3D ANIMATION - 0 to PRO: Create Credible & Unique Animations | David Omair Fuertes Martin | Skillshare

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3D ANIMATION - 0 to PRO: Create Credible & Unique Animations

teacher avatar David Omair Fuertes Martin

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

69 Lessons (6h 4m)
    • 1. INTRO

    • 2. Timing & Spacing

    • 3. Slow in out and fast in outs

    • 4. Opening Blender for the first time

    • 5. How to set up blender

    • 6. The Graph editor

    • 7. Examples of graph editor curves

    • 8. How to use Blender

    • 9. The timeline

    • 10. Energy and settle

    • 11. How to animate a bouncing ball

    • 12. How to bring the character to the scene

    • 13. Overlap

    • 14. How to animate a pendulum

    • 15. The Outliner and the properties editor

    • 16. Arcs

    • 17. The motion paths

    • 18. Squash and stretch

    • 19. The anticipation

    • 20. How to animate a simple character with a tail

    • 21. Intro to staging

    • 22. The point of attention

    • 23. Cameras

    • 24. Camera framing

    • 25. The camera angles

    • 26. Intro to good poses

    • 27. The origin of the force

    • 28. Perspective and orientation

    • 29. The Silhouette

    • 30. Avoid Symmetry

    • 31. The line of action

    • 32. The golden poses

    • 33. The balance

    • 34. The weight and strength

    • 35. The moving holds

    • 36. The main poses, breakdowns & inbertweens

    • 37. The hips

    • 38. How to set up your scene

    • 39. El torso

    • 40. The feet

    • 41. 34 The knees

    • 42. The shoulders

    • 43. The head & neck

    • 44. The hands

    • 45. IK VS FK

    • 46. The elbows & the arms

    • 47. How to analyze references

    • 48. The Blocking

    • 49. The Blocking +

    • 50. The Breakdowner

    • 51. Splines

    • 52. Polish

    • 53. How to create good references

    • 54. The 7 questions

    • 55. The personality curve

    • 56. Primary & secondary action

    • 57. The peculiarities

    • 58. Characters that think by themselves

    • 59. The exaggeration

    • 60. Analyze the timing

    • 61. The repetition

    • 62. Cheating

    • 63. Appeal

    • 64. How to create constrains

    • 65. The Euler filter

    • 66. How to configure the X pose picker

    • 67. Picker controls

    • 68. How to insert audio

    • 69. Blender Lights

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About This Class

Join the Discord server: https://discord.gg/bvTP2TB
And the facebook group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/521487151901444/

To get feedback on your animations

(Due to the common roots of 2D & 3D animation, approximately 60% of the course is also applicable to 2D animation !!)

So if you are a 2D / digital animator rest assured you will get some valuable information :)


Would you like to learn 3D animation, and even end up animating your favorite characters in the best animation studios?

Then this course is perfect for you, you don't need to know absolutely anything about animation, not even knowing how to draw, just a computer and your desire to learn.

We will start with the basic principles of animation, and you will learn step by step everything you need to know to make credible and entertaining animations

The classes are clear, specific, and very didactic, full of examples from both real life and professional animations;

You will also have demonstrations and exercises specially designed to assimilate new concepts and thus facilitate and accelerate your learning process, teaching you the importance of paying close attention to small details.

The course covers everything from how to animate a bouncing ball, through the mechanics of the character, teaching you to animate a cycle of walking step by step, to creating pantomime animations, and creating unique, original, entertaining and special characters and animations.

  1. The "basics" of animation: Timing and spacing, how to start and finish movements, inertia and settlement, overlap, visual arcs, squash and stretch and anticipation + step-by-step demonstrations of how to animate a bouncing ball, a pendulum and a simple character with a tail.

  2. The staging: Intro to staging, the point of attention, the cameras and the camera cuts, the camera framing, and the camera angles

  3. How to create good poses: The origin of force, perspective and orientation, the silhouette, avoiding symmetry, the line of action, the golden poses, balance, weight and strength, and moving hold.

  4. How to animate the different parts of the body: hips, torso, feet, knees, shoulders, head and neck, hands, elbows and arms, and the difference between IK vs FK

  5. Step-by-step demonstration of how to create credible walk cycles

  6. The 5 stages of animation: Reference, blocking, blocking +, splines and polishing

  7. How to create a character with its own personality: The 7 questions, the personality curve, primary and secondary action, the peculiarities, and how to animate a character that thinks for himself

  8. Tips to take your animation to the next level: Exaggeration, analyze timing, repetition, cheating, and how to create more appeal.

  9. Blender technical guide to animate like a pro: Opening Blender for the first time, how to configure blender to animate more easily and quickly, the viewports, the timeline, the graph editor, the outliner, the property editor, the breakdowner, how to light your scene, how to use the X-Pose picker, how to create constrains, how to insert audio, and how to prepare your scene to start animating

  10. + Access to a private group to receive feedback and see the animations of your colleagues

At the end of the course:

You will have the ability to animate characters in a credible way so that they have their own personalities, both in action scenes and in pantomime, thus creating unique animations that engage the audience

(Although the course exercise demonstrations are done in Blender, if you have knowledge of MAYA or another animation program you can easily follow it, since the course does not focus on teaching Blender, but the ART of animation)

One of the things (among many others :D ) that makes this course magnificent, is that you will learn from professional animations and unique films, therefore learning, from the best in the industry!.

(Videos / shorts / animations / movies used in the course to explain animation concepts):

Caminandes 1: Llama drama

Caminandes 2: Gran Dillama

Caminandes 3: LLamigos

Big Buck Bunny

Half Glass



InThePark (Charles Chaplin)

The-Vagabond (Charles Chaplin)

