3D Illustration in Cinema 4D | Matt Lloyd | Skillshare

3D Illustration in Cinema 4D

Matt Lloyd

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30 Lessons (2h 5m)
    • 1. Course Promo

    • 2. Viewport Navigation

    • 3. Custom Layouts

    • 4. Introduction To Box Modelling

    • 5. Parametric Vs Editable Objects

    • 6. Soft Selection

    • 7. Split Vs Disconnect

    • 8. Extrude Tool

    • 9. Knife Tool

    • 10. Creating Materials

    • 11. Magnet Tool

    • 12. Introduction To Lighting

    • 13. Cloner Part 01

    • 14. Cloner Part 02

    • 15. Cloner Part 03

    • 16. Cloner Part 04

    • 17. Camera Setup

    • 18. Knife Tool Plane Cut

    • 19. Lighting Part 02

    • 20. Lighting Part 03

    • 21. Textures With Alpha

    • 22. Ambient Occlusion Settings

    • 23. Spline Modelling

    • 24. Extrude NURBS

    • 25. Extrude Inner

    • 26. Modelling Kite And String

    • 27. Spline Modelling Continued

    • 28. Controlling Shadows

    • 29. Render Settings

    • 30. Conclusion

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About This Class

Add 3D to your toolkit today!

Cinema 4D is famously approachable software, and an ideal gateway into the fantastic world of 3D art.

Join Matt on this course for great workflow tips he's picked up in his years as a professional 3d artist.

In this beginner course you'll use Cinema 4D to recreate an illustration by respected professional Andrea DeSantis. By trying to emulate some of his artwork you'll improve your own observation skills, and also be forced to get to grips with the how and why of the essential tools in Cinema 4D's formidable toolset.

What you'll learn:

  • Polygonal modelling: how to take control of geometry and bend it to your will
  • Procedural techniques: dip your toe into C4D's powerful mograph toolset
  • Creating basic materials to apply to your model
  • Lighting: take advantage of hidden settings to really control the light and shade in your image
  • Rendering: the final process of creating the actual 2D image from the 3d scene you've built.

Jump into this course and discover how quickly and easily you can add 3d to your skill set, opening a world of creative possibilities!


