first thing I do is click the use nodes button. It gives you a few more options that are just handy. You might be wondering what nodes are that will come into play later. For now, just click. The use knows box and we have some more options, including one option we would expect, which is the strength of the lights. If I click this and say Change it to 200 our life has increased. That didn't do much less. Change it to 500 see what that does. OK, now we're talking here. Now we have a light. I can go and change its color. Let's imitate sort of a yellowish kind of sunlight. Something like that. Now we see we have a light that's strong enough to impart. It's yellow nous to the things that it hits and are blue. Ambience is more or less relegated to the shadow, which is how you'd expect things to work in real life now, by default blender gives you a lamp that's called a point lamp. You could see their different options here. Point Sun Spot, Hemi and area Ah point lamp or appoint light is like a light bulb in your house. It emits raise in all directions, and it hasn't quite a significant fall off. You can see that the area of the ground more less directly underneath the lamp is lit with the most concentrated yellow. And then as we go further away from that light, it falls off. You can combat this by increasing the strength, but it's the same thing. It will create more or more or less a hot spot in the area that's close to it, and it will fall off just like you'd expect a regular tungsten bulb toe work. If you'd like to swap the light from points to something else, you can do so down here. So if I click son Wow, we have something very different here. First of all, the sun strength 900 is way too high for a sunlight and blender. Let's switch it down to, say, 200 knots still too high. Let's go down to 50 and even that's too high. Let's go down to 10. You can see that I have not memorized every little setting and blender. I kind of flail around as I go. Okay, We're starting to get something here that's more or less acceptable. But we can go down. Maybe if I decrease the value of the light, something like this, and decrease the strength even a little more. This is looking pretty good. This looks like a sunlight hitting a scene. If I wanted to change the softness of these shadows, I could decrease the light size. If I want to say 0.1 those shadows become very hard edged. The other thing that's interesting about a sun lamp is you can change the direction of it. So if I just say, click the rotate button and if I just rotated it, say on X, I could change. You know the direction of the sun. Another tip on the sun lamp is moving. Its has no impact. See if I move it up and down the shadows aren't changing it all on Lee. The rotation of the sun matters. This line that you see indicates to you the angle that the sun is coming in. So if you wanted, like high noon, you go to you know, something like this, something more or less top down. You can change it, however, which way you like, but only the orientation matters with a sun lamp. If I switch back to point, which is where we started with a point light, the position does matter because it's a very localized light again. It's like a light bulb in your house. It really matters where it's positioned in space, whereas the sun is it. It's what's called an infinite light. A son blender does not give the sun like a fall off like this. So only the orientation matters with a sun lamp, but with a point light. Look at this. I love this update. I love seeing the shadows change as I move this lamp around you. Can you get live feedback there? Okay, let's bring it back up, and there are more lights to explore. Let's switch it over to a spotlight. This acts more or less exactly how you'd expect a spotlight toe act, and you can, you know, rotate the spotlight around you, have some fine control over here with that, of course, just like always, you can increase your strength. And because this is a spotlight we can open or close the spotlight down here in the size box, just click and dragon either Open up the spotlight, closed down the spotlight to whichever value you like. Of course, these lights just give you different options. Clicking over to Hemi Hemi is currently not, support says down here, not supported, interpreted as sunlight. So Hemi is just the same as a sun lamp. I can prove it to you if I hit G and moved it, you notice If you look at the shadows, it does not update the shadows. But if I just switched its rotation, then it does affect the shadows. So heavy is currently being treated just like a sun lamp. So you know it's the same thing. What? There's one more light, an area light. I really like area lights. If I click on that, let me just move my view up here so we can see this. What an area light is doing is it's imitating a light that comes not from a single point, like the sun or a light bulb. It's imitating more of a light that comes from, well, an area. I just Googled Kino Flo. This is a popular lighting system used on film sets. This is what an area light is. It emits light from a designated space. It's different from a sun lamp or appoint lamp in that it's softer. Film sets use these because of their softness. You don't get such harsh shadows with them, so we can play with area lights in blender. And the first thing you might want to change about it is its size, which has changed here. So I just drag this up. Look at the perspective. You here, you can see it changing. Obviously you have size on X and y so I can change the amount of area this is covering. Now. Let me just increase the strength here, perhaps to something like 800. And essentially, the larger the area were working with, the softer the shadows. That is something that is true in real light physics as well. And by the way, you can always turn off and on cast shadow, but we'll just be leaving it on for now. Area lights, of course, can be rotated and just for just for the occasion. I will switch from global to local, which is more friendly because the light is it's on its own local access. Aiken. Rotate it. Let's just get like a light that's coming straight down from above or something. You can click this move tool and just move it here. You know, just get some nice feedback as we dio. So area lights air really, really nice. I like working with area lights as they give you just kind of a general sort of soft rendered look, which can help us later on is we're painting are objects, and remember that at any time we can go back into our world tab and change the strength and color of the background. If I just decreased this, I just wanted some say, more harsh shadows. I could go down toe nothing. And now blender is not. It's a strength of zero. Blender is not considering the world. Therefore, the shadows, you know, are just more apt to be pure black. There is some bounce light still bouncing from the original light, bouncing back up into the shadows. That's why the shadow of the box is not pure black because there is some bounce light coming down from the light bouncing up, so there is still some ambient light. If you wanted to change that, go back to the light. C. Max bounces change that to zero, and now you have no bounce. Light is just either on or off. This is very unrealistic, but it may have uses. For instance, you can tell exactly what the light is hitting when the max bounces is at zero, and that holds true. Like if you went back to a sun lamp, change the size back to 0.1. Say we change the rotation a little bit, we can produce some real clear shadow passes. You might be wondering why I'm showing you this. I will show you a very practical application for these shadow passes in Chapter three. And speaking of shadow passes, there's one more thing I want to show you something very useful. This is just a basic seen the exact same stuff we just looked at. If I clicked on this world button here, I have access to this ambient occlusion button. Now watch this. When I click this button it on Lee shows me the ambient occlusion. It's as though this lights doesn't exist. Actually, that's not quite true. You can still see the remnants of a cash shadow coming from this light. But if I just simply went into my collection, turn the lamps visibility off. Now we're on Lee getting the ambient occlusion, and this is independent of any other lighting we've done with the scene. We could just flick on ambient occlusion if I just unfurled the Ambien occlusion part. I can play with different settings, just the factor in the distance. Factors like how light the non included parts are against the occluded parts. You can play with different values, but I like it so the objects are pretty white compared to the ambient occlusion, which is darker and distance. We won't be playing around with a whole lot. In fact, I'll just leave it at 30. We might play around with this value later. It basically tells blender how far something has to be away from the object for it to be included. I find 30 to be a perfectly good number, and obviously to get out of ambient occlusion mode, just unclipped the box. Let's bring back our lamp and we're back to a regular scene. And just to be clear, our regular scene has ambient occlusion. Blender calculates ambient occlusion with regular lamps, but it's also calculating everything else. It will come in handy to us as painters later on, to use this ambient occlusion pass in photo shop again, we'll be doing that in Chapter three. For now, you know how it works. You know where these options are. Great. Let's move on to one final bit of blender essentials. 9. 1: So we've already covered quite a bit about cameras in general, rendering. So in this section, I just want to officially show you how these dialog boxes work when it comes to camera settings and render settings, because we will be using those later on. We already know that that's a camera, and we already know that if I push numb pad zero, it flips into the camera view. We also already know if I hit the end button I can click lock camera to view, and now I can move the camera just in the same way that I could move all my other views with the middle mouse button or shift middle mouse button, etcetera. So clearly this box represents the frame of the camera or, in other words, what the camera is seeing the cameras, not seeing things outside this box, and we can change that. If we click the border button, it ghosts out the rest of the scene, and we only see what's in the camera view. This is the view that I like the most. The other thing we can changes the dimensions of the frame or another term for that is the aspect ratio. That is over here. I'm in the camera box here. It's over here. The resolution, It's called in blender. I could just scroll this and it changes. In this case, I'm increasing the X, which gives me a wider frame. And blender gives you a nice live update as to you know, how all this stuff interacts with the resolution. It's nice. You don't have to really look at the numbers. You just look visually. You can kind of see like, Well, I want a vertical picture. So I will, you know, just play with these options. Sometimes, depending on the project you're working on, it will be very clear what you want. Like if you're working on a film, you might want HD resolution, which is 1920 by 10 80. So you get a you know, a film screen here. So depending on what you want, you just play around with those values. If I wanted to officially render this scene into a file that I could save on my hard drive , I go up to render and render image and blender will sit here and and render. Now it's set to Well, we just saw what it said to It sets in 1920 by 10 80 pixels. That's that's quite a big picture. That's HD resolution. So let me just hit escape to stop the render. I can x out this window. And if I wanted to see this scene without having to wait for a render like I wanted just to see a quick preview and for some reason, my life preview here was not enough, I wanted to see a full quality render. I could change this percentage box. Right now it's set to 100% which means it's going to render 100% of these pixels so 1920 by 10 80. If I said that to 50% it's gonna cut that size in half. This is a nice setting because it keeps the aspect ratio but only renders half the size. So if I push render image again, you can see that my render boxes much smaller and therefore the render goes quicker. If I just x that out, set this to 10% render image and you know we have this little tiny little render window that renders, you know, lightning fast and that's great. Now, if you want to save these images to your hard drive, just go to image save as and ah well, if we just maximize this screen blender gives us its default dialog box where we can change your folder by default saves. It is a PNG, which is nice, and we can just save it just X out of that and render a slightly larger version of this just so we can see what we're doing. The shortcut for Rendered, by the way, is F 12. One thing you'll probably want to do often while you workers have different renders that you can compare, you know, side by side. Blender has a handy little way to do this. It's up here in these slots. So by default slot one. If I just went to slot to its blank if I just x that out and let's say in my scene here, I just, uh, wanted to say, Take down the material or change it to blue or something and say, Okay, I want to render that and test it against my other render hit F 12 again, and you notice it's now rendering into slot to so I won't make you watch this render in real time, I'll speed through it. And here, just as you'd expect, I can go back to slot one, see my original render, go to slot to see that one, and you know you have a bunch of slots you can you can fill up there. The other thing that's very handy about rendering is blender takes into account the transparency. So I have no background in this scene is just a blank world, and you notice that blenders put a checkerboard pattern there, which is the universal language for transparent that's controlled Over here in this dialog box, you can see it's set to RGB a a means Alfa, so it's rendering red, green, Blue Channel plus the Alfa, which is the transparency. Back in rendered view, we can preview the different channels right now it's set to color in Alfa. If we just looked at the Alfa Channel, we can see that indeed it's cut off are seen in the exact spot where the scene ends. This will become useful to us later on in actual production. Quick warning about that, though it's only transparent because I had the transparency button checked under the film tab. If that were not checked, Lender fills in the background, which is what we saw in the last section on materials, Remember? So if I rendered that with the transparency button unchecked, you can see that blender has filled in that background with that flat color. And if I went over to here and check the Alfa Channel, it's completely filled in with white. This is not what we want. So when you render, just make sure you have that transparency button checked, and it will make every blank part of your scene into simply a transparent segment, and we can then work with it back in photo shop. Anyway, let's go back to the original render with transparency and save it out in our dialogue box . We can choose the file format. P and G's usually nice. I'll just save it off to my desktop, and I'll bring it in over here in a photo shop. A PNG file actually saved the transparency in here. It's like saves it as a photoshopped layer with transparency and tax, so I don't even actually need the Alfa Channel when I'm saving out of PNG. It's handy that way if you want to save out like a tiff file, you'll have to deal with the offer channel, but that's getting a little technical for now. Let's just save it out as a PNG file and will work from there. And this is how we can get our images from blender into photo shop that is, through the official rendered view. Okay, that's about all you need to know for this section. And that also concludes our general intro to Blender. Congratulations. You now know how to use the software. You don't know how to use all of the software, and by the way, neither do I. I don't use all I don't use half of this software, but you should now have a grasp on the essentials of what will need to start combining three D with two D. I'll be expanding on many of these tools as we go, but with this fundamental knowledge, I'm sure it will be no problem for you to keep up and continue adding tools to the ones we've gained in this chapter. All right, I'm excited. Let's get into some actual production 10. 