Popeye Brideand Gloom

Popeye for President

Popeye AliBaba

Private Eye Popeye

Woody woodpecker pantry panic


Abraham lincoln

+ My own animations & references

Class Ratings

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1. INTRO: Hi, would you like to learn 3D animation and even end up animating your favorite characters individually animation studios, then these cost is perfect for you. My name is Amir. Several years ago I graduated from animation mental and I was like enough to get an animation job there week after my graduation, which allow me to continue studying different animation is Schools and further improving my skills. And now I just created this course so that all these knowledge is available to you. Will start with the basics of bouncing bowl and then do loans. A simple character, and will progressively be adding new concepts until you become a pro. The lectures are clear, specific and very didactic. Pull up examples from both real life and professional animations. You will begin by learning the concepts of time, Nana spacing, how just started up finish the movements. The overlap, the yards and putrefaction, theme dissipation. And this question of storage. Then you will learn everything related to the staging, the camera framing, the point of attention, Annexin-V bulletins cointegrated can rackets, and how to position the current lesson cameras on the scene to convey historically and with greater intensity. Then I will teach you everything you need to know to create good process. How do you identify the origin of the foes? The perspective on orientation, the silhouette. While you have to avoid seem as when you're Bose's. How to create good lens. So function. How to create great golden purses. How to keep your characters imbalance, how to convey a greater weight and astronomy finger animations, and how to create moving holes and its importance. Later I will teach you how to correctly bows and any means, all the different parts of the body. The heaps, the feeds. It also. Then E is the elbows, the arms, the shoulders, the head, the neck, and the hands. Throughout all these lectures, you will have exercises to reinforce your learning. And by now you will be ready to create our first animation with a humanoid character. You will start with a simple animation and will increase the difficulty little by little, until you understand the mechanics of the crisis body. By now you know how to create basically credible animations. And at this point you can instead introduce enacting and bunch of mine into your animation's. That's why you have a whole section where you'll learn how to create unique personalities for your characters and how to make it look like we're thinking for themselves. But that's not all. Finally, as a bonus, I will teach you several tricks to make your animations much more entertaining, give them more appeal, helped accelerate them to convey more intensely the emotions of the characters. And he was occasions you can cheat to make your animations more dynamic. Throughout the whole course, you'll have exercises especially designed to simulate all the new concepts and thus facilitating and accelerate enjoy learning. Teaching you the importance of paying attention to the small beetles. But if he so good, why is it so cheap? You might want to, because I want to make the course available to everyone. But I don't know how to draw and I don't know anything about 3D animation. Do worry in this course, you don't need to know anything about 3D animation or know how to draw just a computer and germicidal to learn. So for all of those completely new to 3D animation, I have also created 70 lectures in which I explain everything you need to know to animate with lambda from how to move on the viewports for all the necessary technical aspects. You have to set up your scene to be ready to start animating. And if that wasn't enough, if you sign up through this course, you will get access to a brave if placed book and this girl group where both you and your colleagues can give each other feedback in your animations. Thus creating a community where the learning curve is exponential. And they will also be some context so long Islam, what are you waiting for our join us and become an animator today. 2. Timing & Spacing: Timing and spacing. These are probably the most important principles in animation. Timing is how long it takes for each movement to complete. In other words, the number of frames it will take from beginning to stop. Fewer frames we use to make a movement. The less time it will take to complete. And the more frames we use, the longer we'll take. Generally you'll be an emitting at 24 frames per second, which means that if you make it so that the movement is done in 12 frames, it will take 2.5th to complete. The spacing always goes together with the timing. You can imagine it as if the timing was the boss and the spacing, the employee. The spacing is the distance the object travels on the screen for each frame. In other words, the speed perceived by the audience. Since the bigger the distance the object moves on the screen for each frame, the faster it will go. Also, keep in mind the through the timing you can modify the spacing. Because if you have an object that moves from point a to point B in four seconds, IE 96 frames, and you reduce the time in so that the movements only takes two seconds. You will automatically have doubled the spacing seems to make the same movement in half the time. It will have to move double the length on each frame. So although you can always decide what the spacing looks like in your animations, it will always be affected by any modifications you make on the timing. With the timing and spacing, we can trust me, Howard character feels he's waved, his mood, speed, et cetera. And depending on how much we accelerated, we can create completely different worlds. The contrast and exaggeration of the timing and spacing. These concepts are extremely important if you want to entertain the audience and make your animations more dynamic. It isn't easy to create a good timing and spacing. And although when you are studying is a very good idea to try making realistic animations. To train your eye to analyze references and understand the body mechanics as you progress and want to create more entertaining animations, it's essential that you exaggerate that tiny nano spacing. For example, if you look at movies like Hotel Transylvania or the Warner Brothers cartoons, you will see that they have something very unique in their style. And one of the reasons is that they exaggerate the timing and spacing allowed. But it works because they have established a world where the character moves like that. However, if we use that feminine spacing on Pixar films, it would feel weird since they tend to create more realistic worlds. Although of course, always with a certain degree of exaggeration. This animation principle is one of the responsible for giving that touch of personality and uniqueness to your animations. Variation on the timing of the movements. When you design your animation, make sure it's not monotonous because he folded movements. Take the same amount of time. Your animation will end up being quite boring. Make sure your animation has quick and fast action movements and a slower ones as well. Surprise the audience, make your animations unpredictable. Also, it is very important that your animations have poses, implying that our character is thinking, analyzing a situation or preparing for their next move. As simple post can transform your animation from good to excellent. I see truly create contrast and suspense and the audience will love it. We have to apply the variation on the timing, both in each one of the gestures and movements and in the way we animate the ADSR hole. A very good trick that many people use is to create a simple musical rhythm for your animation. And this technique is very powerful flows for animations where the diamond is low. They will give the enemies jam musical fluency and will prevent you from behind and boring. To create a Buddhist spacing, as you will see in the next section, one of the most important things is how each movement begins and ends so that your animations are fluid, organic, and credible. To create Buddhist spacing and other important factor is that is coherent. So that if an object is accelerating or decelerating, eat must be progressive. And if it's moving at a constant speed, this Bayesian must be uniform. If you animate double throne, I walk cycle, pretty much anything that moves. Make sure that in the middle of the movement, the spacing doesn't magically reduce or increase without a reason. Similarly, if it has been established that an object is accelerating or decelerating, you cannot have multiple frames were suddenly you're displacing becomes even. Your spacing must be consistent throughout the movement. And the fastest way to check if your spacing is coherent is with the graph editor, since you will quickly see how each one of the controls is moving in each one of the axes throughout your animation. The spacing along with the diamond will establish the energy, personality, and mood of the characters. And with a simple musical rhythm at creative idea and applying the concepts that you will learn in the next sections, you will be able to create animations that not only are credible, but transmit emotions and entertain the audience. 3. Slow in out and fast in outs: Slow out, fast out. Slowing. And fast in. These terms are largely related to the concepts that you had learned in the first class. These are the terms that indicate how each movement begins and ends. Every time an object changes direction, interacts, or stops interacting with another object, it will be considered a new movement. A 104 will have to analyze how will animated. Depending on the action you want to animate, you will have to animate a fast tout. As low out, a fast tin. Whereas low in. To start, most textbooks will use a slow out. Which means that the movement is that slowly. In other words, at the beginning the spacing will be smaller and willing Greece progressively. For example, if you want to grab a cup of tea, slap something, or establish any voluntary movement where you need an acceleration period. Gravity will also manifests itself in the form of a slow out. For example, when it bounces and folds again. Once we have reached the maximum height, is almost lost. Again, clearly being to see the effect of gravity changing the direction of the movement with this load. The other way to start the movement is allowed. Which means that the movement will start weekly without the need of finance iteration. In other words, at the beginning of the movement of this basin will be greater and will reduce progressively. Similarly, when a ball bounces of the ground, or we jump from the moment we tick off the ground, we'll do it with a first-out scenes from the moment that would be enough force pushing us upwards. And since gravity is pulling us down, the first frame after we tick off the ground will be the one with the biggest spacing. To finish our movement that the most common option is to create a slowing, which means that the movement will slow down gradually and the list doping or change in direction. In other words, the spacing will reduce progressively. As for example, when we want to turn our heads or when we want to change direction. So basically almost any movement we end voluntarily, or when a movement loses all its inertia. Another way to finish a movement is a fast team. Which means that the movement will stop, change direction, or interact with another object to elite accelerating. In other words, the spacing will be bigger just before the impact. Like when a ball hits the ground, it will do so with Avastin scenes, gravity would be accelerating it. So as the ball falls, it's the spacing will increase until heating the ground with Avastin. And will also create these type of space in very, very often when the character interacts with an object. So summarizing the example of the jump, the anticipation movement will start and finish with this low out and a slowing respectively. We would start to be lineage of the jump with his loud progressively decelerating until the last frame where we're touching the ground. From that moment, we will analyze it as a new movement. And so it will start with a fast tout, reducing the spacing progressively until reaching the highest point of the jump with the slowing, at this moment will have lost all the nice sharp was. And gravity will start to move as downwards with his low out. As we fall, gravity will progressively accelerators towards the ground until impacting against it with Avastin. And we'll set the lineage or to a final post with the slowing. Now I'll show test to see if you have understood all these concepts. If we were to throw a ball against the wall and the ball will hit it with a slowing or Avastin and will bounce off with a fast out or as low out? Correct. Because even if it arrives at a very high-speed, it would arrive with a somewhat slow in scenes. Once the external force does not act upon the ball, it will begin the deceleration process. So although almost unnoticeable, it will hit the wall with a kind of slowing. And as you guessed it, it will rebound with a fast tout scenes. We'll analyze it as a new movement and it will start without an acceleration, since it is still has most of the inertia of the throw. So this spacing will be bigger on the first frames. But remember that although we consider it a new movement, it continues to lose energy. So the spacing of the first frame of the rebound will have to be smaller than the spacing of the frame before hitting the wall. 4. Opening Blender for the first time: Blender. It's completely free and has nothing to mb to other 3D animation programs. And personally, blunder is my favorite. When we opened blender for the first time, this is what we will see. The first thing we have is the File tab, where we can create a new file, open a file, open a recent file. Retrieve the file from the last session or the last outer save file in case the program was close to without saving. Nevertheless, remember to save your animations constantly. You can't save them modifications in the same file that you have open or save it as a new file. Below, we have the options to link or append, which we will use to bring the characters, objects, or environment to our blender as seen below, we have the option to reset all preferences are features to refold. And at the end, we can exit plan the intermediate. You can undo or redo any changes that you have done. Although the system is to use Control Z to undo and Control Shift Z to redo. Also, if we need it, we can see the action history here. And at the bottom we have the preferences. In grander. We can export images of a specific frames or render our animations in video format. When we went to see the renders We have made down here, we can see the last render image and the last renters video. In window. We can create new windows, which will be very useful in case we have more than one monitor. Next we have their workspaces, which are the sign according to the tasks that we want to perform in blender. So in our case, we'll go to the workspace animation. Once we are in the animation workspace, we'll see that blender is divided into several panels. Have you put with the main camera? Have you both with the perspective camera, the outliner, the Properties panel, the dope sheet, and the timeline. If you want to change any panel, just go to its left corner, click on its icon and select the one you want. You can also modify the size of the panels simply by placing the mouse over the edge of the panel and clicking and dragging with the arrows that will appear. And finally, you can have split and create more panels by right-clicking on the edge of one of them and selecting Split area. Decide if the division is vertical or horizontal with the middle click and then left-click to grade the division. And if you want to remove upon all right-click on its edge, select join area and left-click on the panel you want to remove. Okay, that's it for now. See you on the next class. 