1. Course Promo: Let's get right into Cinema 4D, using it to recreate a beautiful image like this or the marvelous illustrator, Andrea, the scientists. These days, Cinema 4D is capable of creating just about any kind of image or movie. And whilst it's a very approachable piece of software, it's also tremendously deep. It has to be taken one step at a time. And using it to recreate the simple, elegant lines of this image is a perfect way to start learning some of the core skills you need as a 3D artists. 2. Viewport Navigation: If you've never opened cinema before, here are the absolute basics of how to get around. First, I'll set up centers, viewport preferences so that the camera will behave in a way that I like control ie to open preferences. I often use a whack on tablets, so I'll check graphics tablet here. Next. On the Navigation, I'll check that camera mode is set to Cursor and Dolly to Cursor is set to all views. I find this behavior is quite intuitive as it means that I moved the camera towards or around where the cursor is. That'll do us for now. Here in this blank scene, we have these three colored arrows, which represent the red X or left-right axis, the green y or up-down axis, and the blue zed or inOut access. I'll get some geometry in the scene so we can get a better idea of what's happening with my cursor over the 3D view port. If I hold the one key which is above the letters on my keyboard and click drag around. The camera will stay pointing in the same direction, but freely move in any combination of up-down, called a pedestal move, or left, right called trucking. The two key I can dolly, that is move the camera backwards and forwards into and out of the scene. This is where the little cursor setting we just checked is really handy. Depending on where I place the cursor. I'll dolly to that point. If I hold the 3K and click drag, then I can rotate around the scene. Something to note is that if there's no geometry beneath the cursor, then cinema will have to guess the rotation center. If I move the cursor to say one of these corners though, then we'll rotate around that specific point. That's the 123 keys to navigate around the viewport. If I need to move an object though, use the Iike to move or translate. Grab an axis to constrain a transform to a single direction, or an axis corner to constrain it to a plane defined by two axes. The archae that's you rotate objects with the cursor anywhere within the gizmo, I can tumbled BY object freely. Anywhere outside the gizmo will constrain the rotation to the current point of view. As it does a spindle coming out of the camera we're looking through and going right through the object. And of course, there are the axis bands to constrain to specific axis. Now, whatever we wanted to have a rotated object, say move straight up in the scene. Well first we'd switch to the Move tool using IE. Now the AP or y-axis of the object itself, which we call its local axis, is off compared to the world y-axis. I can use the shortcut W or click on this coordinate toggle to switch between the local and world coordinate modes as I need. Finally, the Tiki is for scaling objects. I won't get into the weeds right now. But these off the shelf, objects which shipped with cinema are actually special cases that don't quite behave like standard geometry. If I tried to scale this cube just along the Zed, for instance, it scales along all axes. Are quickly turned this cube into standard geometry, such as pretty much any 3D package would understand by hitting this button here, which I'll explain more later. Now when I hit the Tiki to use the Scale tool, I am able to scale along specific axes. A handy tip holding Shift while using any of the Transform tools E or T will constrain movement to increments of ten. Watched the little HUD element go up intense. Sometimes releasing the Shift key, then holding it again is necessary for some reason when you want to get really precise about an object's coordinates in the attribute manager, every object has a coordinates tab, which you can use to fine tune any parameter. One last little tip. Clicking on the position or scale or rotation headings, not the axes themselves. So that's all three axes or channels. Then if you want, say, all three of your positions to be back in the center at world 0, just fill in one hose Control or Command and hit enter, and all three will get the same value. 3. Custom Layouts: A quick note before we begin as we progress through this course, you may notice that this layout differs from yours, and that from time to time it changes slightly. With the release of R21 cinema has something of a face lift and a few menus, names and locations of tools changed, but they still work in much the same way as in previous releases. So if you have one of those, you'll be able to follow along just fine. Another reason my layout may differ from yours is that over time, I've realized that I need quick access to certain tools. So it's much more convenient for me to have them in the layout. I'll just show you the process so that if you like, you can customize your layout. If I right-click on any of these menus here, I'll see new palette. Click on that. If I grab these little dots at the edge here, I can move them into my layout. I'll just drag this above the object manager or OM here. And this gives me a place to store some of my most often used tools. I can also right-click on any of these tools, go down to customize palettes. And I'll get this customize commands menu pop up. I can use this search field here to find any tool in cinema. One of the most often used is reset PSR, that is reset position, scale and rotation. So with the commander open, I'm going to type reset their Reset PSR. I'll grab that and put it into my new palette. Another great tool enables you to look through the selected object as if it were a camera, particularly useful for lighting. Type. Set active object as camera, and drag that into. Another one, which is really useful is no. And that is just a point in space which has no geometry and won't render. I'll put that there too. You can group objects under these, for example, and move them together, et cetera, which can be very useful. Next one is set selection. This will become clear as we go through these exercises. I'll pop that there as well. We're going to be jumping around our model a lot. And rather than switching about in our quad view, which I can do with my middle mouse button or up here, the top right. Let's instead bring in some new tools to speed up our workflow. Let's make another new palette. I'll drag mine up here to the top left. Next, search for each of the different cameras. Top bottom, right. Left perspective and drag them into the palette. Finally, we need our reference image to hand. Ordinarily when I hit F5, click this toggle quad view or middle mouse-click the orthographic views popup. But we no longer need that because we got all our camera buttons here. Let's choose a different panel layout. Go to panel arrangement, to views side-by-side. By default on the right will be the top view, which is fine because we can only import a reference image into one of the orthographic views. Select this viewport and hit Shift v to bring up your viewport options in the attributes manager or am. Click the Back tab, then navigate using this file path button to the reference image. Pan or zoom as usual, using the 12 keys to navigate around the image. You can now toggle between your camera view and this reference layout using middle mouse click or F1, F5. Another difference you may have noticed about my layouts are these blue borders here over in the perspective view. These are called the past part two. And what they are doing is showing me what will render and what won't. I have to just make sure that whatever I want to render stays within those borders. The settings for those are again found under your view settings shift v, the shortcut. This time we're under a different tab. Under the View tab, about halfway down. In these settings you'll see tinted border, which by default is checked. Usually though they are a low capacity black, I think about 10%. And you can see I've just gone ahead and picked a much brighter color so that I can see immediately what is in my render area and what is outside that. So if you want, you can customize that. And you can also see that there is an opacity setting which you can adjust as well. That's it for now. If you see any extra tools appear in my layout, you can ask me what they are and I'll be happy to help. But the process by which I got them there is exactly what I've just shown you. Now, once you've got your layout the way you wanted, you should stall that layout for future use because otherwise, once you close cinema, you're going to lose it. I can access that functions to the Window menu, customization, save layout, as you can call it, anything you like. Of course, I'm just going to call this Screencast O one. Okay, so now if I go to this layout menu, I'll see that listed here. 4. Introduction To Box Modelling: There are loads of different ways of making or modelling objects in 3D. One of the classic ways is called box modelling. Up in the middle of your layout, you'll see this blue cube icon. Click once on that. And now we have a box. I'm just going to help myself see this a little bit better by changing the view mode to time in. If I press the Enter key, I'll see a list of different view modes. By default, you'll be in mode a, which is guru shading. If I type and b, you'll see I've now got these lines showing me the edges of my geometry. If we refer back to the reference image, obviously is not a queue. It's oblong. So let's go into the cube settings and change things. Here we have the various dimensions, width, height, depth, represented by the different axes, x, y, and zed. I've also got these little handles in the screen. You can just see this little yellow dot here. I'll grab one of them, such as this one here, along this blue line, which represents the zed axis. If I pull it, my cube is going to stretch along just that axis. I'm going to hold down the 3K and orbits around a little bit. Hold down the one key and pan across. I'll just grab that little gizmo at the top there on the y-axis and squash it down. Let's refer back to the image. Something like that will do us. And you'll notice that we've just got this plane, this plane, this plane. There are no subdivisions anywhere, any of these surfaces. If I like, I can make more here in the segment control, we're going to need to put more geometry into this object so that we can manipulate it more. If I were to try and bend this or rapid around something, for example, there'd be a limit as to what I could do because I've only got these simple planes on each surface. So we'll subdivide it. I think we're going to need more segments on the height of this thing. And we're also going to need some more across this top surface because we're going to need to be able to knock a hole is at the moment there's nothing much we can work with here. So let's just start ramping these up by clicking on a little white up arrow using your keyboard arrow keys. I think we're going to need more than that. Let's say ten. I'll tab down to the next one, which is the height, I'd say to be on the safe side. We'll have ten there as well. Now you can see in the reference image that there's a curve which we're going to need to somehow get into our box here. These extra subdivisions will give us a good starting point. Finally, along the z axis, we're going to need enough geometry to be able to cut out that recess. So for the sake of consistency, why don't we just put ten in there as well? One last thing I just wanted to mention is that at the moment, I've got this reference image right over the top of the model here in top view. So I'm going to just use my one key to scroll across to the right to get my model off screen. And then down here in my shift V view settings, again under the back, under the image there, you can see there's an x and y offset. I'm just going to use the X offset to bring my image, my reference image, back into the frame. That way my model isn't interfering with my reference image. 