2: So here's a painting, but it's not just any old painting. This one exists in three D space. A camera can travel through it. We can pull focus in and out. But despite it living in the world of three D, it's still preserves that appealing to D look. I designed this project to reveal the vast possibilities this technique offers, and we'll build our skills with the variety of three D and two D tools. So I hope your appetite is wedded because we are now going to go all the way back to square one and build this project from scratch. So give your knuckles a crack and we'll get going. 11. 2: All right, let's get creating because I'm doing this project with three D in mind. My first step is kind of odd. I'm painting flat versions of leaves, which I will then mawr for around in three D. So what I did for this I went outside and just picked up a few leaves off the sidewalk. I chose a few different species of leaf. I tried to pick the ones that were in the best condition. Then I just laid them out on my desk, and here I am, doing little quick sketches from them. Now I'm speeding up the process a little bit on these leaves. But don't worry. The entire lesson will not be sped up like this. I just don't feel like you have to sit and watch me paint leaves for 20 minutes. Anyway, you notice I only painted half the leaf. I'll select it and hit Control J to copy it onto its own layer, then hit control T right click and say, flip horizontal. Then once I'm happy with the positioning, I'll push Control E and merge those layers together. Then I could do a little resize ing and continue painting another handy tool because this leaf is on its own layer. I can lock my brush to Onley those pixels with this box right there. And when I turn it on, photo shop will only allow me to paint in the leaf area. So turn it on and I'll get big hairbrushes and big texture brushes. And just hammer those in, you know, madly scribbling. The tablet and photo shop will make sure I'm on Lee painting inside the leaf shape is pretty handy. All right, so just like that and moving on to the next one, I want to keep these leaves feeling painterly. This will help our three d work later on to feel more painterly as well. So I'm not being too precious about the brush strokes. I want it to look like a little bit of a mess, knowing that three D tends to have the capacity to overly clean things up and you'll see what I mean. So here I almost want to air on the side of mess as kind of a forethought to counterbalance that this leaf here had a very intricate shape, so I spent the first little while making sure that that is appropriately drawn. Then I'll go through my old trick where I select it and flip horizontal to maintain symmetry, scale it down and continue painting up. From here. I use a pencil brush to get those fine, veiny, characteristic leaf shapes. And then for the color, I just make sure I have a few different hues in there. So even though that's a green leaf, I still have, like reds and oranges to provide, like, near compliments. You know, I just noticed that my riel leaves that are sitting in front of me have that characteristic , so I want to make sure I emulate it. So we move on again, make a new layer. All these leaves are on their own layers, which comes in handy in the next section. My 1st 2 leaves were like orangey reds. My 3rd 1 was pretty strongly green. I'll make this one kind of somewhere in the middle, kind of a grayish orangey greenish mixture. This leaf, I noticed, had a lot of those veiny shapes, and I really enjoyed drawing those in with a pencil brush. I think it provides just enough fine texture to offset the otherwise very painterly nature of the leaf. I just added a touch of saturation to that. Okay, Lets just do one more. I'll start with some pretty heavy greens and then change my mind and overlay some strong reds over it now red and green or complementary colors and overlaying them like this is probably something I wouldn't do in an overall painting. But in its tiny object like this leaf, which won't be too large and frame, I think something like this can really be interesting in a small way. I'll just make sure I use it judiciously and not draw the viewers attention with it so much again, get in those vein shapes. I found that those veiny shapes really sold the idea of leaf. Alright, so I've got five nice leaves toe work with before we could move on, though, I have to do one further step to prepare these for Blender. So let's take a look at that. I'll begin with giving you a look at our final export. This is what we want to export to blender. Two different pictures, and you might look at this to be like, Whoa, what happened? And I'll back up and explain it in just a moment. But before I do that, let me explain what these two are. This is the painting of the leaf. You just saw me Dio, although just with a different background. And this image here is going to tell blender where toe look to cut out the leaf. It's called the transparency map and this black and white transparency map was generated from my painting. You know, if I just selected this map and pasted it over here, you noticed it lines up perfectly. I can show you with the transparency lines up perfectly with the leaf. So this is what we need to give blender. Now I'll show you how I created those starting here with my master leaf painting collection . I just picked the first leaf here on the layer. I hold control and click on the layer icon here, and it selects the painting that's on the layer in this case, the leaf. And by the way, you're Photoshopped might not give you the layer window looking like this by default. You can go up here and click panel options and it gives you these icons I like to click the medium box and then I like to select layer bounds, but I think by default it's on the entire document. And what happens then? Yeah, Each layer shows you the entire document, which is not that useful. You still get a sense of what's on each layer, but I like it better, you know, like I had it before when I click layer bounds and it crops to only what's on that layer, so control. Click the layer. You get the transparency control, see to copy it. Then just make a file new, make a new file, just it create. The default settings will be identical to the size of this leaf. If I push control V now, I get the leaf isolated on its own canvas. This is a good first step. What I'll do now is to go back to my master layer. I'll just minimize it to get it out of the way, because I will use this one as my new texture map for this leaf. Now the thing we're looking at, my painting of the leaf is called a color map. This will tell blunder what the colors of the texture is, but if you recall, we also need that black and white transparency map. Now I'm gonna use this file to generate both of them. First thing I'll do is just name this. Let's call it color map. And when you have things isolated on layers like this, creating a transparency map is very easy. Again. I'll control. Click the layer, make a new layer and just go at it, Phil. And let's set it to black hit OK, and Photoshopped fills in our leaf painting control de to de select it. So let's finish our transparency map. I'll make another layer, but put it behind the black. Leave this layer. I will shift F five, which is the same is going to edit. Phil and I will switch this to White and fill it with white. Now I will control E emergent. So now this is its own layer. This black and white leaf Now blender actually works the other way. The leaf should be white and the background should be black. So that's easy. Just control. I invert that and you'll probably notice something kind of funny. The leaf is not pure white against pure black. There are these little weird gray strokes. This is a problem because blender will read gray as semi transparent. We don't want a relief to be seven transparent. It's gotta be fully opaque, so I'll just grab my tablet. Just grab a brush. Said it toe whites and just go in and clean up. This area is painting white right over this leaf, making sure that I stick within my silhouette here. Like I don't like. I'm not doing this. I don't want to disturb the shape. Because remember, the shape of white is what blender will use to cut out our color map. So I'm not going to sit here and make you watch me do this. I've already done it here. It is even noticed. This is not totally perfect. You could you could make it absolutely pixel perfect. But, you know, a little bit of mishap here and there is. Okay. These leaves are gonna be small in the frame after all. But this is where you'll want to do final sign off, like all the little undulations of the leaf. You know, I've purposely kept it a little messy, but if I wanted to, you know, put a little bit more work into the silhouette. I could do that. So okay, we have this. Now, at this point, what I like to do is duplicate the entire canvas because I'm gonna treat these to a little bit separately. So I'm gonna duplicate the canvas and put that here, Put this here on this one. I will just delete that layer and keep it my color map on this one. I'll delete the color map and keep it the transparency map. Of course, these two canvases are identical in size and I have to keep it that way. Now I'm committing to this texture. Might as well finish the Transparency one while we're here because the transparency map is black and white. In other words, there is no color data here. It's useful to go to image mode. Gray scale. What this does is now when we go to save this image out, it will not save the RGB channels because there is no more rgb. It's gray scale. And that cuts down on the file size, which is handy, you know, over multiple in multiple textures. So simple task file. Save as I like to use the tiff format, it's one of the many industry standard file formats. The thing I like about the tiff format is you can save it as un compressed, so it saves full data. So what I'd like to do is call it leaf underscore Transparency map. Something like that. It save this dialog box comes up when you're using the tiff format. I like to go here and go discard layers and save a copy that will make sure just in case you had any layers here, it will discard them. It just put it all down to one layer and then an image compression. Just make sure that none is checked. I believe that's on by default and hit. OK, and you've got your saved. Transparency map, Good stuff Now going back to the color map. You probably remember from before it was not a white background. Was this weird reddish color? The reason I did that is when blender cuts out the leaf, you don't want it to accidentally cut out some of the white pixels because then it will look like there's a leaf with like a white halo around it. So what I like to do is in my background layer, I just grab the fill bucket tool, and I just pulled Alton's sample like a generic sort of red color. Say this and then I fill that in. This instantly kills the white. So if blender now we're to kind of make a mistake and get some of the background. At least it's getting a general red color, which is similar to the leaf and not a white halo. I like to take one step further, though, and I grab a brush and I just kind of sample the edge of the leaf, and I just, you know, paint behind it. I'm on my background layer painting behind the leaf, so I'm not destroying the painting of the leaf itself, and I just try and make sure there's more of a seamless kind of bleed from leaf to background and again. So that way, if Blender is picking up some part of the background, it's going to look totally seamless and especially because the leaf in our case is gonna be a pretty small element in the frame. This will look absolutely seamless. So there we go. Now the same thing I will Well, I'll just go layer flatten image puts it on one layer And then same things. Save this as I'll still be using the tiff format. I like Teoh use the same sort of naming convention, so I will call this leaf underscore Color map It. Okay? This is disabled because I've flattened it already. And then image compressing none. Hit, save. And there we go. We have our leaf color map and transparency map. Now, I did that for every single leaf. You don't have to watch me do that five times so we can now move on and talk about how to apply all this stuff and blender. 12. 