5. How to set up blender: Hi, in this lecture, I'm going to show you how to set up lambda so you can animate faster. Honestly, the first thing we'll do is to set up Blender hotkeys to be the same as the one used in the vast majority of animation studios. This way, you'll be able to animate with blender as if, for example, you were animating with Maya. So we'll go to Edit. Preferences. Came up and will change in the drop-down menu from blunder to industry compatible. Next will go to screen. Screen editing. Click on the small arrow where it says Toggle maximize area. Click in the box and breast a. Turn on the control button, and change in the drop-down menu from any two release. Now we can quickly expand and of the panels and go back to normal by hovering over with the mouse holding Control and pressing a. And so we see the panel in full screen in case we wanted to have a clear vision or adjust small details. Will also go to 3D view. 3d view global, and delete the last hotkey name contexts toggle since we don't need it and we don't want to activate it by mistake. Then we'll go to System unsaid Undo steps do 256. This will be the number of steps or actions that blender will save so that you can go back in time in case you want to correct something. If you have a good computer, I recommend that you set it to 256, since it will allow you to test things in your animation and undo them if you did unlike them. But if you see that blender starts to slow down, I recommend that you reduce it so that it uses less RAM. Anyhow, ideally, you want to save every time you make any progress or changes that you like. Okay, so now we can close the Preferences window. And next we'll go down to the timeline to make it a bit bigger. And we'll activate though Tokyo options so that every time we modify a control on the viewport, the keyframes are created or modified automatically. That way, you don't have to do it manually every time. Now what we'll do right click on this button and select assigned shortcut. Move the mouse over the box and press the number three on the left side of the keyboard will do the same with the other button, but press number two instead. And because the hotkeys 23, I've already assigned to other functions on blender. We must change or delete them. So then number 23, just have the new function. Now we can jump from one key frame to another very quickly using the hotkeys to E13. It will definitely save us a lot of time. Following that will change the dope sheet for the graph editor, since it will be the graph editor, the one that we will use to animate. And then we'll go to View and activate the Bok's view only selected curve key frames. These way you can only edit the curves of the axis that you have selected. And thus you'll work easily and cleanly. Finally, we'll configure the Render Settings. From time to time. You'll want to see how your animation. We'll look at 24 FBS. For these, we'll do a viewport render, also known as play blast. To set that the rendering settings go to the printer icon called output, said file format to FF MPG video. Open the drop down menu encoding. And in container, select Quick Time. Now whenever you want to do a play blast to view on the view port that you want to create the play blast from and click on viewport Render Animation. And now to finish and save all the changes so that every time we open blender, it will have this configuration. Go to File default and click on save startup file. Now you have setup blender for animation. 6. The Graph editor: Hi, in this class I'm going to show you everything you need to know about the graph editor. The graph editor is without a doubt, the most powerful tool we animators have. Since it allows us to see clearly devalues that some keyframes have in relation to others. And allow us to visualize and modify what kind of transition they have between them. Therefore, the graph editor is an incredibly useful tool when animating and correcting mistakes. Although at first it may be a little difficult to understand with a little practice, you'll become an expert in the graph editor. The frames, in other words, the time is represented horizontally, and the values, in other words, the movements are represented vertically. Therefore, the Monika moves up and down. The more it will move, rotate, scale the axes of the control you have selected. And the more it moves to the right and the longer it will take to complete the action. You want to be able to make the current go backwards, since it wouldn't make any sense. And if the girl is completely flat, it means that there is no movement role on that axis. Once we have selected the control that we want to animate, have animated on the left side panel will have to click on the small arrow to display the three translation axes called location. The three rotation axes called Euler rotation. And the three scaling access gold scale. To move around in the graph editor, press and hold Alt, Click or left click to zoom in and out to use the mouse wheel. And if you want to visually flatten or a stretch of the curves, hold Alt plus right-click, and use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out afterwards. Please note that this is purely visual in the graph editor and will not change anything you animation to move, rotate, or escape leaky frames in the graph editor. First select the axis that you want to modify. Then select the keyframe or keyframes. And just like in the view port, we will select the tools we want to use. Then only by moving the mouse will modify the tangent. And when you are happy with your multiplication, just left-click to eat. If you only wanted to suggest it horizontally or vertically. Once you have selected the tool you want to use, move very slightly the mouse vertically or horizontally, and then do a middle click. This way it will only allow us to move it in that axis. And just like in the viewport, if we hold down shift, they will move much less in relation to the movement of the mouse. And if we want, we can move the keyframe by selecting a moving them with the left clique. And we can rotate them with the handles that appear when we select them. We can also lengthen or certain the handles to modify the curves. And furthermore, we can modify the types of handles. To do these selected keyframe you want to modify. Right-click and go to handle type. As you can see, we have five options. Three will separate both ends so that they move individually. I line will attach both sides bugs that they moved together. The vector type will also separate both sides, but will also make them straight lines. So from the moment it starts moving until the next keyframe, each frame will move exactly in the same. The automatic type will attach both sides together. And we'll also create a clean flowing curve from given to keyframe. Please note that when there are abrupt changes of direction, it will create curves that can sometimes be excessively large. And finally, auto plant will also make the curves flow at making the handles flat and parallel to each other. So unlike the automatic type, the curves will never go beyond the keyframe. And therefore we leave a straight line between the key frames that have exactly the same value. Also, we can modify the kind of general interpolation of the tangents. To do so, right-click and go to interpolation mode. You'll see that there are several options, but the most important are the first three. The others can be useful in some cases, but usually used. Constant will remove the transition between keyframe and keyframe. In other words, the post will remain motionless until the next keyframe. And this is generally used on the blogging face of your animation. Linear will create a straight line and symmetrical interpolation just as the vector handles. And Bessie or will make a smooth transition between the key frames, creating an acceleration period and I slow down period. Keep in mind that since the graph editor represents the transition between keyframes, you can only see the curves of everything in which you have established at least one keyframe. For example, the probabilities attributes of the arms. Since keyframes wants to be created on this attributes when you say tacky frame on the control. So you must go individually to the one you want to modify. Hover the mouse over it and breast as to create its first keyframe. Now you can activate the activates and animate this attribute through our journey mention. Moreover, with the bus being you can keep on top the girls in the graph editor panel, which would be very useful if you need to have the curves of a specific controlling sides. So you can modify them at any time, even if you have selected anything else. Above we have the normalized button. If we activated, it will visually unite the curves. So if we have several curves away from each other, it will be much easier to work on them at the same time, since we wouldn't have to be moving up and down through the gravity though continuously. And if we activate the little button on the right, it will also visually just the new changes we make on the curves. Although personally I prefer to have a disabled scenes. Sometimes it can be confusing because when you move the keyframes, they will visually we join the others. And finally at the top right we have the ghost goes button. What it does is that if you are automated and modify a curve, it will show you how it was before the change. This is very useful when making changes or cleaning up the curves as it will give you an exact reference. So you can easily do even the smallest of the changes. That's it. This is all you need to know about the graph editor. So see you in the next class. 7. Examples of graph editor curves: Slow out, fast out, slow in fasting. These are the terms used to indicate how each movement begins and ends. For example, here we have five balls that have exactly the same timing and spacing. Now what I will do is to modify the graph editor curves to show you what the different shapes of the curves that represent on an object motion. As you see by default, curves I created with a slow out and slowing. If we set the handles in vector mode, we will transform it to a straight line. And so the ball will move with an even spacing on all frames. In other words, the speed will be constant. So compared to the other balls at the beginning, it will move faster since it doesn't have as low out. In the middle of the animation, the other balls will reach the point of the curve where the accelerate, so they will advance to the lead. And finally, all the balls will reach the end on the same frame. And the first one without slowing and the other ones within a slowing. Now, I will modify the second one so it has a great slow out and a fasting. As you can see, the flatter the curve, the less the ball moves, and the more vertical it gets, the more it accelerates. In the third eye will do just the opposite to the previous one. It will start moving with a fast out and we list up with a slowing. I will also create a fast out. But this time I'll create a key frame in the middle of the movement to flatten the curve, therefore reducing the speed of the ball. And at the end I'll create a fasting. Keep in mind that we can always exaggerate its speed by stretching the handles and moving them up and down. And remember that if the goal of change direction, it means that the ball will change direction on that axis. And for the last bowl, I'll create this load. And I will make the ball speed up to the last pose. Like instead of heating the polis in an abrupt manner with a fasting, we will create a few frames of caution. In other words, a very small slowing. The perception that the Ebola arrives at the highest speed, removing the stiffness. Okay, that's it for now. See you on the next class. 8. How to use Blender: How to use Blender high in this class, I'm gonna teach you how to use Blender and how to move around in the viewports. The viewport is where we will see and be able to edit our animations. As you can see, we have one on the left with the main camera, which is the camera that blender will be rendering from and through which the audience will see our animation. And on the right we have the perspective, which is where we will create or animations. To move the perspective camera up, press and hold Alt plus the middle click. Or use the top-right hand. To zoom in and out. You can move the mouse, we'll press and hold Alt plus right click. Or use the magnifying glass on the top right corner. To rotate the camera, press and hold Alt plus left click. Or use the gizmo up here. If you click on the bowls apart from aligning the camera with the blender world axis, you will set the camera in orthographic mode, which will flatten the view. In other words, it will take away the depth of this in. This can be helpful when you want to analyze the movements of the character because you'll see that the same size and from the same angle, even though it's moving around the screen. And clicking on this icon here, you can change the view from orthographic to prospective and vice versa. To align the perspective camera with the main camera leak on this camera icon. If you kick it again, the camera will return to its previous position. But if you move it, this will be the new position of your perspective camera. To set the framing of the perspective camera as the main camera and go to View, Align View, and select Align active camera to view. This will modify your main camera, but you can continue using your perspective camera as useful. But keep in mind that due to this square proportions of the perspective camera and the focal length of the main camera, you will have to move a little further away from what you really want to frame. The focal length will determine the depth on the scene perceived by the audience. The higher the focal length, the flooded the image will look. And the camera will frame a smaller space. But the smaller the focal length is, the audience will see, you're seeing more three-dimensional and Morris space will be framed by the camera. And although they deal focal length for your scene will depend on several factors. For most animations in which the whole body of your character is framed. Focal length of the woodwork. To select things will use the left click. And if you want to select more than one object or control, left-click and drag over the ones you want to select. Will select them manually one-by-one by holding