5. Parametric Vs Editable Objects: It can be useful to keep a model that you've started as a full bag. So that's what we'll do here. I'll call this pages. Let's copy it. I can do that by pressing the Command or Control button and dragging it. Let's switch this one off. And now let's just deal with this one. Now, say that this is exactly the way we want it to be. We can now turn it into more easily manipulable geometry by pressing the C key or going over here and pressing this button, the make editable button. If I hover over it, you can see the words converts a parametric object into a polygonal object. I'll show you what that means. Down here on the left we have these selection modes. These are hours to get into the detail of a model's geometry. I'll select face or polygon mode here and zoom in. Now on a polygonal object, I'd be able to select any one of these individual polygons. But as you can see, I can click around to my heart's content and nothing's being selected. That's because at the moment, this is a parametric object. Really. It's just a set of instructions which cinema is following to generate a construct of a cube as it were, on the one hand, it's handy to be able to edit its basic parameters here, which remain lives, so to speak. But I can't make anything much other than a cuboid with it. It's the same with all of the so-called primitives in this palette. Often we use them as starting points for our models, but sometimes there is no need to then go on and make them editable. In this case, we do though, once I press this button or use the shortcut c, You can see that the on-screen display changes. I can see these little points or vertices. I can see edges highlighted in blue. Now if I want to select parts of this object, I can. And this level of control is what we need for the next stage with this model. 6. Soft Selection: So now this geometry is ready to be edited and a much more flexible way. If we look at the reference image, you can see there's a curve on that side and a curve on the spine side. Let's try and get our break to look more like this shape. First I'll make a simple selection of points right around the model. Hit 0, or use this top menu to find rectangle selection under its options. Be sure to uncheck only select visible elements. This way when I drag a box election, it'll look right through the model and select anything within the box bounds. Now again, over here in the rectangle Selection Tool Options, we can change how this tool operates. The tab I'm interested in at the moment is soft selection. This enables us to extend the influence of our selection to the points around it, which can be useful for creating curved or organic looking surfaces. First, we have to enable it. You can see the viewport has changed. We've got this yellow highlight representing the influence of the selection. I control how far this influence extends with this radius control. If I hit E for transform and grab this red x-axis, you can see the yellow points are all moving to varying degrees. I'll undo. So we can compare this with no soft selection. Now I'm only moving the selected points. Nothing else is influenced. The shape of that soft selection influence is being controlled by this fall-off function here. At the moment it's set to linear, which is why we get this neat linear slope. We have other options underneath this fall off button. At the very bottom here we have spline. The X axis on this graph is distance, which refers to this radius here, the y-axis represents the strength of the effect. So the shape of this spline is saying applies 0 strength selection at 0 times the radius away from the selection and apply full strength at the full radius. This particular spline or line represents the default linear for law function. But if I right-click on this graph and scroll down to spline presets. There's a bunch more options. Now unfortunately, we need to undo each time we try one of these out because cinema doesn't update the geometry on the fly to reflect the changes in this spline menu. Let's try square. We get this gently curved graph. That's looking pretty good. Let's see that in perspective. Close. But there's this problem in the center. Let's try inverting this spline so that we mostly influenced the points closest to the selection. Well, we're not influencing the top or bottom, which is what we're looking for. But look how the curve on the geometry is echoing this blind. We need the mirror image of this defamation. Let's undo and have this curve gently sloped down from this maximum. Reselect the square preset to reset it. Right-click and this time select flip vertical. Now we can see that the influence is strongest at our selection, gradually fading to top and bottom, which is what we want. We can dial this radius up or down to suit. Now when we move the selection, we get what we're after. You could try a different curve to tweak the look. Cubic, for example, gives you a slightly flatter curve, which may be what you prefer. 7. Split Vs Disconnect: So now that we've got our geometry more or less than the shape that we want it to be. It's time to make the next piece of geometry, the cover. What we're going to do is use our existing geometry as a starting point. If we select these outer polygons, we can simply build out from them. Select the rectangle selectable again. Disabled soft selection. And now under Options, make sure only select visible elements is enabled. In top view. Drag a rectangle to select. Let's look at left view now so we can see the other side of the book. Shift select these polygons. Finally, use the bottom camera and shift select the remaining policies. Now we can copy this selection and make a separate piece which will become the cover. Right-click and scroll to split. And you'll get this new object here. Rename it to cover. And over on the left here, use the solo function, solo single To see it better. Confusingly, if this solo switch at the top here is blue, it means that soloing is switched off. Now this cover has got to open and we want to be able to easily adjust the angle of it if we need. So let's again separate some geometry, but this time without making a separate object for now. In top view, use rectangle select, and make sure tolerance selection is checked this time. This means anything that tool touches will be selected without having to envelop it completely. Select these top polygons. Check that you've only got these front cover Pauli's selected. If I tried to move these at the moment, they'll drag the rest of the model along to right-click and choose disconnect. Now if I move that selection, it comes away from the rest. 8. Extrude Tool: The next job is to give this cover some thickness, and we'll do that using the extrude tool. Let's have our reference image visible here, middle click or F5. Make sure all the polygons are selected. And then open up your commander by pressing shift c and type in extrude. We want this one with the orange modelling icon. You can also just click D and just drag anywhere away from me a model to extrude. Zooming in, we can see this is looking a bit flimsy. So let's select Create caps to make this cover appears solid. So here's our book cover. Now let's make it easy to keep track of this front cover geometry by selecting some of it. Then hit the V key for your radial menu. And under select, choose, select connected or U, w is the shortcut. Now use your set selection button to save that and rename it down here to say front cover. Be sure to click off a selection tag each time you make one or any subsequent selections will overwrite it. When you click this button, then click on the object itself again to carry on working. Now the object is active, but not the selection tag. Of course, on a hardback book, these edges, wood protrudes a little bit and we can use the extrude tool again to do that. But we're going to need to find a way to neatly selects specific edges in order to Extrude just those paths. Here, for example, we don't want to extrude. To get this level of control, we'll need some more selection sets. Let's start with the easy bit. Still in polygon selection mode, hit V for the radial menu. Select loop selection or use the shortcut. Zoom in right on the corner and click to select that whole loop. Then again, set selection, call it front cover edges. Now let's hide the front cover by selecting the front cover selection tag and clicking this hide polygons button now will make another selection set on the back cover. Once again, UL, loop selection. Now though, we'll use live selection to de-select these top polygons. So hit nine, middle mouse hold and drag to adjust the radius. Check only select visible elements is on. And holding command or control. Paint out those policies. Once that's done, save the selection and rename it something useful. Unhide the front cover. Select the front cover edges tag and hit select polygons. And now we've selected just the polygons we need. You might think that we can simply extrude now, but we have to tweak a little setting before this will work. Let's just go ahead and do it first of all. And you can see in the corners on things off, it hasn't quite worked as it would have liked it to. Let's undo that and check this. Preserve groups. And try again whilst we're at it. Let's uncheck create caps to avoid creating any unnecessary geometry. And the same thing is happening. It actually has to do with this setting here, maximum angle, which at the moment is set to 89 degrees. This is telling cinema only to stick together geometry that is 89 degrees or less apart. Let's change this to something over 90. Anything over 90 will do. Let's try 91. And there we have it. Now we've added some extra geometry here, so it just remains for us to update the front and back selection sets. So once again, select any poly on the front, hit u w to select connected. Then find your front cover selection tag. And this time use set selection to update. It, will do the same with the back cover. 9. Knife Tool: Let's now add in a bit more geometry to make this little crease in the back cover. De-select everything. Hop into edge, select mode. Zoom in. And using the shortcut KL, activate the knife tool in loop cut mode. This is a highly versatile tool and as such, we are going to have to set it up correctly. We're in loop mode, which is what we need. By default, the offset mode is proportional. What this means is that cinema will automatically interpellate between edge angles. So the closest to an edge, we make a new cut. The more similar these angle will be. In this case, edge distance will be more useful to us. Let's try using the default proportional setting anyway to get some practice at correcting geometry. Make sure select cuts and connect cut edges are checked, but these three interactions settings need to be unchecked. Now make a cut about whether crease will be click once to position the cut. And of course, you'll see that it's slopes to apply the cut hit escape. Now, because we had select cuts checked, that loop has remained highlighted. If it's not, then simply use UL to get your loop selection tool and select it. Now let's remove this slope. Come down here to the coordinate manager. This contains data about the active objects. We can see here that because this cut is not dead vertical, it has some width in the x axis. Incidentally, if you just see 111 here, then try D selecting a whole object, then resecting it and to 0 in the x size and hit Enter or apply. Now that cut is perfectly upright. As I said, we could have saved ourselves all that trouble with edge distance mode, but using the coordinates manager is a good technique to have in your tool kit. Let's make another cut about as wide as the crease on the reference. Now we can make to further cuts simultaneously by checking this symmetrical cut option in the luca tool. If I place the tool between the two new cuts, now I get a preview of these twin cuts. I can even click to place them. Then enter a precise percentage distance from the existing cuts, depending on which side you started the CO2 from about 10% or 90% away, should be fine. Next, in bottom view, switched to the Move tool shortcut, ehh. Zoom in. Select the topmost polygon of this new row we just created. Using the 1K to pan and the two key to zoom. Navigate to the bottom most one, and holding Shift Control, click on that one to select the complete row of polygons. Then making sure no selection tags are active. Save that selection. I'll call it crease bottom. It's good practice to then de-select the selection tag back in perspective. And with our reference open, let's nudge those polygons up to create the crease. Now back in bottom view, use rectangles, select, uncheck tolerance selection, and make sure only select visible is checked. And select the entire crease. Now select the crease bottom tag and deselect those polygons. Click off the object to de-select the selection tag, then reselect the object, set a new selection, and call it crease sides. Now if we need, we can control the width and depth of this crease really easily. 