2: in this section will take our painted leaf artwork and apply it to three D geometry and blender in a process called texture mapping. Now, this is a pretty simple operation for us because we're just mapping these leaves onto Flat Plains. So the first thing I'll do is push shift day, make a mesh plane. I'll just scale it up so I can see it. G z just moving above the great here, I'll zoom in to it like this and OK, so we're gonna put our leaf on here and ah, the nice part about this is because this is just a flat plane blender has no problem understanding how we want to put the leaf onto this geometry were just pasting it right on it. I feel like I should fully disclose at this point that texture mapping is a professional discipline in and of itself. And you and I today are going to be doing the most bare minimum of texture mapping, you know, because we're painters, not three d full three D artists. Thankfully, our texture mapping job is pretty minimal. You know, some of my friends have gone to school for texture mapping this is how complex the process gets, but for our purposes, I can show you in about 10 minutes. So just to give you a little bit of theory as to what we're doing, we're using something called a UV map. And a UV map tells Blender essentially, how to put a picture onto a piece of three D geometry, open a new window here and in this new window, I'll set it to the UV image editor. Currently, it's just blank. I consume in a little bit in my three D view all tab into edit mode and back in my UV editor window, I'll switch from view to UV edit, and you can see that my four points of my plane have been represented here. Back in three D view, I'll push a to de select that, and then control are to go into the loop cut tool. Let's add to loop cuts there, and let's add to loop cuts there, then push a to de select and then a to select everything. You can see that you know what I've done here has been updated on my UV map right here, and this is very good. This means that Blender has all the information it needs to put a picture onto this piece of geometry. One little thing to note that the UV image editor only shows you what's selected and edit most. If I push a to de select it, you'll see nothing in the UV editor. If I were to select just one face, you'll only see that face. So if you want to see how your entire piece of geometry is in the UV editor, just push a to select everything. Now chances are you won't be doing and me to. We won't be doing much work in the UV editor because we simply don't need to for these approaches that I'm showing you in this workshop. But if you are so inclined and you want to learn more about text Oring, it is a pretty fascinating world, and you will find great use of this window in those kinds of tutorials. But you and I will move on from here. Now push a to de select, and I'm gonna go ahead and switch this window into the shader editor and this reminds me I have to switch my renderers over from E V two cycles as I showed you in the previous chapter. It's very important to do that because the way textures work depends on which rendering engine you have selected. So cycles is what we're using in this class. In this shader editor, we can edit how the materials work on our objects. Now, currently, we see nothing there. Why is that? Well, if you remember from the material section, there's no materials assigned to an object by default. So if I went to my icons here and went to the materials tab, I can hit the plus button to give a new slot and then hit new, and it gives me you guys remember this incredible, incredibly complex list, right? You see, it updates here is Well, so this is just this mirrors this now, I'm not gonna be looking at it over here on the right. I'm gonna be looking at it here in the shader. Editor and I could use my middle mouse button to scroll around and roll my mouse wheel to zoom in. Same thing is every view. Now, don't be scared of this. This is called a node. Editor and nose tend to be scary because They all have their own little connections. And you can, like, attach things, Teoh. Different things. But I will. You know, I will show you how this all works in our simple example Here we'll be building our very own custom node tree for our leaf shader. But you know what? Before we do that, I think I should show you what, like the most basic node tree and shader set up Looks like And it looks just like this. If I were to delete the principle, be SDF, which I often dio so I just don't need all that functionality. We're left with a material output. You want to keep this? This is like the thing that leads to the material. But in general, if you push shift A on this screen, it loads up the ad menu just like before. But in this case, we're adding shade er's so if I hit shift A and I can go shader Def you Shader, Let's say and I have the diffuse Shater I just click and just put it there dragging around whatever I want. The most basic shader set up is the output of a shader going into the input of the final material like this, and with a diffuse Shater again, it's mirrored over here. I can, like, click on the color and, you know, pick red or something. Now the reason we don't see it update here is because I have it. I haven't turned on the Shader set up yet, so you know there's are red Plane. If I just, you know, I can change 100 of blue when you get live updates, right so we can get our live updated texture in the three D View port here, there are other Shader is you can play with. For example, a mix shader If I put shift a shader mix shader. I had that here. Let me break this connection and let's feed this diffuse into one part of the shader. The mix Shader allows you to mix to shade er's so let's take our diffuse push shifted D to duplicate it. Bring it down and let's plug this output into the input of the bottom of the mix. Shader, and we'll plug in our mix shader now to the surface output. Well, we're right now. It's not doing anything. We're just mixing blue into blue, so it's the same. But let's say we took this and put red right we can. It's now mixing the blue with the red and, of course, giving us a purple. If we change the factor, look over at the left. As I dragged this back and forth, The factor waits it. It tells blender which shader to favour more right so we can mix from the blue to the red. You can switch the order of these like this, and it just blender just reverses the order. Pretty simple stuff right now, I said. No could be scary because they're just so like, you know, when you create a texture, you're generally going to be dealing with a whole bunch of nodes, and for some reason it's visually intimidating to a lot of people. But it's really pretty simple, although I have to say, even a simple Shader like this took four nodes so you can see how exponentially you know you're adding more and more nodes. Things look more and more complex, but each node really does something quite basic. Anyway, let's go back to our leaf shader and see how we can build that. Okay, so we're back here and again. The first thing I'm gonna do is delete the principle be SDF. We just don't need all this stuff. Push X and I'll hit Shift A And once again I will make a diffuse shader and I'll just click to put it there and actually know what? I'm gonna rearrange my windows here. I'm actually gonna close that off and make a new window down here. This will be more friendly for our operation here because we're gonna be working kind of horizontally. Okay, so we have our diffuse Shater in our master material output. I'm also going to need a mix shader again. So shift a shader mix Shader, Throw that in between these two I'm also going to need a transparency Shader And don't worry, I know I'm just spewing out names. I'll explain how this works as I build this but for now I'm gonna grab it Transparency Shader. Now I'm also gonna need an image node which tells blender you know which pictures to use, So shift A. In this case, it's not a shader its texture, image, texture which is there. I'll put that right there. And in this image texture window. I'll push open, navigate over to the correct folder. And then here's all my maps and I'll start with leaf. One color map just hit open. Okay, so nothing appears toe happen. I should actually be in shading mode here so I can see my texture. It's the textures black because nothing is plugged in. Obviously, I'm keeping my shader completely disconnected. For now, I'd like to show you, you know, piece by piece, how I build it then how I connected. So my color map file My leaf one color map is loaded in this node here, but each leaf also has the transparency map. So I will push shift d to duplicate this note. Ah, and then I will open it. This is the open icon here and then I'll click Leaf one transparency map Open image. Okay, so now we are ready to build our shader. The first thing I will do is connect the leaf one color map into the diffuse color input. This overrides you notice. When I did that, let me undo it When I watched the color, this color goes away. So, like, let's say I had it said to like purple, right? And I connect the image now to it. That purple goes away because the color is now being controlled by our our picture are painting of the leaf. So that makes sense, right? This diffuse is going to go into the first note of the mix Shader. Okay, great. And right now if I connected my mix Shader to the input of the material here to notice that we have our leaf. You can't. It's a little hard to see, but there it is. I could increase the light here, See the leaf Better just turn up the brightness. There we go. I'll just, uh, resize this. Okay? Clicking back into our object brings back the shader. So we've mapped our color map successfully onto our plane. Now we need to tell blender how to cut out the leaf. And of course, that's what we have. Our transparency map here, for first thing I'm gonna do is tell Blunder that there is transparency information to be had here by connecting the transparent shader into the other node of the mix. Shader Now blender has no idea how to treat this so it just blanket makes everything 50% transparent. Obviously, that's not what we want. We want the transparency map to control that. So what I'm gonna do, actually, I'm just gonna quickly move this up here. Now. Our transparency map, as you remember, is just black and white. So I'm gonna change this color tab to non color data. That just means that this shader won't be looking for any color. Just makes that your process a little bit more expedient. Save some overhead on your graphics card. Now, take this color. And where we gonna plug it in? Well, remember before the factor, when I adjusted it from red to blue, it was adjusting from favoring one to the other, right? Well, instead of adjusting this to go from, like, perfectly opaque color map to perfectly transparent, I will let this map tell the factor what to look for. So I'll take the color and plug it into factor, which eliminates the bar. Now, look at this. It looks like I actually made a mistake in photo shop. And it should have been black over white, not white, over black. But no need to panic. I could go back into photo shop and fix that or here in blender. Just go shift a go to color and invert. Then what? I can do. Another way to connect These just dragged the box right in between these and there we go. It's inverted, the transparency maps, colors still plugged into the factor. And here's our finished leaf shader. Now, before we move on to the next step, just a few more things to do. First thing I always like to do is rename thing, so I will take this double, click it and say Leaf one. So now this shader is called Leaf one. Also, I want to run for my collection here. Notice my plane is just called plane. Let's also call this leaf one. Okay, so now everything corresponds correctly. There's yet another thing, though. This plane was made in a square aspect ratio. But my leaf painting, if I go to photo shop, my leaf painting is not a square. It's it's kind of rectangular, right? So we want to make sure that our leaf over here in blender is identical to how he painted it. Right now it's hard to tell, but right now it's being stretched because, you know I can take this plane and push s why and I could scale it like, who knows? I can achieve all kinds of different scale ing's now if you're lazy, you could just do this by I and kind of roughly map it to something like this. But let's not be lazy. Let's do it the mathematical way. I know math is a dirty word to some of us, including me. But also it's It's so easy. I'll show you how to do this. Back in photo shop, I'll go to image image size, and we have a width of 6 77 by a height of 8 67 So that's just some simple math here. Let's do 8 67 divided by 6 77 we have 1.28 Okay, so our leaf is 1.28 times as tall as it is wide awesome. So now let's go back into blender. And if we just expand this dialogue here with the N key, or I could just hit the plus sign, we have our scale information. The first thing I'm gonna do is change all these, so it's just +111 Get the plane back to kind of a default size. Then I'll have to do is look at the Y, axis the green access here and make sure that that is put at 1.28 And there we go. That is the identical aspect ratio that we painted the leaf at in photo shop. So now if I were to hit s to scale, this blender will respect the aspect ratio in the next section. I'll show you how to deform this leaf and molded and sculpted and folded in all the cool things we can do in three D. That's the reason the leaf is here in the first place. But as far as this section is concerned, you now know how to apply a basic UV map and even build some basic node based shade. Er's in the Shader Editor. 13. 2: All right. So despite the fancy nous of our three d technology, I always go back to good old fashioned thumb nailing to devise my ideas and see the possibilities in various ideas. Eso I again, I'll remind you at this point that I'm narrating this. I have no idea what the final is gonna look like. I'm narrating these videos, kind of as I create them. So even though you've already seen the intro at this point, I have not at this point seen the final yet. So you guys air out of me Anyway, I'm thinking that there will be owls, um, kind of flying around or playing around amid these leaves that are falling through the scene. That's kind of my initial direction right now. So in this quick thumbnail sketch, I'm just looking to explore that now I'm purposely not showing you my brushes or my layers . Well, I'm not even using any layers maturing you my brushes because I don't want anyone to fixate on that. The important part is not the tools you're using here. It's just the act that you're the fact that you're exploring. Um, I'm just using a pencil brush or a softer marker brush. That's all I'm doing here. There's nothing technologically fancy about this, just working on one layer, just with the basically looking to create some. Ah, like a foreground, mid ground background pattern that will have owls and leaves and trees those the elements I'm working with. So there's a little owl right there that I'm drawing in, sitting on the that twisty branch that's jutting out from frame right. I'm thinking that I want to play with different sizes of owl like that is, I want apples to approach closer to camera and further away from camera. So that will dictate different sizes, because I want the camera to kind of move through this scene a little bit to create a kind of just a kind of a three dimensional camera move right. That's one of the benefits of using three D is You can move that camera so I'll play with different planes when I say planes again, foreground mid ground background plane. So this little shape I'm blocking in here This will be a foreground owl, so he's gonna be a bit bigger. And at this point, you know, I'm in terms of the art direction of the peace. I'm I need to establish some kind of pattern in terms of my values and in terms of my shapes. And in a moment I will show you what I mean. I've spent this process up to about 1.5 time, so I'm not I'm not talking to you Live as I draw. I'm talking to you over a recording of the process, but it has not been sped up significantly. I spent about 10 minutes on this thumbnail. You're seeing it in about seven minutes. You know, just ah, whenever I think about a composition, it doesn't matter what the subject is. What I'm looking for, first and foremost is a delineation of shapes and a delineation of some kind of pathway through the picture. Sometimes the pathway could be literal, like in this scene, I'll arrive in a moment at some kind of literal pathway and I'll show you again. I will overlay a little graphic in a second that will help you see that, but pathways to lead the eye through the picture, and then a pleasing arrangement of big, medium and small shapes that will help keep the viewer engaged. The viewer craves difference. The painting or the image needs toe have difference of shapes, difference of values, difference of pattern shapes