Shift and clicking on them. And you can deselect them by holding Shift and clicking on them again. To frame the object we have selected, press F. I'll go to View and click on frame selected. These will also change the point on which the camera people surround. So if at anytime you see that the camera moves very little or moves is strangely, select the control or object you want to modify and press F to frame it. In the other hand, to frame everything in the same press a or go to View and click on frame all. Ok, so next, as you can see, there are three axis, the x axis, which is represented by the red color, the y-axis, which is represented by the green color, and the z-axis, which is represented by the blue color. And these three axes will be represented with the same colors in the character controls, but they won't necessarily have the same orientation as blenders world axis. Now, to move something, we'll select the Move Tool by pressing W or selecting it on the left side panel. To rotate something. Select the rotate tool by pressing E for selecting it on the left side panel. To scale something. Select the scale tool by pressing R for a selected on the left side panel. And finally, if you want to draw on the screen for some reason, you can select the pencil on the left side panel. If you want. You can also hide the ball so it doesn't take up screen space. Ok, now once you have selected the tool you want, you can use it by manipulating one of the three axes that appear. Also in the scale, a MOOC tools. You can choose to move or escape the objects on any of the three planes using the smallest squares between the three axis. And in the rotation tune by using the outer circle. Or by middle plugin on any point of the screen, you can rotate the control in relation to the camera that you are viewing it through. The, we want to move them freely in the Move tool, you can use these small cycle. Or you can middle click anywhere on this screen and move it. And if we want to rotate it freely, we just have to click and move in between the axis of the rotation too. And finally, if you need to make very small adjustments, when the small icon appears, which represents that you are moving, rotating Horace scale in it without releasing the mouse hold shift. This way the movements of the mouse will have a much less impact. And you'll be able to make small changes with much greater precision. Depending on what we want to modify, we must select the appropriate working mode to modify your creates, all the cameras, lights, planes, and other objects without controls, we'll use the object mode. And to post a character to animate it will use the post mode. As you can see, just as we can't pose a character on object node, we want to be able to select any of the lights, cameras or objects without controls. If we are imposed mode. At anytime we can change to object mode. But to change to boast mode, we will first need to select the rig and then change to post mode. Also keep in mind that you must select all rakes You want to pose before a changing topmost node. Since you will only be able to select the rings of the controls that you had previously selected before switching to pose mode. Okay, also, if we are an object mode, we will have this adsorption with which we can create anything from planes, cubes and bowls, to light cameras or even importing your references. Above in the middle we have our dropdown menu. Here we can choose what type of axis orientation will have the tools that we use. The most important global, local gimble on view. Global will align the axis with the scene, which means that they will be parallel to the world axis of Blender. Local will keep the axis aligned relative to the object or control that joy manipulating. So depending on the orientation of the object, the axis orientation will also change. Involved will align each axis with the graph editor. In this way, the waxes will only modify the blue curve, the red axis, the red curve, and the green axis, the green curve. This is very useful to make sure that you are creating a modifying your animations cleanly. The only problem that you can have with this mode is that if you rotate one of the axes too much, you can find that tool them become almost parallel to each other, which in some occasions will force you to change to other mode. But as a general rule, in PAL mode will be the one that we will use to animate. And finally, view will align the axis with the camera that you are looking through, which can be helpful in some situations. Next, at the top left we have the display options. In the drop down menu, we can select what we want to see my deactivating or activating the ice on the right. And we can allow or prevent them from being selected by activating or deactivating the arrows next to it. The next two buttons will allow us to hide the modifiers and all kinds of controls. Motor the rate we had they seen visualization options. The first button is the x-rays, which will allow us to see through everything on the scene. And the first circle will show everything with lines. This option is especially useful combined with the x-rays, since you will be able to see through all things with great clarity. But scene at the same time DHS of everything which can be very useful when there are things between your character and the camera. The second circle is the default option. With this option, you can also activate the x-rays. The next one will give you more illumination to Gaussian. But keep in mind that this lightning will be independent of the actual lights that you have created for the scene. If you open the drop down menu, you can modify the level of illumination and the direction that it comes from. And even if you want here, you can activate the actual lights of the scene. And finally, in the last one, you will be able to see exactly how you've seen, will look when it's rendered. Okay, that's it for now. See you on the next class. 9. The timeline: Hi, in this class, I'm going to show you everything you need to know about the timeline. 20 mates. In the timeline, we can see the keyframes that we have created for each control or object. With the blue bar, we can move forwards and backwards in time. The central buttons, we can play our animation normally or played backwards. But keep in mind that this is not a reliable way to check the animations timing, since it will not plays at 24 frames per second. And the speed will depend on how powerful your computer is and how complex is your animation. So if you want to have a reliable view, do a viewport render. The following buttons to both sides, as you already know, will jump from keyframe to keyframe. The following buttons to both sides will go to the beginning and the end of your animation. And as you know, the small circle is the autarky, which you want to have activated. On the top right, you can say that the range of frames you will use to animate. But if you wanted to render only a portion of your animation, activates the clock icon and set the range that you would like to render. These can save you a lot of time because we're only working on one section of your animation. Generally, you don't want to wait for the entire animation to render. In this section here you can move back and forth on the timeline. Although you can do the same action much more effectively with the blue bar or the arrows of the keyboard. In the game drop-down menu, you will be able to establish the icon that the new keyframes you create will have. This is completely optional. Buddy can help you to have your timeline organized. Scenes. You can set different colors to easily differentiate between the main poses, breakdowns or wherever you want. Okay, next, if you want to create a new frame without modifying the control, just select the control and heat S. Keeping in mind that if you have the mouse on the viewport, It will be created instantly. But if you have them out on the timeline, this message will appear. So just select all channels were the key frame is created on all the attributes. If you want to delete a key frame, just selected keyframe, right-click, Delete key frame. If you want to select multiple key frames, left-click and holding it, drag it over all the ones we want to select. You can also add or remove key frames from the selection by holding Shift and clicking on the keyframe. If you want to move a keyframe, just select it and drag it wherever you want. But if you want to move several key frames at the same time, once you have selected them, use the middle clique to drive them. If you want to copy one or several keyframes and base them at another time in your animation. Selected keyframe where you want to paste it and press control v. Now if you want to scale a group of keyframe so that they are proportionally separated or United. Select them and press our scale them and do a left-click to set them. But of course, keep in mind that depending on the frame you have selected when you press, are the points from which they will scale will change. This is all you need to know about the timeline. 10. Energy and settle: Hi. In this class we'll learn how to animate the upgradable flow of energy unsettle. This principle means that your animations are consistent with the world they belong to. And that therefore, if you have established Tendulkar needs a certain amount of energy and time to make a move. Each effort would require a proportional amount of energy and time. The amount of energy perceived by the audience depends largely on your poses and the amount of anticipation and inertia that you have animated GSP further movement itself. And in the same way to stop a movement, you have to be consistent with the inertia of the character and its capacity and strength to stop the movement. Always taking into account the weight of the character as the heavier the character is, the more time they will tend to take to move or change direction. Also, it's very important to take into account the direction of the inertia. As when you stop your character and create this atom to the next pose, you will have to create it accordingly with the direction of the inertia, which in most cases will create the visual icon on the screen on the main parts of the body. As you can see in all these examples, stops with the slowing, coherent with the energy of the movement. However, in this example, the animator didn't really create a realistic saddle as it remains in the same posture throughout all the second shot. Therefore, moving without taking any steps or a strides. But if the character was supposed to be sliding, worried to be credible, the character should had been leaning backwards as it tries to stop from the beginning of the second shot. And almost like a WEP that also could transition to the next post who is leaning forwards. As now is not credible death, he can abruptly stop the movement with his feet behind and leaning forward. However, the part where he moves back, hiding behind the tree, has upgradable settle. In this example is a little less obvious. But if you look closely, the rabbits doesn't make a realistic settle scenes when it stops at the end, this pit of his body accelerates towards camera. Instead of the Slovenian. If we were animating two of the other characters, maybe we could get away with it as they move with the snappier, a more abrupt movements. But because the rabbits is heavy, issued is slow down progressively with a longer slowing. And other possibility is that the animator wanted to animate their IV to slide at the end. But as a framing doesn't let us see almost anything of his body, ETC. And very clear. Although for a slide to be gradual, as I said, we should lean, he's pretty backwards, therefore counteracting the inertia of the movement. The Heaps will reach the post first, then the torso, and finally the head will settle with the slowing. But furthermore, you will see that in some cases they settle is not just a slowly into the final pulse. If we weren't early and abruptly stubble movement, how we didn't want to use this lovely in because we want it to give more strength to the movements. And we could induce a fasting as there is no external force or object is stopping the movement will create an overshoot which consists of continuing the movement P And the final posts you had created. In other words, the movement will stop with a vibration effect. And depending on the speed of the movement and the ability of the character to stop it will create a beaker or a smaller overshoot. And therefore using more or fewer frames and making it move, rotate back and forth more or fewer times, progressively reducing the size of each oscillation. Diverse should help you to realistically convey that the character is settling down quite fast or intense movement. And the more abruptly the movement has stopped, and the more wobble back and forth will the body half before finally settling down. In addition, sometimes for aesthetic reasons, we'll want to create a slow overshoot, which in many occasions will give more flow to the animation and could help you to convey more specifically your character's personality. Give your character has any kind of joint and one of its existence is stops abruptly. The next sections who try to keep the previous inertia at the same speed, but as they are attached to the joint, they can't continue in the same direction. So they would settle more or less like a WEP, creating a visual icon on the screen. So to stop a movement, you have to take into account the direction of the inertia of each joint to create a gradient will settle, since probably not all the parts of the body will be moving in the same direction when we correct this stops the movement. So you must analyze the inertia of each parts of the body, how the movement settles, and how much that part of the worry affects the movement of the rest of the body parts. Because since all the parts of the body are connected, the movements of which parts of the body will have an effect on the rest of the body. So analyze, defeat. The knees, the heaps, that also the shoulders, the arms, the wrists, the fingers, the neck, and the head. Only this way you will be able to create credible and somewhat realistic animations. And other more subtle type of settle east when we build for sedation onto something or ourselves and then release all or part of that tension. For example, when we clench our feast or push something heavy and x2 to four frames, our body or parts of the body will make a small saddle backwards as a consequence of the partial relaxation of the muscles. So if we were to leave the car at their maximum force pose and don't create the smallest fell backwards, our animation will tend to feel a bit stiff. And as you can imagine, we don't want that. You show that you have to correctly and consistently transmit the weight, force and inertia of the character that you animating, which most of you, it will depend on your timing and spacing. So make sure you create nice and clean. Slowing means slow out, fast teens, fast doubts and overshoots. To improve with these principle, you must arrange your eye and observation skills. One allies or their animations, analyze references, and record yourself to see what each part of the body task and how much does it move on each frame? Analyze the movements of the hands, the