10. Creating Materials: We're about to start getting a few components soon. So let's make it easier for us to see what we're working with by applying some simple materials. Double-click down in the materials manager to create a new material. Double-click the icon to edit it, and let's call it cover. Now, we're working to this very flat illustration style, which doesn't have any reflections in it. So let's get rid of reflectance, as cinema calls it. Click on color and make sure there's little chevron IS 12 down. Now, zoom in on the reference to get a good view of this orange color and selected using the ink dropper. Now Control or Command drag the material to duplicate it. And the Material Editor will update to this new one, rename it to pages, and again, select the paper color from the reference. Now you can simply drag each material onto the relevant objects in the viewport or in the object manager. And it'll be applied. 11. Magnet Tool: Let's move on to modelling this grassy hill. Solo the pages and in top view, select all but the outer ring of polygons. Then again, making sure create gaps is unchecked. Use the extrude tool to reassess them as in the reference, that selection should remain Live, which is handy as once again, we'll use an existing selection to create a new object using the split command. Once again, let's call this grass. Whilst we're about it, we might as well make a material for it. Now this grass here obviously has an organic looking slope to it and we can use something called the magnet tool, which has a similar function to soft selection to achieve that. The shortcut for that is MI, Like the live Selection Tool, middle mouse drag left, right to change its size. And you can also drag up down to change its strength. Again, as with soft selection, here is our fall off spline. Its influence in this case is strongest here in the center of the tool, falling off gradually towards this radius value. We only really want to affect the y-axis now. So let's switch the x and z off of here. Now in point mode, let's work in broad strokes to push and pull are vertices around to look more like the picture. So let's have a nice big brush for this. Back at the top left, it climbs almost to the level of the pages and then drops away a little, just a few centimeters. And once you're done, you forget to turn the x and z axes back on. 12. Introduction To Lighting: In order to get a render, which is essentially a photograph of our scene, we're going to need to light it. Let's get into the habit now of using an interactive render region to be able to monitor how our edits will affect the render. Out will bring up this region here, which you can move about by grabbing aside, resize with handles, or adjust the resolution with this little triangle. You can just see on the right here, you don't see anything in this region. It could be that you don't have a default light enabled, which would cause something to render even if you haven't set a buddy lights. Use Control B to open your Render Settings. And under options, look for default light. You can see how this affects the render as I switch it on and off. As soon as you add a light of your own into the scene though, cinema world disregard the default one. At the top of the screen you'll see this little light bulb icon here. Click and hold to unfold that palette. This here, there's an Omni light, which is just a point which spills out light in all directions. If I click on that, our scene goes dog because a new light has been created, but it's inside our book in the center of the scene. Notice that toggling the default light no longer effects the scene. If I move the Omni light up. Now you can see that it's starting to cast some light onto our geometry. It'll take some experimentation to figure out where to put it. I'm just going to type in some valleys which I worked out earlier on for this, I'm going to put 210 into the x tab down 0 on the y, and minus 250 along the z-axis. I'll add another light in the scene. Again, we'll go back up into this light menu here and choose infinite light. Basically this simulates light from the sun, which as far as we're concerned, being about 93 million miles away. The rays which hit us from it are pretty much parallel because of this, an interesting thing about the Infinite Light is that the only control you need is the rotation control. I'll hit Alt to come out of interactive render. And now if I press R to go into rotation mode, you'll see in the viewport that the direction this light is shining is indicated by this white line. And the lights and the shadows on our book, or changing according to its rotation, even though this light is located inside the book, you'd get the same result. In fact, no matter where in the scene there's infinite light might be. The critical part is its rotation. I'll reset the PSR for the moment. Ok, once again, I've got some pre worked out values which I am going to put in to the rotation field here. And output minus 12 on the H, minus 50 on the p, and minus ten on the B. Ok, so if I disable the Infinite Light, you'll see quite a difference there. And this is the infinite light alone. And you can see that in combination, they are illuminating the scene and casting shadows. But the shadows are brighter and a little bit not so extreme. 13. Cloner Part 01: It's time to make these trees here. Obviously, these trees are heavily stylized as simple cone shapes. So let's once again use a primitive. This cone shape. We can see that aside from being too large, the proportions of this co-owner bit off. Let's scale it down first. Under the cones object tab. Let's adjust the bottom radius here. Bring it down to make a taller, narrower aspect cone. Now what we're going to do is make a whole series of copies of this using something called cloners. This tool is found under the thermograph menu here, monograph cloner. If we drag this clone underneath the cloner, you can see that some copies have been made. Let's look at some of the parameters underneath this cloner object. Here. Under object, we have mode. We don't want linear. We want them to be spread across a surface like this. We'll use object mode and we have a field here waiting for an object, which in our case will be this grass here. Click and drag it straight down into there. And then let's take a look at this. Obviously the alignment of these is off uncheck align clone will now the uprise at least, but they're not sitting correctly on this surface and they're not distributed across it in a way that we would like. And also they're all the same size. But these are all things that we're going to fix in the next lesson. 14. Cloner Part 02: Let's sort out the positioning of these trees. I'll 0 the transforms on this cloner. We want the trees sitting on this grass, which means we need that pivots at the bottom. Now, really we could just make this cone editable and then position its pivot wherever we wanted. But what if you needed to keep this object parametric for some reason? Here's a workaround. Select the grass and the cloner and select solo hierarchy. Switch off the cloner and go into right view. If I select the tree and hit all G, it'll group it under a null or empty object. Press P to bring up your snapping menu. Click the node bar at the top to pop the menu out. And able snap and select edge snap. Now, holding the seven key, you can move the null without affecting the tree. If I don't hold seven, moving the needle, moves the tree since it's a child of the null, snap it to the bottom of the cone. Now when we turn the clarinet back on, it uses the coordinates of the null to position the clones rather than the tree. Drag the clone back out to see it bought back again. The simplest way of creating some variation among these clones would be to first make multiple copies of the cone in different colors and sizes and then clone them. Let's say we've got three types. We've got these tall ones, medium-sized ones, and these little ones for the moment, let's just switch this closure off. Our control. Drag this node tree a couple of times to copy it. Make sure they stay underneath the cloner. If I select them all, I can fill out the name ones to rename them, null underscore, tree underscore. Then I'll just give them each a suffix. Tall, medium, small. Let's look again at the reference image and make our trees match our drag them a part of it so I can compare them. All, go into the controls of each to get them looking about the right size. Now I need to reset their transforms because I drag them out so I could look at each one separately. So select the tree Knowles and use the reset PSR button. Okay, now I need to reposition the Knowles relative to the cones. So use the solo single button for each tree groups I select the null and the tree or cone. And holding seven, move each null to the bottom of its corresponding tree. 15. Cloner Part 03: Next let's put the material on our trees. I'll use this grass material as a starting point. So Control or Command drag that a few times to make three new materials. Let's give them names to correspond to the object's. Next, I'll just choose a color for each. And I've decided that the biggest trees are the oldest and darkest. So I'll pick this color around here. Same procedure again for the other materials. Now on apply each to its respective tree. Now let us see what these look like in a cloner. Under its object attributes, we have a cloner mode set by default to iterate. In computer speak, iterate means go through a list and once you reach the end of the list, go back to the beginning and start again. That's exactly what's our cloner is doing with this list of trees here is cycling through over and over. So we get more or less an even distribution of all the different tree types. Next, we've got this distribution field by default, set to surface and account here set to 20. We could try ramping it up and changing this seed value, which gives us different random distributions of our trees. Above the seed, we have this selection field which can accept a selection tags such as we made earlier. This could be useful to use because we can see in the reference image that there are no clones in the center of the grass. They're all in the corners. So we could paint a selection of polygons to match that a bit better and only have clones there. Looking at our grass geometry though, we're going to end up with quite a blocky selection set because these polygons are relatively large. Select the grass, go into Polygon mode. Right-click, scroll to sub-divide, unclick this cog here to open the options. One subdivision will cut each side of each polygon in half. So we'll get four times as many polygons. That still looks a little blocky to me. So let's undo sub-divided again. This time, three times. Hit nine for the live Select Tool and try to paint a selection that more or less matches the placement of these trees. Holding shift is a good idea. That'll let you keep adding to the selection. Then set selection. Let's call it trees on solo, and drag that new tag into the cloners selection field. Now we can try using the random seed and the count to match our reference a bit better. 