in particular. Remind me of rhythms like the rhythm in music. Now in drawing, You don't wanna have a rhythm that sounds like like that it's too metronomic and predictable. What you want is a rhythm that has a little skip. It'll jump to it like like just, you know, something that keeps the viewer kind of on their toes, so to speak and the way I think about composition. Big, medium, small shapes achieve that, and it really has nothing to do with the subject like, yes, those air owls that I'm drawing the Big apple in the foreground. But that out in the foreground is a big shape Right now. The trees are kind of medium sized shapes. Some of the albums that will be in the middle ground in background could be medium and smaller shapes. The leaves will provide me a great opportunity to have all kinds of different sized small shapes, and in this thumbnail I'm not so concerned with, like putting every leaf in its correct place. I just want to play with these rhythms. That's what a thumbnail is to me. It's a playground for composition. Anyway, I talked about these patterns. You see this pattern I've devised here? I've stumbled upon this by accident, but it's something that I think is organic and can work for this illustration. This kind of twisty path that leads you through the apples and into the picture, the album's themselves create patterns of shape. I'm kind of seeing it like this right now, and it's important to me that they mesh. You noticed the owls lie along the yellow pathway like the yellow pathway leads you through the owls. There's no one that can tell you if that pattern is good or bad that that doesn't exist. There's no authority on composition. It's just a matter of do you like the rhythms you're creating now? Pure amateur artist won't even know that they're creating rhythms, so Step one is learning that that's what you're doing. Then Step two is honing that and saying, OK, which rhythms do I like? Which rhythms do I not like? And I think I'm gonna use the three D tools as a great opportunity to like you'll see in a moment, I'll be able to move leaves around in three D. I'll use the grease pencil to start sketching things. I'll be able to continue this exploration of composition in blender. That's one of the really cool things about three D. Of course, you can do this in just regular old paint as well. And of course I'm showing you just one thumbnail that again. I will continue in the three D process, but sometimes for projects, I'll do 10 thumbnails, depending on you know whether or not I'm hitting these ideas or not, I think at the end of the day, it just comes down to like an emotional decision. You know, does the rhythm and pattern that I'm establishing in this piece jive with the idea of owls in autumn amid falling leaves like Does that work together? And if the answer is yes, then then call it a good composition. If the answer is no, then keep exploring. And just for me, I don't like to over thumbnail. Now, many artists will disagree here. A lot of artists plan everything to the tea before executing the final. I don't like to do that because just for me, the way I work, it seems to steal the life away from the final. When I do that eso I like to make sure that I resolve some visual problems first, but being generous with my future self to give myself lots of things still yet to explore. And yet Teoh discover one of those things, for instance, is the design and the character of each owl. I'm implying certain things here, like there are things I like about the Owls in this picture right now, but they all kind of look, they all kind of similar to me. I will definitely change that. As I go. There's still room to explore their I'm also not being so particular with the exact pattern of the leaves knowing that in three D that's eggs. That's the tool that I will use to give me the best representation of that space. You know, no point dedicating myself to that here in thumbnail when when three D is a much better tool for that, as you'll soon find out in the next section. I also don't think I mentioned the resolution, so you see that this picture is small on your screen, right? Well, this is the actual resolution I work at. This is not zoomed out or anything. This canvases roughly 500 pixels wide, the width to height ratio is in eight by 10 inch format. So when I do my final, I'll keep these dimensions, and it will give me a nice eight by 10 print at the end. If I choose to go print this and this will affect how I use blenders. Well, it set up the camera and blender to mimic this dimension. You'll see how I do that. But I do like to sometimes keep in mind a resolution as I go, and specifically if you're working for prints, which I often am, is an illustrator. Eight by 10 is a very friendly print size, of course. So I will, you know, I'll design my compositions around an eight by 10 eventual print here, although perhaps I should be saying 10 by eight as with comes first and this is 10 10 inches long, eight inches high. But in terms of pixel resolution, I keep the pixel resolution in thumbnail very low again, about 500 pixels in the longest dimension that keeps that keeps the creative juices flowing , and I don't have to get bogged down with, you know, brush selection and stuff like that. A small canvas seems to be really helpful for just encouraging you to sketch and try and fail and succeed and all the things that come with creative exploration. I really enjoy working on small campuses and just a little off note here. When I work from real life and sketch from your life, I work on very small sketches from real life to for the exact same reason. It encourages me to proceed with more confidence. I mean, there's nothing more scary than a big blank canvas, right? All right, let's call this thumbnail done and bring it into blender and continue our exploration and production of this piece there. 14. 2: Okay, so here we are with all our Leafs fully textured and ready to go. Just want to show you the tools I'll be using to model these leaves from here. So I just say, Click on this one tab into edit mode and let's just go in closer here. I could go up here and be in Vertex selection mode and like, let's say click these two and I'm on the move tool right now Over here. I could just grab the Z axis and just move it up. And we see that you know, we're deforming, which is the three d term. We're sculpting and folding Whatever. We're moving around our leaf and the light. You know, you guys remember from last section I had the default light there, So the light is making sure that the top of the leaf is lit. The bottom of leaf is casting shadows so instantly we can start getting some real time, three dimensional form out of our leaf. You know, the potential for this is limitless. Now, one thing you might be asking right away is its looks very sharp, like it looks kind of like a cheap video game or something. How do you fix that? Well, if you remember from earlier, I showed you a modifier called Subdivision Surface. And we're gonna use that so I will tap out of this back into object mode, go into my modifiers tab, and I will add a subdivision service modifier. All of those nasty hard edges were gone and our meshes smoothed out. If I just orbit underneath, it's, you know, really looking like a nice sort of organic leaf. Now, the one drawback with this technique is the Leafs are kind of hair thin. There's there's no thickness to them. We're going to see what we can do about that. Um, I'm I actually don't know if it will be okay, because the leaves will be small enough or if I'll have to do some work in posts to fix that. I actually don't know yet. We'll see. I imagine that some leaves will be just fine. Like the ones that are very small will be just fine like this. But, you know, we're looking at this. Leave. This is gigantic. We're not going to see a leaf this large in the painting. And if we are it, I mean if we are. If we put one very close to camera, I'll probably to do a bit of editing. But this will work for, like, 90% of the leaves in this scene. If I am tapped back into edit mode here and the hard edges appear to have come back well, that is because the object is not yet set to shade smooth. So tab out of edit mode, back and object mode go up to object shades smooth, which looks the same here in object mode. But now pack in edit mode. We will have our nice, smooth shading, and I'll do that for each leaf. I do like to put the view up to two, which just makes it a bit smoother. You can go up to three if you want, but it just starts eating away at your CPU, which is no good. So let's go over to like this leaf here. I want to show you something else selected tap into edit mode, and we have our geometry. Now let's say I want to fold this leaf in half. You know, this leaves look like it's a candidate to be folded right along the seam here, but I don't have the ability to do that right now because my geometry like, if I wanted to select my edge here and hold all 10 select the whole edge loop like this, maybe I'll hold shift in Alton's like that edge loop as well. You know, I can move these, but the leaf is not really folding in half. It's just kind of it's just moving like this. I wanna fold this leaf in half. The problem is, if I just undo all that, the problem is I need a piece of geometry right down the middle to do that. Now I have a few options. I put a to de select. I could just push control are and just put one right down the middle and then now say I go into face. Select Modi. Just shift. Select all these faces. Go to the rotate tool, rotate these faces along. Why go to the move to will move them up? You know, I can fold the leaf now this way, and that's cool with me. But let me just undo all that, including that piece of geometry I made because there are other ways to alter our geometry and not affect the UV map like, let's say, I just don't need all these controls. I don't need all this geometry. I will. I can hold out, select this edge loop and let's say I want to get rid of this. I can push X, and it brings up the delete menu. But now there's many different options. If I delete the edge loop, which is that one row, it gets rid of that robe but still keeps the same mapping of the Leaf Island do that to bring it back. This is very different. Like if I pushed X and said, Delete the edges now, are you? The map is guard geometries been ruined, so don't do this. I want to go X and delete the edge loop. It's a different function and blender. And now what? What I can do is I'll just push a to de select hold all and select this edge loop now. Normally, if I were to move this edge like along X, it's updating the texture with it. That's the thing that UV maps do. UV maps stick to the geometry. This is not good. I want this edge to be in the middle of that leaf, so undo it. But I can't get there with just the move tool. There's this handy tool in blender called edge slide. The shortcut is G. So just pushed G twice G. Now I can move this edge along the service without affecting my UV map so I can put this right in the middle here and now I have a much simpler piece of geometry that I can, you know, go ahead and select. These faces are why and I can I can fold this leaf course I can. Then go ahead and select these faces are why and fold it. Then if I tap out of edit mode, this leaf doesn't have the, uh this leaf doesn't have the subdivision surface turned on, but let's just quickly add one. And there we have a nice looking folded leaf. So that's what I'll be doing to all these. I'll be manipulating the leaves just like that and using the other modelling tools I showed in Chapter one. So let's get started with that process now because we'll be composing our actual scene at this point. I want to make sure I'm looking through the camera and that the camera is set to the 10 by eight aspect ratio. So a push numb pat zero to get into camera view. Then over here in my outline, er, I'll select the camera, which brings up the camera options in this panel. Click on this one here, and we can set our resolution, and I did a bit of math ahead of time. 10 by eight is 2000 pixels by 1600 pixels. So there's our 10 by eight frame and, you know, probably do some preview renders, and I don't want that to be 100% so just produced. The percentage down roughly 35% will be fine. This camera icon here gives us some more controls over the camera, including one that I'll use called the focal length. And if any of you have experience with actual camera lenses, you know that different focal lengths change the way that your picture looks through the lens. A longer lens means, ah, higher focal length, which in this case looks like it zooming in. But it's it zooming in and also flattening the picture. I'm gonna go the other way and you say that like a 35 mil millimeter lens and let's start there, I can always adjust this as I go. If you're like me, you'll try to move the camera and it'll poppy out into perspective. You So remember, hit zero go into view, camera lock and then lock camera to view. Now we can move that camera around and, you know, just give us a general position in space, just something like this that's looking. You know something with a more or less flat on perspective, which will help me with the grease pencil, which I will be using very soon and just putting some leaves around. One thing you might want to do to aid your workflow is have a reference image loaded up. Now I have dual monitors, and usually I just put my reference on my other screen, but you can load it here in blender. Let's make a new window here on this window. I will kill the menus with pushing tea and end. I will push, say one, to set it to a north. A graphic front. Ortho graphic and Blender has this handy little feature where if I'm just, I go into my file browser. I could just pick my thumbnails, guys, drag it in and there it is. It comes in as an empty. Remember, I talked about empties in the last section, empties air, not render herbal. So if I pushed render you wouldn't see this. But the image is visible here in the view port. I want to get rid of the grid. So goto overlays Get rid of the grid and we have our object which I can move around wherever I want. I don't need this window to be that big, so I will scale. It may be like this. We'll shift middle mouse button to position this somewhere up here. Then what I can do is I could make another window. And in this window, I'll hit five and make it a perspective. You and this one No kind of got squish. Elvis, move this up because I think what I'll do is edit the geometry. And this window obviously looked through the camera here. And I can even do some editing here if I wanted to. And then this is just for our thumb. Now, Now I don't want to see like my camera view. I can see this. I don't want to see that there are a few different options. I could go up to this button here, which is essentially a list of things you want to see in this view. And, Aiken, turn off empty, and that empties gone. I could do the same thing over here. Middle. Most buttons scroll over. Select this Turn off empty in my camera view will probably want to turn on shading and same with my perspective. You down here just gonna select all my leaf objects Hit s. Scale them down to something more appropriate for the shot. Okay, At this point, I think I'll speed up the video