elbows, the head. What kind of rotations do they have? The body? Is it tilting? Is it rotating? Windows default start to move. When do they heaps change direction? When do they stop going down? In which friends do they start to go up again? Analyze absolutely everything. That's the only way to create credible animations. If you practice and hone your observation skills, you will stand out. And one of the best ways to practice, apart from analyzing references and animations. He's giving feedback to your classmates. But not only saying If you think it's good or bad, but explaining what do you think they have done well and looking carefully at what could be changed or adjusted to improve their animations. And if you can give the exact frames where you would make the changes. This is what is known as giving and receiving feedback. And if you want to improve fast, it's essential that you start giving feedback right away from the beginning of your journey. The reason is so important that you get used to giving and receiving feedback is that our eyes get used to seeing our animations over and over again. So it will become increasingly difficult for us to see or our mistakes and things to improve. Therefore, by giving feedback to our classmates, we're not only helping them, but also training arise to find mistakes. Make sure to return the favor when your classmates gives you feedback. This way we'll create the community in which the speed of learning will be exponential. In fact, one of the things that made me learn faster than the vast majority of my classmates was because I was always giving and asking for feedback regardless of MySQL level or their skill level. Plus, if you ever want to become an animation lead supervisor or animation director, it is essential that you know how to give good and specific feedback. Sees most of your work will be just that. 11. How to animate a bouncing ball: Hi, so in this lecture, I will teach you how to animate upon sinbal step-by-step. But before you start animating, you need to know what type of ball you want to animate scenes depending on its weight and bounciness, you can animate it in many different ways. The ball will have to gradually reduce its height on each bounce. Meaning that if the first balance is 70% of the height from which it fell, the next balance will have to be 70% of these one and so on. And the last one will be a microbiomes, which will be practically a vibration of one frame. So we first write down the percentage the ball will haul from one bounce to another with a 70%, 30 percent or 10%. Also keep in mind that as the bowl looses energy, each bounce will last less frames, although in reality, two consecutive small bounces Cool last the same amount of frames, because since we only animates at 24 frames per second, there could be times when the time difference between one bounce and then X1 will be less than one frame. And finally, remember that this is an animation which means that you will have to exaggerate and Ben reality, for example, although realistically a bull can make many small bounces before stopping us, an animator will have to decide whether to any maintains very realistically or remove several of those little bounces to make the animation shorter and more fluid, making sure to not sacrifice its credibility. Okay, so let's start animating. For this exercise, we will use the orthographic side view to see much clearer the movements of the ball. The first thing we'll do is to establish the first keyframe on frame one. Then we'll go to the last frame where we want the animation to end. Create a key from there and set the last pose of a randomization. Next, we'll make sure that the horizontal speed of the ball is progressively reducing, since we don't want it to accelerate at any time as there is no force pushing it forward. And by the way, don't forget to guess the Ranger frames on the timeline for when you want to render it. Okay, so we have already created the horizontal movement. Now we'll start creating the ball bounces. Go to frame one, select its vertical axis and the graph editor and said the pose from where the ball will fall. Five frames later on frame seeks, I will create the first contact postwar it will hit the ground. Five frames later, I'll established extreme hypos pounds, which obviously will be lower than where it originally fell from. Since the Fall has to last the same amount of frames. And when it went up five frames later I will establish the Bose who were the ball will hit the ground again. As the ball loses. In Asia, the balances will get shorter and shorter and we last less frames. So now I'll establish the next extreme hypos and the next contact pose with a diameter of four frames to go up and four frames to go down. For the next one, I will create a time in a three frames. The next one will be two. And the last one will be a micro balance of one frame. Now as you can see, the ball is moving up and down, but it doesn't seem to really be bouncing. This is because it's making a slowing before hitting the ground when it falls and as low out when it bounces up again. To really be a bouncing ball, they should be Avastin hitting the ground and a fast outgoing up again. So to fix it will switch the handles of the contact process two vector and move them above the curve to increase the relative reality and thus exaggerating a little, removed the full and rebound the speed's okay, looks much better now. Now at first glance, it seems to me that it doesn't spend enough time on and flows down too soon. So I'll extend a literary model handles on the extreme high keyframes so that the bowl is spends a literary Multinom suspended on D. Okay, now we can see that the ball bounces in a credible way. However, I feel like the last two Vance's IB2 fast. So I will add a couple of frames to the last two bounces to make them a little bit slower. Making sure they're now either move the difference politically as that would change their position on the scene. Great, I like it how it looks now. Now we just need to add the bull rotations to make it really credible. So in the graph editor, we'll go to the rotation axis on which you want the ball to spin, which in this case will be the red axis. Delete all the keyframes since they don't have in animation. And we want to create the rotations from scratch and cleanly go to the last frame and give the ball to or three spins, making sure that the rotations slow down progressively and that it doesn't make his low out at the beginning of the animation. And finally, we will make sure that the rotation speed when he's no longer bouncing corresponds with the speed at which the ball moves on the ground. To do this, we'll zoom in and meticulously go frame by frame, chicken and adjusting the curve on the graph editor until it is spins without sliding. Fee free to create new keyframes and modify their handles, but make sure that the curve keeps it fluidity, reducing its been progressively. We have successfully animated a bouncing ball. 12. How to bring the character to the scene: In this class, I'm going to show you how to set up your scene to start animating. First, create a fluorophore you seeing by going to add mesh plane. And if you want create there was two. Or you can also buy or download an already created environment. Now organize and create your entire scene, appending all the probes and characters that will appear in your animation. To do so, go to file append, select the folder where you have the rig. Click on it. Opened the object folder, select everything inside, and click on upend from Library. 13. Overlap: In this class we'll learn the principle of overlap. And this is basically making sure that the different parts of the character objects don't move at the same time, but instead, each part reaches the next pose, one after the other. When one begins to move in one direction, the following part, we will take one or more frames to start moving in that direction. And as I said, when finishing the movement will arrive before the others. Another way in which the overlap can be applied as a wave, which means that the energy or in Asia will flow through the body back and forth. Meaning that the different parts of the body will alternate the direction in which they move rotate, changing direction, one or more frames before the body pad directly next to it. It can be used, for example, when the character heat something. As it is the best way to animate the vibration effect on a complex character. Or 20 years old tale. And in general, any piece of fabric or very flexible material in which we'll have to animate it frame by frame to make sure that the energy flows and dissipates properly through the body or the body. Another way to apply the overlap to your animation is the drag, which consists in making the body or joined with the head, the arms, the legs defeat the hands, the fingers bend backwards in relation to the main movement or direction of the body. And keep in mind that you will almost always want to exaggerate the drag on the joints of your character scenes many times in your reference, it will seem that the movements are very rigid and direct. So you should accelerate the drag on the joints to give more flow to your animation and thus making them much more entertaining towards. The principle of overlap will be applied in any movement to make. Since we have to determine which part of the body is that the movement. So when we create the transition from one pose to the other, we do not want to have several parts of the body begins to move or reach the next pose on the exact same frame. What do we want to do is to make one part of the body begin to move while the rest of the body is pretty much still Linkedin Asia from the previous movement. And in the next, the rest of the body but begin to move to the next post as well. Similarly, when the God that is finishing a movement, we want to make sure that the different parts of the body arrived on different frames. Please note that in most cases there's not just one correct answer. For example, a simple head-turn, depending on the context and what motivates the character to turn the head. It can be done in several ways. Summarizing anything that can bend, have any type of joint or possibility to rotate will move with overlap. In some cases it will be very evident, and in others it will be more subtle, but it always has to have some overlap on the movements. And the overlap is one of the principles that most beginners don't pay enough attention to cursing the animations to become a thief. But be careful since another common mistake is over exaggerating the overlap. If the overlap is too extreme weather eighties by accelerating the drug too much or overlapping the movements of the different parts of the body by too many frames will make the animation less credible and possibly make your character look like they're made of rubber. Or make them feel like the different body parts are disconnected from each other. Also, you would create excessive movements, destructing the audience from the main message of your animation. As you can see, the key to making good animations is fine in this specific style for what you want to tell to your audience. And remember that there has to be a reason for each movement you animate so that it contributes to tell the story. Don't animate movements just because or to feel the time that it must always be a clear reason for every action your character does. 14. How to animate a pendulum: Hi. In this exercise, I will show you how to apply the principle of overlap by animating a pendulum. As you can see, we'll use a site camera to animate depends on them overlap more cleanly. And essentially, the first thing we'll do is to select all the controls and set that keyframe on frame one. Next, we'll go to frame 40 and established the final post of the pendulum block. To make the movement more organic, I'll create a BK slowing, creating keyframe, unframed 32, so that there is very little movements in these last eight frames, and therefore the movement finishes with a Christian. And to give a little bit more contrast to the animation, I'll make along a slow out, so it will then accelerate rapidly and we'll settle with the slowing. Next. We'll go a few frames after the point of the curve in which the pendulum reaches its maximum speed. And we'll create the popes who were the pendulum ball reaches its maximum height series. It will be right after the pendulum reaches its maximum speed when the hanging pirates will be at the moment of greatest drag. But remember that when you create depend on poses as the three joints don't have any muscles, each one of them will have to have the same amount of rotation. To do this, we'll use the floating panel, making sure that the values of the rotations are the same in all three joints. And since the pendulum never moves downwards, the last section will not rotate beyond the parallelism with the ground. Now will go to frame 40 and create the pose where the pendulum will be on the red that pose. And due to the inertia that it had, an acid slows down quite fast. The pendulum joints will reach almost the same angle as they had when the pendulum was accelerating. But since there is an additional force that propels them forward, these rotation cannot be greater than the rotation previously established at the point of maximum speed. We'll continue creating the swing of the pendulum, remembering that each swing we last exactly the same amount of frames, no matter if it's a small or a big swing. And in this case, I made them happen every 19 frames. Now we have to decide the percentage of the pendulum swings that will be reduced for each suing until it stops. Meaning that if the first oscillation is reduced by 20% from 25 to 20 points, the following oscillations will be reduced by 20% as well. But since this is animation, it doesn't have to be a hyper-realistic pendulum, since in reality the pendulum could swing for minutes or even hours. So we have to find a balance in which the animation is creditable but not boring. So for this animation, I will draw a reduction of about 20%, but assuming, without worrying too much about the math, but try to make it proportional so it stops in a credible way. Okay, so in total I get about ten oscillations. And I think I like it as it is. But to really see if it works or not, we have to wrap it up at the different joints from each other. And depending on the type of Mendelian you're animating, you will overlap them by 23 or four frames. And in this case I will choose to overlap them by three. To do this, we'll select the control of the first joint, will select all its keyframes, and we'll move them three frames to the right. Next we will move the keyframes of the second control, six frames to the right. And the last 19 frames to the right. Feel free to adjust the timing until it feels right and credible. And now we polish the beginning of the animation so that during the first couple of frames depended on ball remains on the same point since it has not been affected by the movement of the bloke. So firstly, since we moved all the frames, will create again a keyframe on frame one with all the joints values set to 0. And frame-by-frame, with the help of the graph editor, will adjust the rotations until we get the ball to stay still during the first couple of frames. And when it starts moving, it moves with this loud accelerating progressively and without bulbs. And finally, we will have to make sure that the pendulum joined rise up accordingly with the speed of the block. So we'll establish a keyframe in all the joints just before the pendulum makes the fastest toleration. And with the help of the graph editor will create an acceleration in the rotations of the giants right after that moment by tilting the handles of the new key frames so that the block and the pendulum joins, feel connected and feel like they belong to the same reality. And finally, we'll adjust the following keyframes. The transition is smooth and fluid. Ok, we have finished our pendulum animation. 