16. Cloner Part 04: You'll have noticed that it's next to impossible to get the trees exactly as they are in the reference. And to be honest, there are so few of them in this image that we could just as easily copy them across this surface by hand, placing them precisely where we want. I've used the cloning here simply to demonstrate its basic function. Nevertheless, we could go a step further by making three separate cloners, one for each size tree, each with its own selection sets. And that would enable us to get closer to the reference. For the purposes of this tutorial though, we'll stick with the one cloner. I think I'll just edit this selection set because my clones are overlapping with the pages of it. Let's copy this tag for safekeeping and rename it trees underscore one. I'll drag that new selection sets into the cloners selection field. You can double-click the tag to select it in the viewport. Then our use rectangle, selection and holding control to de-select the outer polygons edge by edge. When I now click set selection, that new data will be piped to the cloner and it'll update accordingly. 17. Camera Setup: Let's now reveal the whole model. I'll double-click these traffic lights on the cover. And we now have these trees poking through. But we're going to rotate the cover to imitate the reference. Before we can do that though, we'll have to finish the job we started earlier and separate the front cover geometry. Hover over these selection tags on the cover and find the front cover one, we made double-click to select it. Right-click in the viewport. Scroll to split. Now if I solo that new cover dot one object, you'll see we've got just the front cover here. Renamed the object. I'll just copy and paste the selection tag name. Actually these tags are no longer relevant, so I'll delete them. Using this automatic viewport solo selections, which I can speedily focus on just the objects I want. Let's edit the original cover object now because all we have done by doing the split is made a copy of part of it, which means that we now have duplicate front cover geometry. Let's again double-click the old front cover selection tag. And hovering over the viewport away from the object manager. Just hit delete to remove that part. Now to position this new front cover correctly, I'll first need to adjust the axis so it will rotate about the correct point. Press l or click this enable access tool on the left. Now when we use the e or move tool will only move the axis. I'll switch through the orthographic views in this right-hand viewport. So how many place it exactly where I want it? Use the 12 keys to navigate to your model. In top view. Press p to open your snapping menu. In my case, I have vertex, edge and polygon snap birds all enabled. So I can easily click the axis over to this left edge. In front view, I'll snap the axis to the bottom left corner of the front cover here. That way we can emulate the way a real cover would open. Hit L to come out of axis editing, then R to rotate, then swing it open. You can also nudges position, make it more natural. And I'll jump back into top view here on the right. Now let's try and match this camera angle in reference to me, it seems that this image was made almost in an isometric style, which isn't the way our eyes or most cameras see the world. I'll use the spline Pen tool to demonstrate. If we project lines from these edges, we can see they are only barely off parallel. This is similar to the effect that along camera focal length would have a short camera focal length would be tending towards a fisheye effect. Now bear in mind that this image could easily have been created in a 2D package. The artist may have setup this perspective by I so we can only approximate it. Grab a camera by clicking once on this palette. And if we click this little crosshair next to the camera in the object manager will now be looking through that camera. Under the camera object tab, you can change the focal length. If I set it to something like a 100 millimetres, just as would happen with a real camera, we'll zoom in, use your 123 keys to try and frame your image in more or less the same way as the reference. And now we can also use a no object to act as a kind of remote pivot, which will give us a handy way of controlling the camera. So bringing in and know it will come in at World Center, just as our original cube did when we began creating the book. So it'll be centered in the same way as the book. Now, parent the camera to it by dragging it under the null. And now we have a really easy way of adjusting our camera using a gizmo in the viewport. Perhaps a 100 is a little too long focal length. Let see how 80 millimeters logs to key to Dolly in. I think switching the aspect ratio to look more like this portrait format would be helpful too. Let's go into our Render Settings, Control B and the output. Click on this triangle drop-down. And let's have a look under this print portrayed menu. A4 is likely a good place to start. That gives us a lot more space to work with. 18. Knife Tool Plane Cut: I can see that the grass geometry is looking a bit faceted. So we'll need to sort that out. As you can see if I press a and B to go into Euro shading lines mode. Because we subdivided earlier, we've got heaps of geometry here, so we're no longer limited by a small number of policies. This faceting is just a result of when I initially roughed out the contours of the hill back before we subdivided. Just use one of the modelling tools to clean this up quite easily. Recall that you've got access to various layouts up in this menu at top right. I'm after the modelling one, which I've customized to fit in this screen cast. So with the grass selected, switched to point or poly mode. And down at the bottom here, select brush. The controls for strength are agile. Expect middle mouse left, right for size, and up-down for strength. You need to ensure that mode is set to smooth. Now simply brush over the grass to get rid of those visible edges. It might be helpful to get the interactive render region going out are the shortcut, of course. So earlier we established a basic lighting setup. Now let's look more carefully at the reference image and try to match it more closely. First, to clarify what's really going on lighting wise, let's match the material on this inside book cover to the reference. We need a new selection set for the inside cover. You can see that it comes right down on the inside cover, all the way down to the page material. And that's what we're going to recreate now. So let's drop into right view over here and maximize this. And see or quick shading mode could help us see what's happening here better. We need a rectangular selection that comes right down to the level of the pages object, as I said. And at the moment, geometry won't let us do that. We've got this outer perimeter here. And then we've got this nice rectangle inside there. And you can see that the outer perimeter is formed with these sort of 45-degree angle joints from when we extruded. So we're going to have to modify our geometry a bit. Let's once again use the knife tool k, the shortcut. If we just tap k, we'll see our options there. This time we're going to make a couple of dead straight loop cuts. I'll use the k, j shortcut to make a plane cut. Set mode to cut all set plain mode to camera, and set the plane to Y Zed to match the view here. Zoom right in and make a plane cut at each end of the front cover. Just inside that perimeter there. Almost level with the page's object. Next back in object mode, use the Move tool and just nudge the cover so that one of the new cuts is dead level with the page's object. Switch off the X and Y axes to restrict the movement to the zed axis. Back in Pali mode. At the other end of the cover, again, use rectangles, select with tolerant selection, unchecked, and grab these n polygons and shift them so that the new cut is level with the pages. Again. Hit p to open the snapping options. And remember, of course, if you want to keep this menu open, you've got this textured bar at the top which you can click and it will just stay in the viewport for you. Enable edge snap, guide, snap and dynamic guide. Now in edge mode, again, use rectangle select to select just the end edges. Hover over the edge of the main cover object until the little blue target appears. If you can't get the dynamic snapping working for you, it could be to do with this vertex option here. Now that I've got vertex snapping also enabled, you can see those little targets that I was talking about starting to appear and then just shift the outer edge level with that and it should snap. And now repeat that at the other end of the cover. If you can't get the dynamics networking, don't worry too much. You can do this by i. Finally, we can go into poly mode and use rectangle select with tolerance election, and only select visible elements checked to select all except the outermost polygons at the top and sides of the inside cover. Save that selection, say as paper, tax. Right-click on the pages material and select, Apply. 19. Lighting Part 02: Ok, let's get on with the lighting. Let's rename this Omni light to light fill. Because that's going to help fill any overly shadowy areas caused by the Infinite Light. And the Infinite Light we'll use as our main light source. So I'll rename that to light mane. And for now, switch light fill off. Enable interactive render. And under the light main attributes check the shadow tab. By default, it's set to none. Let's try ray traced hard. That gives us a really harsh black shadow which might not be suitable for this kind of image. We could try shadow maps soft instead, much less harsh. You'll remember that the infinite light can be put anywhere in this scene is the rotation that counts. If we hit W or this toggle to switch to local coordinates mode. And look closely at the rotation gizmo, which I can scale up under my shift V Bu settings. Under View, axes scale. I'll increase that to say 200%. And you can clearly see a small set of lines which represent the local axes of the object. Notice that the blue z axis is pointing in the same direction as the light's direction gizmo, that can be helpful, especially when we've got interactive render going on to help us or to remind us where the light is pointing. Instead of before D, the critical axis is usually the local zed, more blue axis, meaning that's the direction along which an object acts. Certain lights shine along zed reformers affect geometry along the z-axis and so forth. On the subject of axes, a good thing to check routine, this enable access switch is off. That can save you many minutes or frustration as you vainly try to move an object around, only for it to happily sit still. Now let's give this lighting setup another pass to try and get it closer to the reference. Bear in mind that this image could have been put together in a 2D package. So all the shadows may be the result of creative decisions rather than a realistic 3D lighting setup. So you may have to do some cheating here. That's help ourselves by selecting window, New View Panel to keep things tardy. Let's grab these pilot lines and drop them onto the am ones. Now this could come in handy. So I think I'll save this layout. I'll swap back to the AM here before I do go to window customization, save layout as, and save over. Then over here on the left, with the interactive window running, we can keep tabs on how our edits are affecting the Render. Let's select light main. Toggle back to world coordinates, re-enable these axes if they're still switched off and drag the light up so we can see it better. Back over in the new viewport, hit this button or type shift c, and search for set active object as camera, which will enable us to see the lights point of view. Now just control the light mane by navigating around in this new viewport, thus adjusting lighting. Whilst we're about it. If you don't have this camera element in your heads-up display, that's also enabled under the shift V view options under the hood camera. So now you can quickly toggle between cameras washed you still in the viewport savior layer. Again, if you want to keep this behavior. Now let's see how these lights work with the character. Let's drop a placeholder in just some simple geometry to approximate where she is. 20. Lighting Part 03: We now have a place holder for the character, so we can start fine tuning the shadow she'll cast. I'll switch back to ray traced hard on this infinite light to get a clear idea of the direction those shadows are going in. Her shadow is much longer than the one from the wall here. So I think we can safely say the lighting and the reference definitely has some artistic license to it. If I get the characters shadow looking right, well then that throws out the other shadows. And this is where the cheating comes