just to touch, because every leaf was going to go through the same process of modeling it, positioning it. You know, there's a lot of leaves to go through, so I don't think it be missing anything by having a slight video speed up and then I'll narrate over the top. So here we go. The tools I'm using are just in edit mode. I'll be getting faces like this, rotating them, using the edge selection mode, using Vertex election mode. It's ah, the combination of those three with basic translation rotation, and I was gonna say scale, but no, I don't even really scale anything because the leaves are already in their proper scale. So, you know, I'm just editing this stuff, and, um, I'll go back and forth between shaded mode and wire frame mode. I did notice a bit of a slow down. It's one of the things I'm hoping that the Blender team is working on. For some reason, the Blender 2.7 release just ran a lot quicker on my machine. I had no problems with it there, but under 2.8 and even this even the newest beta version still runs a bit slow when I'm in . Well, im in textured mode. I mean, you can't tell watching the speed sped up video, but it did run a bit slow for my liking anyway. Still able to get the job done, and you notice what I'm doing is I'm making different versions of each leaf. I do three different versions of each leaf. This will just allow me to position them a little more randomly later on. If you know, if I had just one of each leaf. I think the way that they're folded would be very repetitive. So I'm just deforming each leaf separately. Three different times, and I will position them from there. Of course, I can always rotate each one, so I have not only three different folded leaves, but I can rotate all three of those differently. So that kind of exponentially adds to the amount of variety of leaf that I'll be able to produce when I go to place them. So in this one, I'm just duplicated before I do this deformation so I can work from fresh each time. That idea did not occur to me for the other two leaves. You're seeing this process live again. I have, As I record this, I still have not seen the final. I don't know how this is gonna look. Um, after this I'll start positioning the leaves in space in my camera view, and then I will go with the grease pencil and sketch in the owls. And, you know, we'll see how this develops here. I'm adding some geometry like I showed you earlier. Just felt like I needed a few different control points. That's how you can think of geometry. Just a series of control points that you can manipulate your object And this one I need fewer control points. I want to do that folding thing again. And then as your modeling, you can always, you know, go control our edge loop. Add more geometry as you need it. This one I'm using the box select tool a lot just to draw that box. Select the geometry in this case, just rotated in space and just play with. I'm just trying to do three different kinds of ah deformation with each each copy of the leaf. Just so you know, just so the eye does not detect any kind of repetition. That's one thing I talk about in a lot of my painting tutorials and videos that the human eye is extremely good at detecting repetition. We use that to our advantage in the composition number I put in those pathways through the picture. The I is very good at detecting that and you can use that. But in when it comes to the way you're drawing, you're objects or in this case, the way I'm folding and transforming and editing these leaves. I do not want the eye to detect any patterns or repetitions. So make sure I do my best to, you know, do three very different versions of them. And then later on, when I go to position them around the scene in three D space, I'll just make sure I do my best to, you know, not have the same leaf back to back, not have the same orientation every time I'll rotate them around. And here we go. We're getting very close to having all our leaves finished. I love the updates you got from the light. You get, like, little cast shadows and all in well, is going to really time. It ran a bit slower than real time, that's for sure. But okay, let's move on to the next step, which is positioning them in our camera view. I'm gonna move all the leaves just below the views so we don't see them, and then I can just bring them up, call them in one by one and just start moving them around. So, uh, switching and out of shaded view. I don't need to see those leave textures just yet. I'm first. I need to start populating the scene with leaves. There's obviously going to be a lot of leaves in this scene, and I will duplicate them. Even though I made three copies of each leave. I will not duplicate those right. I'll make duplicate 15 or six times and position it around the scene. And here we go. I'm rotating them. I can scale them, of course, and then position them in true three D space. So I'm using the bottom right. View my perspective. You at the bottom right to kind of defined the parameters of the space from foreground to background so you can see I'm I've done that already. There's a leaf in the foreground and leave in the background. That's kind of the dimensional space. I'm working in foreground, mid ground background. And that means when I put the owls in the scene with the grease pencil, I can position each grease pencil layer accordingly, because I have put owls very strategically in the foreground, mid ground background in my thumb now. So it's all it's all coming into form here with my planning. Planning is a good thing. I don't like toe over plan, though that's just me. I like to explore things and discover things in the process. I really like how the leaves are looking at this point. It looks organic, and I'm not bothered by the flatness of them. Although I have not is still a low rez view. I have not rendered anything yet, but I think I'll be able to get away with some of this. And it just occurring to me as I was placing these, that I should really play up like a depth of field effect, which is when you know the camera focuses on one thing in the scene, everything else gets blurred. I think I will try and do that in the final render. That would look really cool. I think that didn't occur to me until this process of placing the leaves just always monitoring my perspective. You with the bottom, just seeing the kind of depth that I'm working in, making sure I have making sure the leaves are populated throughout the perspective. You I'm going back to for composition the camera view on the left, that is. I'm your using that for my composition, you notice that there is a diagonal to it. I had established that diagonal in the thumbnail. The leaves were falling from top right to bottom left, as if there's like a breeze this day and the breeze is pushing, blowing the leaves in that direction, right? So that gives me a little bit of logic to the scene, all right, I think at this point it's time to play around with the grease pencil and sketch in some of these apples on the trees and see how they interact with the leaves in space. So in the perspective, window up with shift A, get a grease pencil blank object and let's just move that, too. Let's see a little bit down here, and I'm gonna I think I'll start with this middle ground branch as well as maybe some of these apples here. So I'll put this object roughly where it goes in space. It's, you know, middle ground. So somewhere in the middle of these leaves, maybe somewhere here I could always move it after I start drawing. So I think this is a pretty good spot, and now that I have that in position, I can go over to draw mode. I'll switch my brush to a thick marker kind of thing. Now I do notice that for some reason my CPU is really slowing down. With all this geometry and all these textures loaded, I noticed when I start drawing, it's very segmented. But then, if I keep drawing it, you know blender actually kicks in, and I'm able to draw some fairly smooth lines. So I think that's what I'll be doing. I'll be holding my brush down and then just kind of drawing this way. It's a little cumbersome. I've never actually done a scene this complex with all this geometry with the grease pencil . So it does slow down a bit for me. I have a feeling is just my old computer. And the fact that I'm recording 10 80 p video probably doesn't help either. But thankfully, this process is not meant to be a finished drawing. I'm just sketching in the Owls. I'll be completely repainting the Owls part in photo shop, so let's go ahead and start sketching. And what's instantly cool about this part of the process is my two D sketches now being a drawn in three D space so some of those leaves will be in front of my sketch. Some of those leaves will be behind it. And remember that the blender grease pencil object is a three D object. I can move it around and scale it and rotate it, whatever I want. So I'm not stuck with this position. But this will be my middle ground layer of owls. There's two of them. They're resting on that branch. Now I'm making a new grease pencil object, putting it in the background. And I think I put two hours back there, just represented right now by just little circles. So they will be the background owls. Now, I'll make a new grease pencil object, a blank object that isn't Put it, you know, in the foreground. And this will be the owl on the bottom left, so each layer of owls gets their own position in space. What I'm doing here is making a new layer. And on that new layer, I can change the color. So, like purple. In this case, I don't know really why I'm doing this. I don't I'm not trying to paint anything right now, but I just have some ideas as to what this hour might be doing, so I'll make another layer said. It's a white. Just paint some eyeballs in there just to give me a little note to self us to maybe how that owl is situated on the branch and I will select that object and move it around. You know that grease pencil is a three D objects. I could move it around. Here's yet another one. This will be used. I'll draw the extreme foreground our on this one. So I'll try and position that in front of even the current Alba will move him back a little bit, scale them up. Whatever I have to dio, I'm looking in my camera view to determine composition, right? I don't want to hide any owls with other owls, so sketch this in and, ah, let's. While I'm having fun with color, let's make a new layer said. It's like a bluish color. I think the apples will have blue bodies and let's just have some fun with color again. This is not final painting. This is still just the rough sketch stage. The leaves will be more or less final. The apple sketches are just the rough sketch, which I will completely over paint in photo shop now probably had more leaves in Photoshopped to if I had to guess notice as I move the camera around. Now it's some getting really feedback with my depth, and that's exciting, like I can actually sense the scene. And as a creator, you know, whenever you get a sense of life from what you're doing, it's exciting. It's like a spark that's igniting and in my brain. And for the first time in this process, I'm getting that spark, which is nice. Sometimes with, you know, a three d process like this that's you have to wait a little bit for that spark. It's not like a ah quicks, a pencil sketch where it could jump toe life in seconds while in three D You might have to wait a little longer for that. But finally I'm getting it, and that's that's interesting. It's exciting. Okay, so at this point, just moving leaves around because now I have the Owls in, so I can position these leaves a little bit more according to a composition, making sure they're not, you know, hiding any owl, making sure they're playing in and out of the owls properly, and I'll just do this a little bit more until I'm happy with it. I can always add hand painted leaves from Photoshopped Later, I mentioned that a second ago, and I probably will. It's occurring to me now that maybe populating the entire scene with Onley three D leaves is not the best idea. I think the three D leaves that are there now are great, but I'll probably also add some hand painted leaves. We'll see how that goes. But at this point, all the grease pencil layers, air. They're just doing some finicky stuff to the treaties, adding Brown for no reason. I'm just having fun here, guys. Thats all This is a live view of the process. There's barely any editing done here except for the sped up video, Of course. And look at this. I can move my camera in and out through the scene, orbited around here in a second and get a different kind of angle on it. Here we go. And this is the reward. This is what I've worked so hard for this little bit of three D life, and I will undoubtably explore more camera movement near the end of the process. Any way to end off this section. I just want to duplicate some more leaves around to populate the scene a little more. I just felt like the scene was feeling just a touch empty, but a ton of leaves we're gonna be added in paint like Member. That entire background layer I started my thumbnail with that triangle brush. That's all gonna be digital paints. I'm not even gonna try and do that with geometry. So there's still a lot of leaves to come in the painting process. But I just feel like the scene needed a little bit more. And the nice thing about this someone is obviously saved this scene to come back to later. I can add and subtract leaves later on right up until the final. So none of this is set in stone. I can move whatever I want. Later adds, attract whatever anyway, so let's end. This section here in the next section will look at rendering this exporting its a photo shop and getting it ready for the digital painting process. 15. 