15. The Outliner and the properties editor: Hi, in this class, I'm going to show you what is the outliner and the properties editor. In the outliner you will see everything that's on the scene. The objects, the characters, Lights, Cameras, references, et cetera. From here, you can select them easily. And it's very useful when you need to clean your sin since you can hide and delete anything from here. For example, when you bring your characters to the scene, many times they will appear with their own camera, lights and other items. You don't need. To keep this in clean. You can remove them or hide them by deactivating the eyes. On the right. Down below we have the properties editor. The properties editor has many options, but the one we'll use when animating will be these burn icon called bone. And the first thing we see is the name of the control we have selected or the less control selected. Below, we'll see the exact values of the three axes of location, rotation, and scale. And as you can see, they will update as we modify the controls. But if we want, we can modify them manually by writing the exact number or by left clicking and dragging until way we want. On the right we can see some logs icons with them. We can block the axes so it cannot be modified. Our next to it we can see a rhombus or appoint. The rhombus means that there is a keyframe is set on that axis on the frame Juran. And the point, or an empty rhombus means that there isn't a keyframe. And if we do a left click on it, it will said it or remove it. And don't worry about the points in the middle because we want to use. And finally, if we want to again hide these two panels and open the properties editor flooding panel, which has the same function as explained before, but takes up much less green space. That's it for now. See you on the next class. 16. Arcs: And the path of action, every movement will have to travel through a visual path on the screen and us, the animator will have to decide how the path will be, establishing where the object or body part will be positioned on the screen, on each one of the frames. And as a general rule, you want all the parts of the body to create visual acts on the screen when they move. The RX make things more interesting, fluid and enjoyable towards, and pretty much everything in nature moves on arcs. Some will we began a more defined and others will be more subtle. But we almost always want to create some kind of visual lag on each action. If you ever feel like your animations Arabic jerky or not really fluid and smooth? Chances are that you're not moving all the body parts in our eggs. So analyze how would you control moves in your animation and make sure that they move in eggs. If you're animating a humanoid character, the most important points you have to make sure the movie now dogs are the ankles, knees, the heaps, the elbows. There is the base of the neck, and the nose. Normally will police dogs in the final phase of the animations, making sure that they are smooth frame by frame. But it's very important that when you're creating all the main poses and each one of the breakdowns do design and establish what type of 5c each movement will have on each part of the body. If you design the R x from the beginning, the next phases of the animation or will be much easier and faster. And your animations will end up being much more fluid and organic. Also, if you look closely, you will notice that many of the Arabs and adjust simple curves, but at a slightly more complex. For example, they're back and forth movements. And when the character is settled seats inertia, it will generally create arcs, drawing an aid shape. Sometimes they will be super flat, eight fingers. And other times it will have a very large side and a small side. Sometimes they will be B. And another small subtle. But it's important that when you create back and forth movements, don't make the transition between the process to have the exact same trajectory both times. Since your animation would lose a lot of credibility. It's also very important that you only made the 9x towards the main camera as these is what the audience will see. An, although it's true that would be a TL for your character to movie nights on all perspectives. We have to focus on the main camera, also known as the render camera. So make sure you are happy with your camera before going deeper into your animation. Since any changes you make on your camera afterwards, would many of the arcs that you would have created. 17. The motion paths: The motion paths. The motion path is a great tool to track the movements of which parts of the body, making it easier for you to create good dialogues and a fluid animation as they will create the Thoughts on the 3D scene showing you where control is on every single frame. Therefore, is a great tool when you are polishing your animation to make sure everything is moving as smoothly and that the spacing is nice and correct. To create motion paths. First of all, we'll have to activate their visibility. Then we'll select the control that we want to track. Then go to pose, motion path, calculate, setup the range of frames you want to create, emotional Path4 and heat. Okay? Keep in mind that blender will run much slower whenever you have a motion path created. As for every new ideas meant a blender will recalculate it. So make sure to delete them once you have finished analyzing or polishing the movement. Will do that by going to pose motion path and clicking on clear. 18. Squash and stretch: Hi, in this class we'll learn the principle of this question as dredge. This question I stretch is basically the principle that states that an object always has to give their volume, even when a force is acting upon them. Or stretching. Stretcher characters in many occasions when we want to make our animations more fluid. And generally the softer and more malleable the guard, this body two will animate on them. In this example, we can see how when they fall under being wind jumps out of the body of the Alpaca. Their weight and force that the beam will makes downwards, makes its value squash on the opposite side as it is quite soft. To apply this question, I stretch correctly. You have to analyze where the force or inertia comes from and how much United or does it have a seed slows down. For example, when these ball hits the ground, it squashes. When the ball bounces, the squash will have built-up energy that will be released in the opposite direction. So as soon as it has lost all the nasa going down, it will rarely see it causing the ball to stretch as it jumps off the ground. Being the last frame before it stops touching the ground. When it is more stretched, it will soon return to its original shape and reach its maximum height, where for a few frames it will appear as if it is floating on the asset would have lost almost all the energy that propelled it upwards. And the force of gravity will begin to pull it down. As it falls again and increases the speed. It will begin to stretch. The amount of storage will depend on how elastic are flexible, they materialize and the speed of the movement. The last frame before hitting the ground or the contact post will be where the ball is more stretched and will repeat the process until it has lost all the energy and stops bouncing. But remember that as the mouse is getting smaller, this question I stretch should also get more subtle. Also keep in mind that the direction of this question and estrogen, We'll have to correspond with the direction in which our object moves. We also use this principle to generate contrast in our animations, expanding their limbs and bringing the body together to replicate the squash and Australian and up the body to grade them or straight posed to replicate the stretch. We'll use the squash and stretch principle in all our animations and will almost always have to exaggerated because if we copied information from real life to the computer, frame by frame, animations will tend to have a stiffness feeling. So exaggerating this question, we create much of that fluidity that innovation needs. 19. The anticipation: Hi, in this class we'll learn the principle of anticipation. The anticipation is necessary to create believable and realistic animations when we animate any voluntary movement. So that the force that generates the movement is internal. In dissipation is generally done by creating a rotation or a movement in the opposite direction of the main movement. Or by making the object is question the opposite direction before moving or jumping. Obviously, we wouldn't need a dissipation. But even in some simple voluntary movements where we wouldn't really need anticipation very often by adding a little anticipation, who will give a more stylized fluid unattractive damage to our animation. And dissipations are essential when we want to change the fulcrum or we want to remove one of the points. Since we the anticipation, we're momentarily translating our weight to the other supporting points, therefore ceasing to exert force against the ground, allowing us to move it freely. The greater than dissipation we create, the bigger the movement should be. So try to create a coherent anticipation. Don't go overboard creating huge anticipations for a small movement or a very small anticipation for a big movement. When we make them dissipation for a movement, we position ourselves in the best way possible in order to use the maximum amount of first in the most efficient way in a certain direction. For example, if we wanted to throw something very far, we want to be able to move with the most amount of these tense with the arm to give more inertia to wherever we're throwing. So on the dissipation, we want to put ourselves in the position that allow us to give the greatest amount of inertia to the launch. Or if we want to jump very high, costs down as much as possible, but to a point where it keeps being efficient. In the anticipation about from positioning ourselves in a Bows where we can build the maximum amount of inertia will position ourselves so that the movement is the easiest possible and we can build the inertia towards the direction we wanted. Another thing to keep in mind is that the more inertia we have before the anticipation, the lesson dissipation will lead. With the anticipation. We're also dealing the audience were to look on the screen and we are letting them know that an important movement is going to happen. This way we make sure that the audience look exactly where we want before we animate domain action. And so they want to miss any important details. The greater the anticipation, the stronger are bigger the following movements should be. But if we want, we can accelerate the speed and size of the anticipation for humoristic purposes. The anticipation of the anticipation or double anticipation, consists of making a much smaller anticipation for the main anticipation. And its purpose is to be able to make a much bigger anticipation to there for omega bigger or stronger than a movement. Although many patients that double anticipation can also be used for aesthetic reasons to make them more interesting. Animation o to emphasize personality. The anticipation not only serves to give credibility to the goddess movement, they are also hugely useful to dress me the character's personality, either by performing some kind of a secondary action, or by creating a spatial anticipation pose that is unique and specific to the godless personality and feelings. It is not necessary for each anticipation to be super regional. But if you strive to give more personality to most anticipations, you animations would be much more entertaining. You have to find a specific balance for what you want to transmit. Always keeping in mind the style in which you are animating. The more realistic the animation style. Nonetheless, exaggeration will want to use. But remember that in animation we have to exaggerate everything. At least Toledo scenes. If we copy it exactly from real life, it will tend to be boring. And the goal of animation is to entertain. 20. How to animate a simple character with a tail: Hi, in this class I will show you how to animate a simple character, a ball with a tail. First, we'll bring our character to a scene, go into append, selecting the folder where we have the rig. Go into the object folder and selecting everything inside and clicking on upend from library. But now as you can see with this rig and sometimes with other rake says, well, there are a lot of things that appear in our scene, but we only want to see the character. So to clean up the scene, that's one of the things that they all liner is great for. Here. You can remove them or hide them by clicking on the ice on the right. So in this case, I'll hide everything except the righ. Now that we have our async lean will focus their character by pressing f. But now as you can see, we cannot select and if the controls. And this is because where an object mode. So to be able to post cigar at an animated, we must change it to post mode. Okay, so now you will almost always see that the characters have a big control just below them. But this one is only used to place a character wherever he's going to start the animation, but you will never use it to animate the character. Okay, so we first 13 will set up the camera that we're going to use for this exercise. So we'll use the orthographic side view so we can easily and clearly animate the movements of the tail. Okay, so firstly, we'll animate the body and the day later, since all the movements of the tail will depend on the movements of the body. To move it around will use the central control. But as you can see, the blue axis of the array contribute words is the red one on the graph editor, which is not ideal. And this is because the axis asset up to global mode. So to set up the axes of the viewport too much the ones of the graph editor will change it to gimble mode. And now we'll start animating. Firstly, we'll select all the controls and create a keyframe on frame one. And we'll also create a keyframe on frame five. The CSO, the animation doesn't start on frame one. That way we'll make sure that the audience is watching the rig before it starts moving so that they don't miss anything of the animation. Next, we'll create the keyframe for frames later on, frame nine. Pi will create the second pose, which will be this question and the anticipation pose. Also remember that you can widen your viewport, reducing the side panels and opening the floating panel. Next we'll set the keyframe on frame 12, where we'll create