in. To start, we can use the fill light to lighten the shadows. Now this is already a bit of a cheat because by default, shadows are set to none, which in the real world doesn't happen. We can also soften the light main shadows even further by changing their color as pick a mid gray here. Now that may be too light. We could balance that by turning the shadow density backup. I can also set light mane to only like the character. So then we won't get any of these other shadows around her. Go to Project set to include. At the moment, that means this is not lighting anything. Track the place holder geometry n. And we'll also need a grass she's standing on. Now we can focus on getting just this shadow right. Earlier we adjusted the density, but I think this shadow is quite sharp and dark, so let's turn it back up to a 100%. We can also adjust the softness of the shadow using this sample radius. Setting, a lower value will sharpen it up. We can do some simple scripting directly in cinemas. Value boxes are just half this value. Divide by two. Right now will need an additional light for the rest of the scene. So control dragged light main, switch its projects setting to exclude and remove these objects. So it's now lighting the whole scene. Rename light mane to light character. This new light can be light mane instead. Now we have this large shadow being cast by the front cover, which we don't have in the dissenters image. So let's exclude that. We can also see that all Shadows except the characters are quite diffuse. So we'll need to soften them using the sample radius again, if you right-click on these little arrows to the right of any value field, it should reset to the default value, which in this case is three. These shadows are also far shorter in the reference. So we'll make the light shine down from a steeper angle two. Next thing to address is this double shadow here by the character. We can again use the project settings to exclude the placeholder, which gets rid of the extra shadow whilst reducing the lighting on the character. Now will have to lighten up these very black shadows on the front cover and this right-hand side of the pages. Over here in top view, we can see that light fill is actually almost in line with the cover. So it's not really casting any light on it and it's on the wrong side of these page edges, so they're just in complete darkness, really simply moving it right. We'll make a big difference. In my project. I can also see a harsh chiaroscuro here on the cover. It goes light and then immediately dark here. It's also LET quite differently in the reference, this protruding part is dimly lit from above, but brighter on the vertical edges. So let's exclude this from light mane to I think we're getting reasonably close now. But we can really helped to bed This lighting in with an effect known as ambient occlusion. This mimics the tendency in the real world for shadows to pool in creases or depressions and between objects in close proximity to each other. Control B, to get Render Settings open. And halfway down on the left click effect, ambient occlusion. As you'll see immediately that the render gets a pleasing dose of realism. A layer of extra shading as applied, particularly to these inner walls and around these trees. Now what's apparent is that the lighting on the grass is quite bright. I'll daily intensity of light character down. Of course, that's also lighting the grass, let's say 80%. Next I'll dark and that shadow a little to check its density is a 100% and the color is back to the default black. I think I'll warn the lighting up overall to select all the lights. Go to the general tab at some orange in here, around a hue of 45 degrees. Let's say about 5% to start with, maybe 3%. Finally, I'll try an add just a little more lights are these page edges by duplicating light-filled and moving it closer to this side. That needs dialing down, of course, is far too bright. Let's say 50%. Okay, I think that's affecting the inner wall on the left there too much. So let's get into some more fine grain control. Under the Details tab of this new light. Fall off is currently set to none. So this light's intensity doesn't diminish with distance. Let's try a more realistic fall off. Inverse square. We can set the maximum radius here too. And in this way, half the light illuminate this outer edge, but not this in a wall. We have these dots in the viewport also handy for controlling this. 21. Textures With Alpha: So far we've been dealing with placeholder geometry to represent our lady as she is such a small element in this scene, I've decided the most efficient way to make this just as a 2D image with transparency, I can then create a new material using that image. And cinema will recognize the transparency or alpha channel. So I will be able to use it to cast a convincing shadow in our scene. As this is a cinema 4D tutorial, I've just made a quick time-lapse of me putting the image together in Adobe Illustrator and then exported the image as a PNG with alpha. Let's take a moment to check the dimensions of our image. And we're going to need to give that information to cinema shortly, 706 by 23 to eight. Now back in cinema, I'll create a simple plane and use the transfer tool, shift. See transfer. If it's not in your layout to place that plane in the same position as our cylinder, I can drag and drop the reference object, our cylinder into this field and hit apply. I'll need to change the orientation of the plane. Once again, those dimensions were 706 by 23 to eight. So I'll plug those values into the dimensions of our new plane. And you can see that's huge. So I'll scale it down. Double-click in the material managers, you create a new one. We'll call it Lady alpha. And in the Color channel, click on this three dots file path button, and navigate to the PNG in question. No need to make a duplicate of this image at the moment. So no to that. As you can see, she's got a white surround. So let's copy the image from the Color channel to the alpha channel. Just drag this nail onto the alpha channel heading, then drop it on the little down arrow and release. In the case of a transparent PNG cinema, is going to automatically find and use the alpha channel whilst we're at it. Let's uncheck reflectance once again. And of course, we'll need to switch the alpha channel on. And you can now see the whitespace around her has gone homos there, but she's upside down. So we can simply flip the geometry. Holding shift as I twist enables incremental snapping. So you can accurately flip this through a 180 degrees. 22. Ambient Occlusion Settings: Let's rename the plane to Lady. I think she's looking a bit flat here, so I'll rotator towards the camera a little. Perhaps she's a tiny bit big T2. Before we continue, we'll need to update the project settings in our lights because they're still referring to the place holder geometry. Remove it from the light character inclusion field and drag the lady in instead. With light mane, the process is the same but with the exclusion field. Of course. You may have noticed that there's still some kind of unwanted shadow around the ladies feat and an odd-looking gap where the shadow disappears. This is being caused by the ambient occlusion effect in our Render Settings, Control B, which isn't recognizing the alpha channel on the lady. We can check this, evaluate transparency box, which should solve that problem. But you may decide this being a very clean, flat image, that the character doesn't need a job at all. We can control a o on a per object basis using what's called a compositing tag. Right-click on the lady. Go to Render tags. Compositing tag. In the tag uncheck seen by A0. Now it's much clearer what's happening here shadow wise. In our extra viewport, let's once again look through light character. In my case, you can see I'm almost parallel with the character, so hardly any shadow will be cast by it. This could be another instance where using a null could really help us control the image. A quick way to bring in a null at the same location as an existing object is to use the convert to nulls to select the lady and apply the tool. We now have a NOAEL in exactly the same position as the lady. I'll rename it. No light character. Solo, both it and the lady. And drop into front view so you can see what you're doing. Drag the PNL down to the ladies feat. Now I'll reset the rotation on that null and parent the light character to it. Reset the PSR as the light itself. This just makes any transforms that we are going to make much cleaner. Make sure the lights locals that axis is directly facing the character. Then drag it back in the zed away from its parent. Now as before with the camera, I can use the null to get quiet fine-tuned control over my lights rotation. In the default camera now with interactive renders switched off. And in Girl lines view, if I zoom in, I can see one of her feet is off the ground. This is one of the limitations of her being a 2D character in a 3D world, there's a limit to how well I can make a fit as one foot touches the ground, the other is still a bullet. Obviously, if we don't make both of her legs touch the grass will see a gap between them and their shadow. One way around the problem could be to make the mountain come to Muhammad as it were, and move the grassy hill so that it meets her feet being very flat colors. And because we're not making an animation, we've got a lot of leeway here so that the grass go into point mode. Select the magnet tool and I keep the brush quite broad. So low your y-axis. And simply pull the ground up to meet her feet. If you spots unwanted shadows in the interactive render, just switched to the brush tool MC and smooth the area out. 23. Spline Modelling: At this point, just to warn you, the look of the projects we've been working on. And cinemas interface will change a little. That's because this course was put together in several stages. And so multiple recordings were made on a couple of different machines with a couple of different versions of cinema. As what you've learned so far is unaffected by the few cosmetic differences you may notice. I've decided not to rerecord some of the following sections. Let's make this stream or bookmark. For this, we'll use a new modelling technique using nerves or splines, which are just vector paths, such as you'd see in Adobe Illustrator. From the spline menu, grab the pen tool, and let's solo the grass and look down from top view F2, the shortcut. Actually, let's show the cloner to as it'll help guide us. Select it as well. And then solo both cloner and grass in the viewport. Now select the Pen tool again and try and replicate the curve of the stream. It goes off the top of the page in this direction. So just like in Photoshop, click and drag to pull out tangents and make a curve. And f, four hidden line display. So I can see this blind better. Go beyond the edge of the paper and make the forked and the bookmark. And then I'll make my way back up to the top, keeping more or less parallel. Then just click on the first to finish. Now you can see in this view port that the spline is disappearing through the grass. But we need it to conform to its contours. The grass is subdivided into these small rectangles, but our spline is much less subdivided. So at the moment, it'll be tricky to bend it to fit the hill. So what we can do is subdivide this section of our spline. If we were to subdivide the whole thing, right-click sub-divide. We won't get the most points where we need them. This top area where there were more points in the first place. Well, that gets points that we don't particularly need. So let's select only these points and sub-divide again, shortcut nine key for life, select left bracket to shrink the radius of the live select tool. And I'll control, de-select these points. Once again, subdivide to demonstrate the options under this sub-divide tool. I've been clicking this little cog here, but it's not necessary that just enables you to add more or less subdivisions as you wish. We're going to need more points here. And let's check how this looks in top view. And H for wireframe. Right? I think we should subdivide these points. Again, us, the short-cut, I'll just solo the grass and spline without the cloner now. And here's where we make the spline conformed to the shape of the grass. With the point selected, right-click and select project. What this will do is look for a surface to sort of stick the points to a number of options under the tool attributes. We'll leave it set to view and hit Apply. Now, any points with geometry beneath them from this point of view will be placed onto it. Seen from top view you can see that these points didn't have any geometry beneath. So they've stayed where they were. So we can just grab these, switch off x and y transforms and pull them down. Same with these. Now, the waterfall and needs attention. Let's take a look at it in context. So unhide the rest. Obviously the water plunges vertically here, so we're going to need to rotate these points through about 90 degrees. I also think they're looking a bit low down on the page is compared with the reference image. They need rotating downwards. So press l or select Enable axis and drag the axes back more or less level with the edge of the book. This is where we're going to pivot from. Press elegant to come out of access mode, then rotate the points down. The need to come forwards a touch. And and we can see it's much longer in the reference image and closer to the pages. Once again, L for access to adjust the pivot of these points and rotate them inwards. I think I'll move them out just a touch. Then I can grab these points and move them down was to stretch the bookmark a little. We can alter the zoom and position on this camera to see what we're doing more. They're looking about, right? 