2: so our little owl scene is coming together and I'm ready to export this into Photoshopped to begin the digital painting process. But I'm not quite out of the woods yet. No pun intended. I'm a firm believer in organizing your layers, organizing your files and information. It really just saves time and just really saves headaches moving forward in the process. And one of the things I did not do in the throes of creativity here, I just kind of let my layers pile up. If I extend this window, you know, every leaf I duplicated is in this collection here. I haven't actually spoken about collections yet. So by default, blender 2.8 loads up with something called a collection. And inside that collection is everything in the scene. Well, you can split up your scenes into multiple collections. Think of it like groups of layers and Photoshopped. You know, when you can group multiple layers together, that's what a collection is. And then you cantata all the visibility and render ability of different collections. So I think what I'm gonna do for my little seen here is organized the geometry into just three collections collection one will be all the leaves in front of the foreground owls. So these leaves here collection to will be all the leaves in this middle ground range between these two layers of apples. So those guys in there and then collection three will be all the leaves between my mid ground and background elements. All these leaves here to do that. The first thing we want to do is go up to our outlaw interview here. Let's just expand this down a little bit and I will close this off just right. Click and say, Knew that makes a new collection. Then I'll unfurl this again. Essentially, what I have to do is kind of these were duplicated without any order in mind, right? So clicking them like this is really not effective, because I have no idea which leaf is, which is a shot in the dark. So what I'm gonna dio is I will use the box electoral. If I push t I get this menu back the box like tools active there at the 1st 1 Then I could just grab these may be like that. That's good. I'll start with this layer here and then just holding shift. I could just add elements to it. Let's grab those three. And I think everything else. Maybe this little leaf right there. Okay, that's looking good for this layer. Now, this is a bit unfortunate. Selecting a knob checked in the view port is not the same as selecting it in the outline or you notice that only one leaf is clearly selected in the outline of the others are just, let's say, active as if I were gonna parent to them. I talked about parenting and chapter one. Well, I'm not gonna do that. What I'm gonna do, they have to take one little extra step. And by holding shift, click on each one that has been looking for that orange circle. That means it's active here. So holding shift, just kind of going over my selection again, making sure that each one of these is selected in the outline. Er Oh, here we go. Just bear with me for two seconds while I do this. It's a little cumbersome, but, uh, doesn't take that much extra time, and then I got to do is just dragged them into collection too. What I can do now is use this little button right there and you have collections. His ability collection one and two. If I hide collection too well, there goes those leaves and you just bring him back the same way. So this is a good way to organize your stuff in blender. It really reminds me a photo shop. It's very intuitive. So again, you don't have to watch me do that for every single one. I'll skip ahead to where my collections are all set up. Okay, so here we are. I actually made a total of five collections in collection one. I have the foreground leaves. You can also turn off visibility here in the outline er with the eyeball button in collection to I have the one that you saw me do on screen in collection. Three. I have those background leaves in collection. Four. I put all my grease pencil layers and then in collection. Five is my camera in my life. So camera light in collection five. So I basically have separated the scene. It's a very manageable groups. Just as a quick side note, you guys might be wondering what these brown strokes were. Those air on the wrong layer. I meant to put those on the tree layer, but I made a mistake and put them on the background. Not too worried about it. Remember, the grease pencil layers are currently just placeholders. I will be replacing all of that with actual painted artwork in the compositing section. So I'm not too worried about little mistakes like that. Now, I experienced a little bit of what I think is a bug here. If I just hit F 12 to render the scene through the camera with all my layers active or visible, that is it renders this and watch this. It will just plop in this junk like that. I don't know what that is, but it looks like it has something to do with the grease pencil layers. If I just went into here and hid my grease pencil layer, which for me is collection for and then hit render again, it's ah, it doesn't properly so it renders the leaves and then it will plop in my apples And there we go. That's that's a master copy of the scene. Now this is good, but it's a little low rez, right? Because remember, we set our render resolution Over here. We said it to 35%. So it's only rendering 35% of 2000 pixels by 1600 pixels. Let's go ahead and just raise that to 100 you know, hit, render. Okay, so here's a master copy of our scene, which is just good for overall reference. I'll save that out. So image save as give it a name, Master reference owls, maybe saving it as a PNG. That's great. So I will just bring this went over hit save as image That could be helpful, but I want each layer rendered separately. So in photo shop, Aiken simulate you know which owls air behind, which leaves, So I want each layer separate in order to do that when you close off the render window, that's a dead simple to do. It's just this camera button beside each layer, so if I turn off the camera, you see a ghost itself out there. That means it won't render. It's still visible in your view port, but it just won't render, so that's really helpful. But before I go ahead and render, it's occurring to me that I haven't really played with my lights that much. Now I don't want to go ahead and light this in a final way yet because the painting will dictate so much of the lighting. But I do think that I can have a little bit better of a starting point than this. In fact, if you look at my thumbnail, the owls in the foreground are more or less in shadow. Or at least they're kind of going toward shadow. And the background is where you get more of the lights. So my current lighting and blender here is the reverse of that. So let's just do something a little bit better than this default lighting. The first thing we'll do is in my camera window. I'll turn on the shaded rendered view option. Yeah, we can see that the leaves and four around or the most light and the kind of progress darker in the background. We want to reverse that. So you know the first thing I'll do is on unfurl my collection where my light is, and I will hide it with the eyeball that also removes it from the render ability. But this time we don't have to render it to get that update. It updates in the view port. So that's good. And I want to adjust the ambient light. Currently, my ambient light, my environment light is very low, which means the shadows, Avery black or close to black. And that's quite an unrealistic thing. I mean, on the moon that exists. But maybe not here. So I will go into my world tab here. And then it's right here is you remember from Chapter one, I'll click that, and indeed, it's a very dark color. Let's bring that up and look at my camera view. You'll see that update. In fact, let me just enlarge this view a little bit as I raised the lighting here. This represents the darkest A shadow can be. So anything that's going to be in shadow is going to get lit by this environment. Ambient light. So maybe something around there and let's just make it a little bit more of a fun color or something like that. So our shadows have this purple Lee reddish reflected light, you know, imbuing them, maybe a touch darker. But really, I have no idea until I actually got my light in. So let's leave it there. Let's get our windows back. Let's get our light back. And at this point, I don't think I want to use this light. I want to switch the light type so I'll go into my light here. I'll switch it to area, I think. And what I will do is position that area light somewhere over here. Let's raise it up. Pushing G in the window, Just moving it sort of freehand. Um, I can rotate it. It's rotated this way. And I'm looking in my camera view on the left for, like, instant updates. This is better. Okay, let's, uh, just moving around, seeing what it does. Okay, this is interesting. If I wanted a preview of that, I could just hit f 12 and okay, I don't want my with my view to be that big. It takes too long to render Just exit out. Go in here. Let's change that to, like, 35% again. F 12. That's looking a little bit closer to what I want. I like see these foreground leaves like that leaf right there is in shadow. This leaf is getting some shadow. Now what? We might want to dio um, it's a bit hard to judge again when we don't have any other painting to compare it to. And this, by the way, is not the final pass. I'll do the final pass in the compositing stage. This is just to give me a ballpark of where I want to be. I'm thinking maybe my light source itself should be should have a different color. So let's go into the light. And instead of just a white color, let's make it like kind of a late afternoon sort of sun. So, like a more rich, orangey, red ish kind of thing. Somewhere in there and the strength, Let's just let's his roof that maybe 1111 Okay, maybe more. How about 1555? OK, that's maybe looking better. Let's hit, Render on that. And here we go. This is maybe more like it. I like those yellow leaves in the back, kind of punching out in light, and it really gives a nice definition from light to shadow, like you can see in that leaf there in that leaf. There in that one, I did notice that we're losing some of the green colored leaves I do see a few of them, but because our light was this rich orangish color and our environment light was also that magenta reddish color. Those are both fighting against our greens. Now. I don't I'm just trying to decide if that's a problem or not. And Aiken kind of delay that decision to the final. I'm just gonna do a few more tweaks here and just do one more little test. Render. Um you know, I think if I need those greens in there, if I decide the palace to reddish yellow, I can add back some greens in post. Like I can paint my own green leaves and you'll see later. We can add things we painted into this and not have the three d light affect them. So we can put any color we want in here. So I think maybe I'll do some of that later. I think for now I'm good with this. Let's go ahead and render it out. Close off the render window. Go back in here. Make sure this is back at 100% and I will deal with my collections. Now, as you recall, this was my grease pencil layer. I don't want that to render right now, so I'll just unclip kit. In fact, I can do this systematically. What was on this layer here probably be helpful if I named these f G leaves. Here we go. Just did it off screen for you. You've got a render ability camera icon set up here. It's only going to render the foreground leaves. So if I hit render f 12 I just kind of re sizes window and use my middle most wheel to scroll out. Sure enough, we're just getting those foreground leaves. They look pretty cool, Even high rez. I don't mind the look of that. You know, the hair thin shape of him is not too bad. I mean, it looks a little false when you're just looking at the leaves in this render view. But I think with all the painting in, this will look good, especially if I play with, like, depth of field settings like I discussed. Let's see how this goes. So I will go image save as using a PNG format. Let's say this as master f G Pass save close the render window, then simply unclip that camera click that camera hit Render again. And of course, now it's rendering my middle ground pass as its rendering. I'm getting my first glimpse at what these leaves actually looked like a high resolution and yeah, I don't mind them. There's they look believable. I'm so I'm so sorry I couldn't help it. But anyway, if they look a little too fake or three D in the final, I can replace these leaves with more painted versions of them. Like I could paint over this leaf and replace that leaf. I'll get into that in the compositing faces. Honestly, right now, again, I don't know what this is gonna look like. I haven't had the benefit of going forward in time like you guys have and seeing the final , so I might come back and adjust thes. But for now, this is a good base to work with. So, as usual, image save as Let's just replace F g with MGI, it's save image. Here we go, jumping ahead in time here, I'm rendering my background leaf past. Things were looking good. I like those yellow leaves that kind of poke out. See those two leaves there. That's an unfortunate arrangement I've duplicated the same leaf, and it's kind of back to back. This is what I don't want, maybe later, if those leaves are visible, which I highly doubt they will be. But if those leaves are visible in the composite, I'll just move them right. We could always move our geometry, so save as said it to be G pass. And now let's grab our grease pencil layer. Now I suppose I could also split the grease pencil work into layers. But I'm just not gonna bother with that in the rendering part. And when you see the grease pencil layer up close, you can truly see how ugly it is. It's just a block in. I could have refined my pencil strokes. By the way, I chose not to, because again, I enjoy leaving sort of a mystery to solve later in the process. I did not. I don't like to overdraw my stuff Originally, your mileage may vary here. You may look at this and think it's absolutely unusable for me. It's exciting. It provides the opportunity to work from here. That's I'll leave that artistic choice up to you anyway. I'll just save the layering of the greed of the actual owl painting for Photoshopped. You'll I'll deal with that in the next section. But as usual, image save as Let's call this master grease pencil pass And there we go. We've got all our layers saved out, ready for photo shop. Just before I leave behind my scene, I'll just enable the grease pencil again. Just so when I reloaded back, I've got everything ready to work with and I'm looking forward to now switching over to photo shop and doing some digital painting, so I'll see you there. 16. 