depose of the last frame, is still in contact with the ground. And we limit forwards. A city is the direction of the jump. Eight frames later in frame 20 will create the extreme oppose, which is the frame where reaches the highest point of the jump. And we'll set this question Esther edge to 0. Then we'll create the contact pose, which is the first post where it touches the ground again. In which we illustrate cheat and lean it backwards. Now we could create the complete squash post on the next frame. But since we want to convey that the character's body has more consistency and strength will create the complete his question posed to frames laser instead of 13 frames, letter will create the final pose in which the character returns to its original shape. Ok, so we have already created the six main poses for the body. But now as we can see as it jumps off the ground, the character moves with this louds. And just before the impact against the ground, it moves with its low in and we don't want that. So we'll go to the graph editor and on the axis that represents its vertical movements will change the handles to vector. So that takes off the ground with a fast out and impacts the eigenstate with Avastin. And also will adjust the axis that represents its horizontal movement so that it moves at the same speed for us. Well, on the since we want this question extra edge to be felt rather than seeing will go through flames after it is stops touching the ground. And it will return the character to iterate general shape. But we'll do it with a control that is quests you sanitary edges from below, sees. If we use the one from above, it would reduce its speed on the screen for a few frames. Thus creating an incoherence is spacing, as you can imagine, we don't want that. So if we use the control below, the effect will be similar to what our feet and lake would do after we jump. Question app right after they stopped touching the ground. We can also notice that the last frame in which the character stretches, the spacing of the top of the body reduces instead of keep is speeding up progressively. So we let just the handles of the vertical and horizontal axis so that it discourages up progressively, and therefore with a coherent space in giving the jump more power and intensity. Okay, now that I see the animation, the first thing I notice is that the fall is too slow. So I'm going to check the vertical axis of the character's body on the graph editor. And as you can see, I made a mistake here. Sees now the foal takes two frame is longer than the jump up. But there is no reason to worry. Just have to select all the characters controls. And selecting from the frame where it touches the ground. I'll move all the keyframes to frames to the left. So then now the foal last the same amount of frames stun the jump. Now that I corrected this, I feel like the jump is too small and I would like to create a higher jump. To do these who simply go to the graph editor and on the vertical axis of the body will go to the keyframe. We, we have created the extreme hypos, and we'll move it a bit higher up. Okay, great. Next what we'll do is to create a more credible settle to its inertia. Since now it feels heavy stuff. Has to jump also has horizontal inertia in the subtle Willie need to slyly forwards so it stops the movement with its low when on the higher parts of the body, so it doesn't disturb us if it had hit a wall. These movement will cause the dopa with body to create a visual arc on the screen. But to really create a fluid and organic saddle will repeat the process gradient another visualize, but this time very, very small, given it's a more wobbly feeling. So both X is making sure that the movements are more fluid. Now that I look at it, I feel like the satellite I created is at that too fast. So i will scale up the frame so that it settles its inertia, the slower on. Finally, we'll adjust this question so that the first frame after it hits the ground has a bigger spacing then the second one. So creating a very smallest low in on this question on maintaining a coherent spacing. Okay, we have already animated the character's body. Now instead of the tail. To start on frame one will create the first pose of the tail. And then we'll remove all the other keyframes from all the controls of the towel to clean up the curves since we are going to animate them from scratch. Next, we proceed to post it L for the anticipation pose. We want the character to move the tail like a WEP, helping to propel itself upwards and forwards. To do so, it will begin to move the tail from the part that is closest to the body. And as the first parts of the Dell move than experts will follow. And as we learned in the pendulum exercise, the TPP will stay in the same place, two in the first few frames. Then we'll post it L for the stretch impose. And as you can see, we want the towel to flow smoothly between poses. So we'll have to pay close attention to the tip of the tail, making sure that it follows the path of action of the rest of the tail will continue creating deposes, taking into account the direction of the tails inertia and the influence that the movements of the body half and it always remembering that the movements and the changes of direction of that El Bulli staff from the closest para to the body. And just like a wave, the energy will be transmitted all the way to the tip. To create clean and beautiful Bose's meaning that the silhouette of the doll has no sharp angles, but instead has this mood on blinkered silhouette. And remember that when you are creating imposes on breakdowns, you should always get the keyframe when all the controls for each pose. As you can see for character consistency, I copied the posts of the tail from the first frame and pasted on the last one. We continue creating the tail pulses after the character hits the ground. And remember that if you need to adjust the timing, whether it is to make the wave-like motion faster or slower, you can easily digested by scaling the keyframes on the timeline. Okay, now that we have done a first pass on the tail, we'll do another quick render to start to polish our animation. The first thing I notice is that the model is that we need to Steve. So I'll make sure that all the controls of the tail finished and move into the last pose with its low in. Another thing that I see now that I want to fix is the stretching when jumping, since I feel it takes too long and the momentum loses intensity. So I will select all the key frames from the end until the pose of maximum stretching and move them one frame back. This way the stretching will last one frame less, giving it as Nabeel feeling. Another thing that I notice is that at some points and animation, detail does not flow properly in relation to the previous frame. For example, at the beginning, we can see that on the frame from which it takes up the ground, detail doesn't follow a fluid path. And there is a big pop from one frame to the next one. So I'll fix that. Another thing that I also want to correct is anticipation since the dal moves down quite stiff instead of unrolling fluidly like a wave. So keeping an eye on the tip of the tail will make sure that it stays in the same place during the first frames until the rest of the day, we'll sit down. And from that moment onwards, it will move smoothly, drawing invisible lives on this green. We can also see that the same thing happened at the end. So we'll make sure that the deepest detail flows properly frame by frame. And lastly, now that I say it again, I will adjust the movement of the tail on the jump so that the movement and the height of the matches with its own inertia on the movements of the body. Always keeping an eye on the tip of the tail. Okay, great. We have already finished our animation. 21. Intro to staging: The staging is how you set up each shot. The staging involves everything that East used to tell the story to the audience. The place where it's happening. The camera angles, the movements, the characters, the probes, and the location of each one of them on the scene. We always need to know what we want to convey to the audience on each short. Show your ID as clearly as possible so that when the audience watch it for the first time, they clearly see what's happening, what is take context, and where they have to look. There are two very important rules that you must always remember. Simplicity and the ideas one by one. It is very important that you remember these scenes for many animation beginners as their discovery in a whole new world and full of possibilities. They want to animate everything and keep the characters and camera's moving excessively. I know it fun, but don't do it. Making your animations as simple as possible is unearth. And I know that a lot of people have a hard time with it. But if you manage to tell the story and the emotions of the characters in the fewest number of movements possible. Not only will take you much less time to animate, the audience will also greatly appreciate it. The ideas one by one. The audience is only able to look at one place at a time. So it is essential that we show them the information one-by-one scenes, if we have two important actions that we want them to see, but when he made both of them at the same time, they will most likely miss one of them, and therefore they may not understand the rest of the animation. So remember, simplicity and the ideas one by one. 22. The point of attention: The point of attention. This is basically making sure that the audience look exactly where you want them to look. We could say this rule is a continuation of the previous one, since you will have to present the ideas one-by-one so that they know where they have to look. In general, the audience who will always look wherever there is more movement. But since this is not entirely true, as the audience who will always tend to look to the point of this screen, whether it's the biggest contrast. What I mean is that if everything in this scene is steel and something moves, they will automatically to that point. But if in the other hand, there is a lot of movement and something abruptly stops. Or even if there is a lot of movement and something moves very slowly or in the opposite direction, the audience will also automatically Look at that point. Although ways to tell the audience were to look at, could be separating the main character from the rest. Making the other characters look at him. Make so that there are visual lines that point to where we want them to look. At. The main object is moral focus than the rest. Although their colors are different. The military x we use the clearer or animation will be for the audience. But make sure that the ones that you use compliment the story in some way. Don't use them, just to use them. You always have to guide to anticipate the audience when you want to change the point of attention on the screen. Otherwise they could miss an important parts of your animation. Likewise, when there is a camera at the animation must continue with the audience was looking before the gut. This way they want to notice it and will continue to invest in the world you had created. If you change the point of attention from one shot to the next, you will completely confuse the audience, forcing them to make an effort to follow the animation thread again. And as you can imagine, that's something we don't want. 23. Cameras: The cameras. In 3D animation, the cameras are virtual, which means that they are not limited by the laws of physics like in the normal movies. But these can be tricky since it is very easy to do camera animation with Visa angles and crazy movements. Remember what I said about clarity and simplicity? Well, the same goes for cameras. Unless accurate, there has to travel long distances that require camera movements, is whether to position the camera in a place that we like and that we feel has the best angle for the clarity of our animation and try to not touch it anymore unless necessary. Empty space can be very powerful in telling the audience what's going to happen or what is happening. For example, if we have a lot of empty space in front of the character, these tell us that something is going to happen in front of him. For that, for example, is talking to someone far away in front of him. In the other hand, if we left them to space behind the character, it would imply that something is going to happen behind him. The rule of thirds. This is basically to create your animation in one of the lateral and vertical third of the screen. And if possible, make the character moves from one to the other throughout your animation. Many animation beginners think that the middle of the screen is where they have to create the animations. But the truth is that the third side of the screen are much more enjoyable for the audience towards. So try to make the most important parts of your animation to happen on one of them. Continuity. Contiguity is making sure that when there is a camera cut, our character, our object is in the same posture as before. The camera Kat. Also in creating camera, it is a very good idea to animate the characters settling to the post after the cat. So instead of having the camera cats and then their character is already in the next post. What we will do is to keep a bit of movement from the previous action. This way we'll connect the two shots much nicer and the animation as a whole will feel more fluid. Another point to keep in mind when making a camera iPad in the middle of an action is to make sure that from one car to the other, the movement is perceived at the same speed. Direction on camera. If we have established that the character is walking or moving, the, for example, the right side of the screen on the roads will have to place the camera so that they keep moving towards the same side and dystopian reaching the objective. Or of course, unlisted character changes direction in the middle of a shirt. It is very important that you respect this rule as theories will be completely confused if you change the direction of the character on the screen between camera cats. 24. Camera framing: Camera Framing, depending on where we put the camera on, each shot, will be transmitting different things to the audience. And it could help us to show them the importance of a certain action. There are six main types of framings. Very long. Lung, full, Medium, close up, an extreme close-up. There. Very long frame means show great length of a space. Usually the I used to start or finish stories in a movie since they make DOD and see the whole space where the animation is going to happen or is happening. Given the audience a little understanding of the state of the world in which they live in and how they got this could feel. The long framings are often used to tell sequences since they make duty and somewhere who could be involved in each shot, the place and the objects that surround them. They are also used to and the character is going to move throughout the whole screen. That way will avoid being continuously move in a change in the camera to frame our character. On the full-frame in will live a margin above and below the character's body and will use them when we want to show that the movements are actions of the entire body of the character. In other words, when we