24. Extrude NURBS: We knew that with the setup for this bookmark or stream. These points obviously needs sorting out. And looking at how a href, the slope doesn't appear to be as steep as I've made it either. But looking at the waterfall part, that's at about the right level against the pages. So we'll need to go back in and alter our grass geometry. So select the grass. And for this operation, I think I'll use soft selection to pull some points on mass 0 for rectangle select and enable soft selection. And at the moment we've still got that curve setting. So it'll behave strangely. Right? So this maximum selected value here is at a distance of one times the radius setting, which in our case is 99 centimeters away from where we actually made our selection. If we change this back to the default linear setting. Now when we select the bottom row of points, we get a self-selection. There's more useful to us. Let's see this in the 3D view. Just raise these vertices. Now let's compare this with the reference image. It looks round about the right height against the back wall of the pages. Quick interactive render thing that's looking fine. Now, let's rename this spline does something a bit more useful and I'll call it spline underscores dream. Okay, now we're gonna make some geometry out of this. So with the spline selected, hold Alt and click and hold this little green cube icon to fold out the menu. And so that extrude. This will then become a parent of the spline and create some geometry. Now as you can see, it's way too thick here. And there's this gas, Dennis, because I haven't neaten up those points yet. But you can see the direction in which this Extrude is working, namely along this z axis, I'll switch off the extrude for the moment so we can see what's happening. Then I'll just project the points again onto the grass which we just edited. Right-click, stroll to project. And over in the tool attributes, we're in view mode, which will project this from this top view again. Hit apply. And you'll see the points have jumped to the surface again. I'll switch the extrude back on. And we still need to sort out this Extrude direction, which we get to under its object settings. Let's change this zed value to 0. Whilst that's looking better, it's still intersecting with the surface of the grass here. So I think the simplest way to fix that is just to give it a little nudge upwards. Now, this stream or bookmark needs and material. Again, double-click on the material manager. Rename the new material stream, will switch off reflectance again. And then the Color channel again. Use the color picker to select from our REF. Drag it onto the extrude. Let's have a look next to the reference image. Alt for interactive render. Okay, not bad. You can see that the light setup is even creating that little highlights on the waterfall at the top. 25. Extrude Inner: Now let's try making this slit here. For this, we'll use a modelling tool. We've not tried yet, the inset or extrude inner tool. Let's look at the reference. The slit comes to about two columns width of either edge on my model. And it's about three rows of policies from the top. Let's now switch to front view. The extrude enter tool uses polygon selections. So let's switch into Polygon mode. Make a selection about where the sludge is going to be. Then use the shortcut i to switch to the, to. The critical setting here is preserved groups. I want to make a narrow row of polygons here, which I'll then remodel and turn into the slit with preserved groups unchecked. If I drag in the viewport, I get all these inset rectangles which won't be of much use for a single continuous sled. Now, if I check preserve groups, I can see the start of something useful. If you find that some of the insects are separating, then increase this maximum angle setting. Save that selection. Let's go into Edge mode. And one by one, select these new edges. And up the coordinates manager and bring it close to where you're working. It'll be simplest, wet with these edges if they are all vertical. So let's make sure they measure 0 on the x-axis. Use Alt D to toggle your axes off if they're getting in the way. Next, select the bottom row of new points. Now again, use the magnet tool to move the outer points towards the top row of new points. I want a nice gentle fall off here to try to mimic the subtle curve of the slit. Under mode. Select spline, right-click on this planning graph and select cubic. That looks good, but it's the wrong way around. We want maximum influence here where the cursor is. So right-click, flip horizontal. Now solar the Y-axis. And with a very large brush that stretches a bit beyond the halfway point here. Start at either end of the point selection and nudge the vertices upwards until the ends, almost sharp points. Let's check the tau new topology isn't messing up the render old r. Now we could make a quick test materials to see how that slit shape is working. In my case, I think that's a little narrow. I'll keep my render going and open my extra viewport to tweak it a little. Now that I'm happy with that profile, I'll remove that test material and extrude this late inwards. In the reference, we can see similar slaves on the right-hand page edges. And we tackle those in much the same way. 26. Modelling Kite And String: So the next thing to move onto is making this lady's kite. Looking from side view. If I select the lady, she'll show up in this Hidden Line Display. And I know that the kite string is coming forwards in this direction. So once again, grab the spline Pen tool from in the spline menu. And let's just start by making a curve and hit escape. When you've finished. Let's compare it to the reference image. So I think I've come to far forwards with this kite string. I don't think I should come beyond the edge of the book. Also looking from front view, I can see I'm far too far away from this book cover, so I'll move it to the left and rename that to spline kite string. Next it's time to make the kite. And for this, I'll just use a simple plane. I can simplify the geometry, get rid of those subdivisions. And obviously it needs to be much smaller. Drag it into viewport to more or less where the end of that string is going to talk for you will help. Obviously, it's a diamond shape rather than a square. And we have the shading on the reference there. So I think we need to put a little bit of extra geometry into this plane. Will subdivide it diagonally. I'll use the knife tool for this. Open it in the commander or kk, the shortcut. And I'll drag from one corner right the way diagonally across to the other. You'll see a preview of the cut. And click. Then hit enter. When you're happy with the position of it. I can then select this central vertex. Of course, a kite is never flat as how it flies. So I'll raise that up a bit and we'll get this slight pyramid shape. Now, I'm going to once again use soft selection to reshape this kite maker longer back part of the diamond shape. I think I'll scale these points down a bit. That's look once again at the reference. It's tilted a little bit towards us, towards our point of view. So rotated accordingly something along these lines. Let's take a look. Now. We need to get this kite string to show up. Splines by themselves don't render. So I think for this we'll use another nerves technique, this time a sweep. I also rename that to kite. And now for the sweep again, hold Alt to parent the kite strings blind to it. Now the sweep needs at least two splines, the contour or cross section and the path, in this case, our Kite string, along which that contour is swept to produce a 3D shape. For the Congo, we could select, say, a circles blind to sweep along the string. By default, it's massive. So we'll reduce sat right down to say one centimeter. Then drag that to immediately under the sweep. Straightaway, we have this Geometry appearing in the viewport. It's still wasting thick. Let's shrink that. Let's say not 0.1. Much better. Now of course, that needs a material of its own. We'll call it string and drag to apply it to our sweep. That's only just showing up. So let's edit this material. Once again, reflection off. And I think the simplest way of making it show up in this very flat render is to use luminance, which tends the material into a sort of light source. Switch that on and presto, it pops much more in the interactive render, right? Let's try and get this string to look like the lady is actually holding it. In point mode. Let's get vertex pushing. So top you will help here. Let's check it against the reference. Looks fine. Now let's add a material to the kite itself. Perhaps this cover material will work for this that's looking totally flat. And the moment, we need to get much more shading on this lower right quarter. Rather than messing about ad knows Yam with lights, et cetera, or make a new material control drag this cover material to copy it. I'll rename it Kite dark. And in the color channel, I'll simply pick the darker orange from the reference. Now we only want to apply this to this triangle here. So we'll set the selection for that. Select the kite and his O for object framing. We just need these policies here. So in polygon merge so that these two triangles. Then I'll right-click on the material and click Apply. That's just a quick way of making a selection set and applying the material to it in one go. We could rename this selection tag to match. Let's check the Render. It's not showing up particularly well. I'll disable this main material. My habit is to insert dollar into its selection field. You'll see that kite turn gray and the render. Now, the reason this kite dark material wasn't showing up is that the selection tag name under the material tag has not updated to match our renamed selection tag. You'll recall I renamed this one to match the kite dark material. If I now drag that selections that into their selection field, it'll work. And of course, I'll need to get rid of that dollar from our main material tag. I think that's a bit too dark. So I'll adjust that a bit and turn the string back on. 27. Spline Modelling Continued: No cake would be complete without its tail. So let's move on to making that. Now. This is where you could get into customizing this image if you want it. Because we're going to use a once again and nerves or a spline technique. You could write a message. Under the spline tools, we've got a number of options. We've got this spline sketch to, you can be quite free form with that. Quite naturalistic, almost like drawing with a pen. So you could just make the tail of this kite into a message for somebody. The only thing is though, that it's very hard to tell where you are in 3D space when you're just using this tool free form like this. So we'll set up a guide. So I'll bring in a plane and