2: Well, here we are in Photoshop, and this is fun. Nice change of pace. I've got my files open. All the renders I did a second ago in Blender. I'll just make this my master canvas here, the grease pencil one, cause why not? And I'll just start pasting these layers in place. Now, you might get into some trouble here because your instincts might tell you to push control A to select all control, See, to copy and then going here and push control V. But when I do that, the leaves appear in the wrong place. Like if you look at this campus like that, leaf should be right at the top there, and it's not. It's summer at the bottom. This is just a weird photo shop quirk. The function you want is called paste in place. You could go to edit, pay special paste in place, or the shortcut is control shift V. And now we have the Leafs in their correct orientations. I just close that off. Go here. Control a control. C control shift V. There we go. Moving into this one. This is the middle ground leaves control a control C control ship V, Of course, this layers in the wrong spot. It should be there. And my owl, this is This is where my grease pencil layer is. I could have put this in layers. There's no correct spot for the owls layer because I have them all on a single layer. Let's sort this out right now by doing some final housekeeping. Close that office. I don't need it. First. I'll name these. This is BG leaves MG leaves F G leaves, then for the owls. I'm just gonna quickly draw a little mask. With that done, I'll push control J. Name this F. G. Howell Going back to my master, our layer. I will just go ahead and select this guy same way again. This does not have to be precise. Control J. Let's call this F G Apple too. And again, Same thing. Go back to the master layer. Select out the BG Owls Control J. Name it. Now select out the MG owls. I'm speeding up the video a little bit here, Control J. Rename it. Now I can delete my grease pencil layer, so I've got it all separate, and I'll put these in place. So the middle ground apples goes there, background owls goes there, and in the foreground, owls are already in their correct place. All right, so with all this in place, there's nothing left to do but start painting. Oh, I know that's a lie. I don't want to allow myself to paint on these leaf layers, so I just click this brush icon there that just disables the entire layer from being painted on. So I will go ahead and do that for all the leaf layers, the grease pencil layers. I do want to paint over those. Of course, it's the whole point, so I'll leave those alone. All right now we can start painting. First thing I'll do is make a layer underneath everything because this will be my background layer. Remember how I started my thumbnail sketch? Right? I did those abstract kind of leaves. This is what I'm doing, essentially the same thing in the final, although I put a little more effort into making it look like something. But I'll just start with these big brush strokes. I'm not concerned with actually painting any trees or leaves right now. I just want to give myself a palette and a lighting scenario toe work with. I really like the idea of the light coming from behind the owls and kind of swallowing the apples up as you progress in depth. So the foreground albums will be the darkest, and then each owl progressing back in space like mid ground to background, will get slightly lighter. There's there's a bit of light theory at play here, and it has everything to do with atmospheric perspective. I'm sure you guys know what atmospheric perspective is, right. It's basically the particles in the air lightning tones as you go back. It's the reason why mountains in the distance look blue while they're not Blue Mountains, just the mountainous so far in the background that there's enough particles in the air that has over taken the light and shadow on the mountain and has just kind of coated it With this blue light value, it's like the atmosphere. It's the atmospheric perspective. So I'm gonna use that heavily in this painting, although not it's not gonna go toward blue because the forest is like greenish yellowish, right, The fest, the forest environment. So this atmosphere in this painting is not gonna be blue, but it's gonna be well, what I'm establishing in that background greens, yellows, Ah, few blues here and there because there is some blue sky poking through those trees is I'm painting now? So what I'm gonna dio because the light is coming from behind the Owls. All the owls are going to be in shadow. Painting into the light is there's a fancy French term for it's called It's called Contra. Sure, if you just Googled here, here's a recommendation. Google David Curtis contre jour Plane Air David Curtis is an incredible painter, paints watercolors, oils. And he prefers a contra sure, directly into the light approach. Because what that does is it reduces things to shapes when you're painting directly into the light, as I'm doing here. Or Google. David Curtis, Essentially everything you're looking at is in shadow because you are standing opposite of the light so everything is in shadow, which reduces things down to clear shapes of pretty organized values. Again, I mentioned earlier the lightest thing. Sorry, the closest things to you, like that close out in the foreground. That's close enough that we're gonna get some pretty serious darks there again. It's an owl in shadow, very close to camera. It's gonna be allowed to get quite dark because there's not a lot of atmospheric perspective between us and that foreground owl. But then, as the album's go back and back and back, there's gonna be Mawr and more and more atmosphere perspective, suffusing them with the environment colors. So this is interesting from an art direction and painting perspective, because even though I'm going to paint the owls pretty much all in shadow, there is enough atmospheric perspective that it looks like there's light bouncing around everywhere. Well, because there is, like bouncing around everywhere and it's. And as long as I keep my values in this painting pretty light, I can like exposing for the shadow. If this were if this if I were a photographer taking a photo of this scene, I would be exposing not for the light but for the shadows. That means I would still be painting with values that are light enough for us to perceive all this nice color and stuff like that. Like for example, you see, I'm painting this tree in the mid ground notice. I'm not going to dark with it Oh, and here comes my thumbnail, which I should have had there from the start. My thumbnail is nice compositionally but value wise, it's a bit too dark and so that links up with that tree that I'm painting right now, that tree is in shadow, but I still want to keep the values pretty light which will allow me to still get a lot of , you know, juicy color in there. Basically, the darker you go with values. This is a rule of thumb. The darker you go with your values, the less color you're able to really see. Because the I past a certain point, our eyes do not do so well in the dark. You know, just imagine walking through your house at night. You're not really perceiving color. You're just perceiving shapes our eyes air not built for low light scenarios. So in painting, it's the same. If your values are very dark, you probably will not be able to express very well with color. Just value. No dark values do not plug in well with colors like that value I have Right now, that's a pretty dark value. And when I use it, I know that the audience won't really get the color from it up here. This is a value where I could get some nice color in. So I'm trying to stay within that range and again I'm exposing for the shadows. So as I paint these apples, you'll see me pushing for lightness in my value as I paint these hours and shadow and what that means for the lights. Because there are gonna be a few bits of light here and there, you know, dappled light, maybe shooting through the leaves or, you know, little back lights coming from behind. Those lights will be very, very light. Because if I'm exposing for the shadows and making my shadow values light, well, that means my light values have to be very light. Oftentimes again, if you're Googling David Curtis playing air painting contra. Sure, you will notice that a lot of his lights or just pure white, and that happens a lot when you expose for the shadows, you buy defaults kind of crush your lights up toward white. This could make for a very pleasing, colorful light effect, though, because here's another tip on the least. The way I see painting light light looks like light when you paint reflected light. Reflected light is the light that's bouncing around in the environment, which lightens and colors the shadows. I did a whole YouTube video on this. It's called Understanding Shadow Colors. If you go to my YouTube channel, which is www dot youtube dot com slash mark Obuchi, there's a whole video there 20 minutes long called understanding shadow colors. You feel free to watch that as a supplement to this this video. You know this lesson you're watching now is hopefully clearly not a lesson about painting fundamentals. We're talking about emerging three D with two d. So while I would love to deliver a 20 minute lecture on how colors work in shadow, I fear that would deviate too far from the point of this lesson. But go on my YouTube, it's sitting right there waiting for you and, of course, here in this video, I will do my best to narrate the process and giving you my insider thoughts as to what I'm doing. So you see that there are some lights on that tree and notice how bright they are. There's even some probably some pure white pixels. So now what I'm doing is I'm blocking in this middle ground owl, who's gonna be kind of resting on that branch and again, Look at the values I'm using. This is a This is unknowable in shadow. And you know, a lot of times you think shadows air dark and shadows, of course, our dark. But really, what shadows are are just darker than the light. So again, if if I just reserve like whites for my lights, I can still paint very bright in my shadows, That's how as a painter, that's how we can expose for the shadows. We can simulate that, you know, as a photographer does with the camera. Okay, so what I'm going to do now is go to image size and increase the resolution. I started the canvas at a width of 2000 pixels, which is what came out of my renderers from blender. And that is not the It's not that high of a resolution. And I want I want Mawr resolution in my final because I'm gonna feed this back into blender and kind of re texture map. You know things and you'll you'll see all that in the compositing stage, but I want my painting to arrive at a higher resolution when it's finished. So what I like to do is I don't like to start. My canvas is super high rez. The reason I don't like to do that is because digital brushes don't react well when the resolutions air that high. A digital brush is essentially a stamp. It's a repeating pattern that stamps over and over. And even the most let's say advanced digital brushes really reveal themselves at high resolutions. They reveal their limitations. And, you know, the medium kind of betrays itself to the viewer when you're working at high rez and I see a lot of work from my students who want to do, you know, finished work and they started canvas that's like 5000 pixels wide, and the brushwork really suffers as a result, like like a student might make. And I see this countless times where a student of mine will make like a really engaging thumbnail that's, you know, 500 pixels wide, and then their final just feels dead, and that's happened to me, and I'm sure it's happened to you out there, and it happens to all of us. And one of the reasons it happens at least in my opinion, is that we start with, like, this huge canvas and our digital brushes air just not up to the task of filling it. Really. So what I like to do is start at a lower resolution, and I would actually usually start even lower than this. But today I started this painting at 2000 pixels wide by What was it 1600 tall? And then I I will now up prez. Throughout the process, you'll see me going back to image image size, and I'll add 100 or 200 pixels every five minutes. That may sound annoying and cumbersome, and it kind of is, to be honest, but it helps me maintain the best possible digital brushwork. And, you know, because you've purchased this video, I'm assuming you're familiar with at least some of my work that I really like to push for. An interesting kind of almost a traditional I feel in my paintings, and that's because I'm trained as a traditional artists. So I'm extremely sensitive, I think, to brushwork that that looks fake and I find that one again One of the main reasons brushwork looks fake is when the canvases at a huge resolution because the brushes air just not really most brushes anyway, are not really designed toe work that high of a rez. That's also why I love the smudge tool so much he was often seen me using that smudge tool probably more than half the time. I'm using a smudge tool somewhere around there. That's what it feels like to me anyway. And that's because this much you'll just looks traditional to me. It look, it reminds me of like impasse toe wet into wet oil paint, which is part of the way I was trained quick. Other comment. Obviously, I'm painting in the correct layers like I'm painting this middle ground out well right now . So of course I'm painting on the MG owls layer you can see on the right there, and for me it again. If you've seen me pain to my other videos, you notice You probably know. I like to keep things on his few layers as possible, So this is a bit of a deviation for me. I don't like all those layers. I don't enjoy having them there. But it's there, there by necessity here, of course, because we need our apples in separate layers so that later we can plug them back into our three D scene. And one of the things that three D is infamous for is essentially the higher resolution. You can feed a texture into blender or any three package. The better will be for your render. Three D seems to just eat up resolution, so I'll do my best to keep up raising this as I go. And you know, our final exported layers will, I don't know. I might end up around for 4 to 5000 pixels at the end. And, you know, when it comes to painting, just going back to, you know, technical stuff with uprising paintings. Photoshopped does quite a good job uprising paintings because there's so much less information in a painting than in a photograph. A photograph, like every pixel, contains like detailed information, right. Like that, pixels change so much in a painting, you're dealing with larger swaths of value and color as particularly the way the way I paint photo shop seems to be quite good. It's algorithms are quite good at guessing at filling in the pixels when you, uh, Perez exultantly. That's what uprising is, right? You're asking the computer to fill in missing data, which in a photograph is a terrible idea because photo shop has no idea what should be there but in a painting, because the rush trucks were, you know, thicker. It does a better job. I'm using the overlay brush to just heighten and, you know, add some more saturation to my background. I really want to play with that forest environment again. Yellows kind of bridging into greens than jumping over to some muted blues. But predominantly, I want this painting to be warm, so I'm favoring yellows and greens, and what I'm doing now is I'm actually painting in some hand painted leaves. I mentioned this back in the three D phase where you know, the three D leaves air kind of like perfect in the way that they're shaded like there's no there's no change in edge. That's one of the drawbacks of three D. At least you know the modeling were doing where those leaves were all mapped to like a perfectly hair thin plane that will reveal itself a little bit, and it will also kind of betray the process. So what I'm gonna do to offset that is add my own hand painted leaves so I'll do add many of them in this painting, which will help populate the scene. It'll help mask some of the three D nous of the other leaves. And it might even help the three D leaves kind of, you know, sit in well, like the three D leaves might be the leaves that we focus on more, and the hand painted leaves will just kind of feel like they sit back a little more because they're softer. I will play with this in during the process, and I'll see how it works. Also, if there are any really offensive three D leaves that are just stealing the attention and, you know, like I said, betraying the process, I will simply well, I could delete them in blender. Or I could make my own custom hand painted leaf and map that back onto ah, plain and blender, and I'm sure I'll do that. We'll see. We'll see how this looks again. I have not seen the final as I record my voice right now. I'm recording live with my with my creative process So we'll see what needs to be done when I go to compositing. Obviously, I'm hiding layers that I don't need to see. Like the foreground owl, the foreground leaves. I do that throughout. This is here we go. Let's uprise a little bit. This is very different from the way I usually paints again. I usually don't like to have a lot of layers like this and I usually don't hide