position it where I want the tail of a to B. Size it accordingly. And I think I'll rotate it backwards a little bit here. We don't know yet how this is going to turn out. And now we'll use the now familiar project tool to project from this view onto that plane, which we just brought in. Looking at the 3D view port. Now you can see that that's done what I wanted. And now as a question of nudging these points backwards and forwards just to make them not all in the same planes. They are behaving more like a Taylor kites tail in space, being blown around, looping around. From our render perspective that shapes still make sense. Once again, we'll use our sweep to this time for a profile or a contour will use a square. Once again comes in huge, that's reduced it write down one centimeter by two. And we'll drag both of those blinds underneath our sweep. Let's take a closer look. We could go even thinner. So it's much more two-dimensional, perhaps a bit wider as well. And it's just move that first so that it meets up with the back of the kite. We can get an EHR and edit this blind point as well. Perhaps enable snapping and snap it to that corner vertex on the kite, like so. Just grabbing the handle there to alter the curve and using the spline Pen tool to tweak that point there. That's just took that underneath the kite and zoom right in. Okay, I'm happy with that. And of course it needs a material, so I'll just drag this familiar orange cover material onto that sweep. And obviously I've made a custom job here, nothing like the illustration. If you want, please feel free to copy verbatim as it were. But that'll do for me. 28. Controlling Shadows: Let's have a crack at making this floor. I'll drop in a plane and drag it down onto the book. Scale it up so it fills the screen. So there's a shadow. Alright? But we've got these details. We don't want. Also, this flow needs a material with round about the same color as this bookmark. So we can just control drag to duplicate this stream material. Drag it onto the floor. Now you can see that this shadow has this very clean stylized edge on like ours, which has things like a kite maybe, and the bookmark breaking up that edge. If we take a look at the details of our lights by doing a search, Control F, or click the magnifying glass if the search field isn't open. Type light. And is we'll home in on our lice. Then again, under the Project tab, we'll see they're not excluding anything. Escape or click the X in the search box to come out of that, I drag the flow into that exclusion. Of course, it disappears, will bring in a new light just for the floor. Let's use another infinite light. It's parallel rays will stop this shadow from spreading out. It comes in, of course, pointing down the zed axis. So it's blowing out this end of the book and missing the floor completely because it's parallel with it. If I rotate it through 90 degrees so it points straight down, it lights the floor, but it's spoiled, the book lighting. So once again, project tab, and this time switch to include and drag the flow in. Still no shadow though. By default, under general, it's set to none. Again, let's try shadow maps soft and not a Dickey bird. And that's because this light is ignoring everything but the floor. So a Qazi, anything to make a shadow with. What we want is for these pages to cast a shadow but not be lit. So it's similar to our situation with the Lady This time though, rather than a duplicate light, we need duplicate geometry, control drag to copy the pages. And now we'll include this in our floor. Shadow light. Actually, let's rename this shadow Casta. Drag it into this inclusion and ping that as you shadow. Now it's looking a bit close to our book and we can fix that in a minute. First is good practice to ensure that this shadow cast the object doesn't interfere with the page's object. So we're going to use a compositing tag for that. Select it and right-click to open the Tags menu on the Cinema 4D tags scroll to compositing. We do want it to cast shadows. We don't want it to be seen by the camera. We may not see any difference actually, just to be on the safe side. Now, this shadow is a bit close. Let's fix that by moving our floor down of it. Let's play with some settings to refine this chateaux and compare this shadow maps soft with ray traced hard, well does get us this sharp edge. But maybe to shop has got this, whether it looking edge here with the reference. We could try matching the color of the shadow a bit better. And the opacity or density of it. Looking better. We could try area shadow, not too different. Let's go back to soft. Scrolling down the settings. Let's play with this parallel width. If I type in times two or star to here, I can quickly double that. And that's soften the shadow significantly. Let's divide this by four. Much sharper, perhaps more lager after. How about this sampling radius boost, getting softer. Let's switch it back to non for now. If we look here, we can see that shadow is slightly denser closer to the book. So what we could do is make a second light to dark and just that area. So let's lighten this shadow first, take the density down to 25%. Next, control drag this light to copy it. Go down into his detailed tab and switch to shadow caster. I'll document up a bit. Tweak this sampling radius boost, dial up the parallel width to a thousand. I'm just playing with settings here to try and get the Look I'm after. Increase the density again about what I'm after. And finally just increased the scale of this flow if you need to so it fills the render. Mine went off the edge there. So as you can see, this is only an approximation of the shadow. We could if we wanted, use different shaders, such as cinema's sketch in tune module to really dial in that graphic weathered look, we could start getting into render passes and complete the image in compositing software such as critter or Photoshop. But that's for another course. 29. Render Settings: For the purposes of this course, I'm going to say, I'm very close to being happy with where this image is at. The final stage would be to make a render, which as we now know, is effectively the same as taking a photo about 3D scene. As I hinted at in the last lesson, the 3D phase is usually just the first stage of making an illustration or animation. Once we rendered it, we can take it into 2D post-production and tweak it around applying effects to our heart's content. Before that stage though, we need to delve into the render settings to make sure this picture comes out right. This might also help us see any overlooked problems with our 3D belt, which will address now. Render Settings dictate how our paycheck will be exposed, so to speak. So let's have our interactive render running whilst we adjust the settings. Next, I'll use a trick to save this camera position by recording or Keyframing is positioned and rotation. So I'll make sure I'm at frame 0. And in the cameras coordinates, just click on this P for position here, which highlights all three axes. Then Control or Command click on a letter r for rotation. Then click the radio button in either of these highlighted columns and you'll get these red keyframe highlights. Now I can jazz around with this camera as much as I like to check things over and simply jiggle the play had to have it snap back to where it was. Control or Command B to open the Render Settings and go down to the Render Settings panel at bottom left. For the sake of practice, that's make a new one from scratch. Right-click and select new. Let's rename it to pop up underscore book, underscore A4 and hit the crosshair here to make it active. At the top of the render setting options. You remember the first thing, you'll see the output settings. Earlier we had our set to a four. Let's select that again from the presets. But that's ensure we're seeing pixel dimensions. Once again, let's say around 2480 pixels wide is plenty for us. Makes sure render region is unchecked. And down in frame range, makes sure that set to current frame so cinema doesn't render a sequence. Next up we'll set where it's sending this picture to make sure this safe checkmark is on. And under the Options next to the file field, click the file path button to set the directory. I'm just going to navigate to my project directory and put it in my render folder. Tiff is fine as a format. But if a bunch of options under their next, I'll check my anti-aliasing settings. I want this render to come out with edges as clean and sharp as possible, so I'll select best. Finally, remember, I'll click this effect button and select the first one, ambient occlusion or EO. This time, let's adjust our AO settings. We could turn down this dark ended the gradient, perhaps. The shadows and the reference are a bit warmer than ours are in general, 12 down to see this change interactively. Before we set up a render, let's take this last opportunity to tweak our image. Earlier when we used the compositing tag to hide the stream from ao, we did improve this flat section, but we lost this lovely shadow between the waterfall in the book. Here again, we can use a simple trick to get the best of both worlds. I'll duplicate this dream. Hide the original. Then in top view, I'll select the points of the flat part of the duplicate stream and delete them. Now I've just got the waterfall and here. And in the compositing tag, I can set this object to be seen by a o. Next, I'll unhide the original. And to be on the safe side, I'll delete the inverse points from the spline. The next bit of ao tweaking I've spotted Is this front cover crease in the reference. There's no dark crease there. So once again, the good old compositing tag will come to the rescue. Uncheck. Seen by a o. I also think this inside cover is looking generally to jog in the reference the artist has made it a little lighter here towards the back. I think we could use a spotlight to hint at this vaguely circular splash of light. Turn it so it's facing the right way. Habits include only the front cover. Now under the Details tab, increase the outer angle to get a nice fat circle of light. Let's pick this pinkish color from the reference to give us a starting point for the hue of the light. Now it's just a matter of adjusting its position and intensity. Obviously, as we've said, these trees don't really match the reference terribly well. In my case, I think the tool trees could be a mike taller, so I could go under the cloner and adjust that. I also think there are too many of the tall ones. Simple way to adjust the relative quantities of clowns would be to duplicate ones. You want more of forcing the cloner to populate itself with more of the kind of chlorine I want and less of those. I don't don't forget, you can alter the seed and the columnar and the count to try and get them more similar look to the distribution of trees. To be honest though, in production, there are so few trees here that to get an exact match, I'd just make duplicates of them and place them by hand. Cloner aside. We're certainly getting closer to the reference. So now let's pretend that the art director says it's ready to send to post-production. Open the Render Settings one more time to double-check. Under the Save menu, Check the directory one Last time. We don't need an alpha channel. We're not rendering out any transparency here. The very last check, and an important one is to ensure you're back in the correct camera view. Now hit shift are to set off a render in the picture viewer. 30. Conclusion: So this brings us to the end of this course. To review. We've learned how to customize our Cinema 4D layout to best suit the way we work. How to import and work from a reference image. Learned about editable versus parametric objects. Started box modelling and use the loop cut, Bevel and extrude tools, selection techniques, and how to save them, created some basic materials, used the cloner part of Cinema 4D mammographic module. We've set up lights and cameras, started using spline and nerves modelling techniques. And finally delved into the Render Settings and rendered our image. In short, we've come a good way towards having the basic skills necessary for creating illustrations and eventually animations in cinema 4D. Thanks so much for working through this course. I really hope it's been useful for you until next time.