layers like I'm doing now. If you've seen my digital painting 12 or three videos, essentially those scenes were all on one layer for the most, for most of it. And what? I don't like layers again because they they take away from composition. Like right now I'm not seeing my composition. I'm seeing like half of my composition because I've hidden key elements I've hit in the foreground of hidden the leaves. So right now I'm not painting within a composition. I feel like I'm getting tunnel vision and, you know, just painting an owl on a branch rather than a picture of owls on branches in a forest. There is a difference because composition convict ate so many choices. But because our composition, like our final version of this picture, is not going to be this Photoshopped document. Our final, as you've seen in the intro, is the three D environment that we're creating and moving a camera through it. And, you know, when you introduce camera movement that wildly changes the composition. So, you know, apples might overlap each other in ways that they aren't. Currently. Right now, they may their space may grow between them. I have no idea what that three D cameras going to give me once I plug my finished painting back into Blender. I have an idea, of course, because my grease pencil layer was a really valuable block in. And for any of you wondering about this, I did technically did not have to do the grease pencil step. I could have just done the leaves and then brought it into photo shop and kind of figured out the hours in here. But to me, that would be like too much of a blind move. The grease pencil really helped me interface like connect from three D to two D. And that, to me, is where the grease pencil is at its strongest, you can use the grease pencil to create finished art. Now, this video is not about that. This video is about three D plugging into two D. You can use the grease pencil to create finished art, though I'm not using it that way. I'm using it as a bridge between two different mediums, three D and two D. And it was invaluable to pre visualize those owls in three D with a two D grease pencil drawing. Because now again, as you'll see when when this painting is done and I go toe, put these apples back into blender. I have exact placements for them because my grease pencil layer is there and my painting is not deviating from the composition. Yeah, I'm changing designs of apples and stuff like that and adding stuff. But you know, in general my composition is pretty much has been sacred since my thumbnail, you know, I decided on it in my thumbnail, you know, carried that through and blender and now I'm carrying that through in photo shop. So my composition is not changing and it's really nice toe. Have something that is like a guide post toe work from so that composition stages really everything. Even though, like I just said, my composition will undoubtedly change a little bit once the scene feeds back into blender , you know, have to figure out exactly where that camera needs to be, exactly how to move it in order to not break apart this composition too much. But that is a fundamental difference from just doing a painting and photo shop like I did in digital painting 12 and three versus working with three D software, where the final results is determined by the three D render, not the painting in Photoshop. So it's an interesting difference, jumping to the background layer again, adding little negative spaces for trees. You know, implying so much detail in the back. I think that will really help this picture read, especially in three D, where, you know, atmosphere perspective is famous for obscuring detail as you go back in space so that background forests is not only blurt out, I used you saw me blurt out at the beginning of this painting, but when I do go back and paint into it like what I'm doing here, I'm just implying so many little you know, I'm implying thousands of leaves with just a few brushstrokes. Essentially, I'm doing my best to do that because that will help separate space. The owls are gonna b'more rendered at least a surrendered, as I care to get. But by difference, by comparison, the background will be much softer. So there's kind of a difference at play here. And that's something I use not only in this painting, but in every painting I dio. You can make a finished painting as sketchy as you want, so long as you have a variety of differences in the painting. So if I let's say, I don't want to render those apples out as though they were three dimensional renders, which I don't I want the apples toe look painterly and sketchy. And, you know, I think it gives my work kind of a freshness right. In order to pull that off, all I have to do to make the I was look more finished is make the background look less finished, so it's always a comparison. Things look like they do in comparison to something else. If this works not with just with composition and finishing a painting but like color. Ah, warm color looks warmer next to a colder color. Ah, warm color looks less warm next to another warm color because they're they're similar, right? So you're playing these differences in painting just like light and dark Light looks lighter when it's next to darker tones and vice versa. So finishing a painting, you can have sketchy areas look finished or appropriately finished, so long as you give the viewer other areas where things are less finished. Now this has taken me, and still you know, I'm still working on it. This aesthetic has taken me years to arrive at, like the exact level of brushwork and finish I need versus what I don't need. You know, that has taken me a long time to work out, you know, embarrassingly enough, my old arts from, say, 2005 is still on the Internet, and, ah, if you care to Google and you can see where my aesthetics have improved since then, Um, I'm just more just morphing around the owl. By the way, that's one of the nice things about having this stuff on layers. Here's a little uprising on a nice thing about having the stuff on layers is, you can take full advantage of tools like the, you know, the warp tool or liquefy tool. This is a brush on linear dodge mode, just kind of emulating a bit of light, dappled light, maybe poking through the leaves, hitting the hours a little bit. Like I said, the Owls Aaron Shadow, for the most part. But there, that doesn't mean that there's no light coming from, you know, an oblique angles, just sort of cutting through the scene and illuminating their bellies or something. I do want to play that up, and you know you'll see me do that as I go. What I'm focused on now, though, is not is not kind of rendering out anyone owl like not finishing anyone part. I kind of want the scene to come together like a jigsaw puzzle painting connected areas, so I kind of painted the middle ground, not the entire middle ground. But I painted that tree connected to the Albelin, the middle ground. That kind of led me to this this four round our that I'm painting now, and this kind of covers the canvas, and I can kind of see the picture coming into fruition now, whereas if I didn't, if I blocked in everything all at once, that would almost give me just a mess that I have to now clean up. So I like to work in this kind of connected way where I start somewhere and I paint things that are connected to it. In this case, it was that middle ground, more or less started there. Well, I know I started with the background painted the entire background, which is all connected. Then I found another connected element, which the mid ground. And then now I'm painting this connected element of the foreground, and at this point I have enough visual information like connected visual information in the picture that I can start to judge it. And that's the thing that I want to talk about next. It's this theory of, you know, creating something. It's very easy as a viewer, so you are the viewer. Right now. You have seen my final, and it's very easy for you to now look at my process and maybe mistakenly analyze it as a straight line from rough sketch to final because you've seen the final, so it's I'm tempting you in a way to draw that straight line, but for me, I have not seen the final. I don't know if what I'm creating is going toe work. I have to try things, and I'll probably change my mind on various things in this process that indicate that I'm not in my process. I'm not. I don't have the final in mind. I just have a direction in mind. Of course, my thumbnail helps me see that direction. Blender has helped me immensely see that direction. But when it comes to like the final brushstrokes, the final character designs the final little color notes. I don't have a little picture in my mind that I'm painting towards. I am happy to find these things in the process. Part of that is inviting happy accidents into the process, little things that may not have seen coming and capitalizing on them when I noticed them. And also, you know, I will kind of steer this painting along based on my thumbnail, because I know my thumbnail has a structure that works, and that's what thumbnails air good for their great for structure. But they're not so great for knowing exactly what to do. For instance, another thing I see a lot from my students is they'll do a thumbnail and its it looks great . And then their final looks like a copy of their thumbnail like it looks like they could have just blown up their thumbnail and submitted it as a final. And that's kind of missing the point. A thumbnail is not a final Ah, thumbnail on Lee gives you, or should at least the way I think of thumbnails should only be there for structure. And I've shown you that structure as I painted the thumbnail, that kind of wavy pattern, that wine D pattern that leads us into the picture. The way the owls are arranged in a kind of pattern. That's a structural thing. But when it comes to the final patterns of light and shadow on the owls, the final brushstrokes, the final color. My thumbnail is useless for that. I'm not looking at my thumbnail for that. Like if you look at my thumbnail right now, those albums air just basically dark shapes like I didn't think about brushwork there. I'm leaving the brushwork for this stage, so I like to always make sure that I am leaving myself creative decisions in every part of the process. And that will go not on. I'm not gonna be finished with this painting. I want to leave myself creative decisions, even for compositing. When I go back into Blender in the next chapter, I want to make sure that I still in blender have decisions, creative decisions to make that no stage is just kind of a wrote thing that I have to get through that every stage involves me on a creative level that brings with it though the potential for failure at any level. I feel like I could lose this piece at any level, from thumbnail to the blender, Part two. Now this painting part to the compositing part, every process I need to make new decisions and plus the picture like bring it to a higher level of completion at every stage. And that means you know, those creative decisions Kenbrell with it, possibilities for you making maybe not the best decision for this piece. Obviously you want I want to try and limit that, which is why I am progressing in a more or less controlled way. Like having a thumbnail to me is maybe one of the biggest lines of defense, so to speak, in terms of coming up with a pleasing final, because again, that thumbnail gave me structure and within structure Aiken, build. Right. But one of the things I'm figuring out here is you know, the character designed the you know, what is the attitude of each owl? My thumbnail, this little dude on the left looks like he was not not so pleased about being there. And I like that. I think that's funny. So I'm trying to play up this kind of inquisitive but grumpy expression on him. Where is the background? Out was like where I'm painting now. Those guys will be a little more happy about their lives. I think they're I think maybe the background hours air younger like maybe they're the Children. Like these guys here. Maybe they're the kids and the foreground ones are parents, Or maybe just the foreground. Ones are more on the grumpy side and the background ones or more on the happy side. Something like that. Ah, design wise and playing with the the shapes of the eyes. For this little guy here has way larger eyes. I think maybe he's the youngest owl or one of the younger ones. I'm giving him, like these really baby eyes, whereas you know his sibling there on the right, there's a little older. So I'm thinking about how I can separate. You know, the character design here, and I think he'll be flying, maybe leaping off the branch. We'll see how it goes. I think you know, the red there is kind of like the under part of the wing just just choosing to make it read their tops. Air kind of bluish, though, and I don't just I think that might be a pleasing color difference. It's very rare that I have any rhyme or reason for the colors I'm choosing. I think any color can work well. I almost find that you could make any color combination work so long as your values work first. So I always put way more stock into my value decisions than my color decisions, which is it's sometimes odd to me because the question I get the most as a you know, someone who posts painting videos on YouTube and teaches classes. That question I get the most is How do you choose your colors? And I have I mean, I have ideas about warm vs cool color. I have a lot of YouTube videos about this, but in general I'm thinking value first. Like I'm thinking in this case, these apples Aaron Shadow. So they have to be darker than the background. The background is where of the most light is right. The background has the most atmospheric perspective, so it's the lightest thing, so these apples simply have to be darker than that first. Right here I'm paying some dark accent like as the owls bellies role under and come into contact with the branch, there's they're going to go into something called Dark accent. Dark accent is the same thing is ambience occlusion? I did a whole video in ambient occlusion on my YouTube as well. Ambien. Inclusion is simply where there is the least amount of ambient light, and where there is the least amount of ambient light is where one form intersex or comes close to another. So you know where the owls bellies wrap underneath and come close to the branch. There's not gonna be a whole lot of bounce light there, so their bellies are gonna get darker as they roll under. That to me is, is ambient occlusion again? Another word for Ambien. Seclusion is dark accent. A lot of the fine artists right here under the under the beaks. This is ambient occlusion or dark accent. Ah, lot of fine art painters call it dark accent. Ambient occlusion is something that's come into vogue from three D software, which, of course, has only existed in the mainstream like since the mid nineties. So if you're ever reading about you know, if you're reading like Edgar Pain or something, he might say Dark accent. And then you're reading about a more modern artists. That digital painting approach they'll say ambient occlusion. It's the same thing. It's like a shadow within a shadow, essentially, Or, as I put it in my YouTube video, all about Ambien Inclus