want to show the posture and body language of the whole body. With the medium framing, we'll show our characters from waste up. And we'll use this type of framing when important things in the animation are the movements of the hands on or the facial expressions. And usually they are generally used in conversations of two to four characters, as long as they're relatively close to each other. Will use close-up frames when doing important things in the short or the facial expressions. Or when we want to make the audience aware of the existence of a specific object or action. This framing may include from the Head and Shoulders to only the head, as well as a complete framing of the object direction that we want to highlight. And finally, the extreme close-ups will only show the facial expressions and is used to show with high definition the emotional and mental processes that are Gabe's going through. As a general rule, try to always have a reasonable margin between your director and any of the sides of the screen. Unless for a specific reason you need to break this rule. Your character leaves the camera framing and in the next shot, the movement continues to be shown on many occasions, especially in axial movements. You will want to make the last frame before the cat so that you can still see some parts of your character's body. These will help to create good continue EDM fluidity throughout to animation. Although many times to create suspense, you can break this rule. It is very important that you keep track of where the audience point of attention is. Because if the audience is looking to another part of the screen or another character, it wouldn't be necessary to continuously in a part of the character on the last frame before they got. 25. The camera angles: The camera angles. With the camera angles, we can convey many things to the audience, like hierarchy, emotional state, or what's happening to the character. If we didn't have a clear intention as to why we want to create a specific camera angle. Almost always we want to use the three-quarters rule, which consists in that will try to show our characters more or less at the 45-degree angle. Generally, we want to show as many sites as possible. This way will clearly represent the volume of the object. So characters on each shot. Given a greater feeling that the world of our animation is real. We can modify the height of the camera for aesthetic, technical, or psychological reasons. Upwards. As the name suggests, is when the camera is located below the places filming. Ani is very useful to convey importance or power in relation to the rest of the characters are objects of your animation. Or simply to show that our character isn't a higher place. Forest climb into certain place which we want to show to the audience. With this camera angle will be able to trust me that their character or object is insignificant, small, or has very little power. Or just for technical reasons. They are also generally used to establish the beginning of a story or scene with a very large framing and therefore making the audience see the entire space and possibly the characters or objects involved. 26. Intro to good poses: How to create good process. Probably the most important principle of all is creating good process, especially the main ones, making sure they are clear, credible, and visually appealing. Just by looking at the main poses, the audience should be able to understand what your character said, when and how they feel. When we create the main process, we have to spend as much time as possible making them awesome so the audience quickly cease the idea that we want to convey. So this principle is probably the most difficult of all. Remember that in the end, unless you are creating an animation for a video game where the players will be able to move the camera around freely for audience will only see our animation on a flat screen. So make sure that the post is you create are appealing through the main camera. When creating them imposes make sure to move every part of the body in each pose, even if it is just a little. If you think there is no movement of the body, analyze your reference again and you will see that although maybe subtle, each and every part of the body move in relation to the main movement you are performing. Once you have the references and you're ready to start animating, there are several factors that you'll have to keep in mind to make sure that you are creating good poses. The silhouette, the contrast, the balance, the line of action, the weights, assymetry, and the source of the force. And remember that we should always exaggerate these concepts on the Bose's, since the references are just that and we must use them as such. 27. The origin of the force: The origin of the flows. When we animate any type of animation in which they corrected. Thus any movement from lifting a box. With a simple postural change. We have to imagine that our character has real muscles and know which muscles are contracting and which one does it first. In other words, we must animate from the origin of the photos. For example, the origin of the triceps. And finally there is. And if we wanted to push something depending on how heavy they will use only the arms. Those on the arms, or the whole body. The heaps play a very important role here, since not only many actions will start at the heap, someone anticipating the movement, but they also key to contain the weights and direction of the force. Will have to take all of that into account when great imposes. Since these will also show the audience the effort made by the characters on each action. This is why it's so important to recall references to any to yourself. So if you have any doubts, not only you'll be able to see it at also to feel firsthand what your body's doing and where the force is originating from. 28. Perspective and orientation: The perspective and orientation is important and wherever possible the body is open towards camera. In other words, that your characters gesture and perform their actions oriented and in such way that covers their body as little as possible. And that we can see that it faces most of the time instead of the back of the head. These will make the bosses cleaner and easier to read. For example, the scene would probably had been cleaner if their character had used the other hand, too big devolve. Although for example, in this case, as he has already use the other hand to pick the first thing is more unnatural for her to take it with the undercover cell body. But nevertheless, as you can see, she quickly orients the body again towards the camera. The I am no longer covers her body. 29. The Silhouette: The silhouette. The silhouette is the outline, the lines of the edges of the poses. To create a good silhouette, we should try to create beautiful lines that are appealing to see. We shouldn't copy the poses exactly from our references as we can always improve the silhouette at the same time we exaggerated. On the other hand, I good silhouette will also have contrast, which means that the pulse will have a very simple silhouette on one side with very clean undefined lines. On the other side, we'll have a more complex and BC silhouette lines. Another of the most important things to create good silhouettes are the negative spaces, the narrative spaces at the spaces that you will leave between the different parts of the character's body so that the pulses are cleaner and easier to read. It is not necessary to always having relatively spaces between all the different parts of the body. But when possible, do eat as it will make your process much clearer. Keep the silhouette clean, and avoid having the edges of the different parts of the body barely touching each other as these will give the wrong impression of what is really happening. So either 2i v1 to separate them, oppose them one in front of the other one. But although you can make your characters gesture and perform the actions in front of the body. Ideally when you create the poses to a, to make them so that the actions happen outside of the silhouette of the body that we, the audience will read deposes much easier and faster. Also, it's important to make sure you don't post their limbs pointing directly at the camera because they will look much further and we wouldn't be able to see the real volume. And if the limbs Arab and make sure that through the camera we can see the band instead of a straight line. Similarly tried to avoid process in which a part of the body is completely out of sides, either if it is the whole arm or just a finger. So basically ideally, we would paint everything black. We should be able to clearly see where he is and what he's doing in every part of the body. Because as you know, we want the audience to understand the pose as fast as possible. 30. Avoid Symmetry: Avoid symmetry in your process. As a general rule, we want to avoid creating symmetrical poses. Even though many times in real life we just move with quite a lot of symmetry. If you do the same in animation, it can feel a bit Steve and boring. So always try to modify your process. So there is at least a little variation from side-to-side. But if you want or needed to create somewhat symmetrical pulses, then you should really make sure to create as imager. And the timing making one side is that the movement one or two frames before the other one. In other words, creating overlap between them. In this way, even though the pose of the character's body is quite symmetrical, the movement will be asymmetrical. So it won't look like one side is the reflection on the mirror of the other one. This way, your bosses and animations will be much more beautiful, fluid and entertaining towards. 31. The line of action: The line of action. The Lima function is an imaginary line that flows through the volume of the character. And all good bosses will have a clear and defined line of action. The lines of action can be seen inverted shaped, C-shaped, S-shaped, curve or a straight line. Creating good lines of function will give you a poses a lot of dynamism. And they will have to transmit the strength to weight when you are making an effort. And as always, we want to create contrast and variation. So in this case, we will achieve it by changing the line of action from one pose to the other. Either by bending it, reversing the line of action to the opposite side, or by straightening it. Once you record your reference, observing which parts you would exaggerate the lana faction to make deposes more dynamic. And where could you create more contrast? Times our animation will require maintaining practically the same line of action in the body throughout the entire shot. In those cases, look for a moment where you can stretch or bend the line of action a little bit more. Even if it is just for a moment. As these will make your animations much more organic. Removing a lot of stiffness from your characters. And remember that you can and should also create glass of action through the limbs. So remember creating contrast on the line of action will give a lot of dynamism to the movement. And as you can observe, many times when flipping the liner function on the breakdown pose or the Bose in-between them, we'll have an S-shape line of action. 32. The golden poses: They called imposes. The golden poses at the process that convey the specific idea or ideas you want to show in your animation. In other words, depose, opposes that convey the most important actions or emotions the character is going through. They called impulses at the main process that are able to tell the essence of this story just by themselves. Ideally, you should have the least amount of gold imposes so that with 12 or three doses, you can perfectly show the essence of your animation and what is happening in the creative and tried to find the posts that rest meets everything. How they feel, what they are going to do. And what do they want. Everything you want to convey in your animation trade to put it into 12 or three called imposes. Find a way to tell your idea great in as few possess as possible. Because although it can be funny to move your characters non-stop and make them change process continuously. If we want the audience to remember our animations intensely, we have to create fewer poses to convey as clearly as possible, as much information about our animation and our characters as we can. In this way, the process will be much more intense and we'll emotionally reach the audience, thus making a much more memorable animation. Also, it is very important that you give enough time to the audience to see and read deposes. Because if we transition to soon from one pose to the next, the audience would not have enough time to internalize it. And many times a very effective way to keeping your character in the same post while it's doing something is to make him act within the golden pose. Which means that it's going to gesture or move while maintaining the overall shape and minor faction and keeping almost the same body posture. Now the way the audience will have enough time to internalize the bows, and we'll have a very good perspective on how they feel and what they're thinking. 33. The balance: The balance. Whenever a character is standing, still or moving, will have to make sure that it's balanced. And if you stand in a steel, heat must have the same weights on both sides of the fulcrum. Another important thing to keep in mind is that the further away the weight is run, the fulcrum demo, we'll have to compensate it moving our way towards the opposite side. So if we want to lift something heavy closer to the fulcrum, the object is here, it will be for us to lift it. And if the character has multiple support points, you cannot have more weight outside than within them. For example, when we are going to pick something up from the ground to maintain our balance, we'll move our hips backwards because if we don't within our body forwards, it will imbalances. So depending on the weight of the object, would be forced to put ourselves in a certain position to make it easier for us and to not fall forward when trying to lift the weight. If the character is moving, each should be slightly unbalanced towards moving. The more way to move away from the fulcrum, the ECA will be for us to move towards that side. Similarly, the faster we went to go, the more we'll have to balance our body. In this example, you can notice how as we went to start running very quickly, will take a very small jumbo step backwards that will allow us to put our feet behind our body. And thus unbalancing as much quicker will also do these when we want to quickly change direction. As you can see, what we do is put in our feet away from our balanced point to instantly imbalances, to decide we want to turn, sees this way unbalanced as much faster than just leaving no body towards the direction we want. So similarly to stop our movement will just have to lean in the opposite direction to the one we are moving. A. Remember that when they are not moving, you will have to make sure that if they existed in the real world, they wouldn't fall down. And when they are emotion, you'll have to make sure that the degree of fund balance is proportional to the speed there moving and type of movement they are making. Don't worry if at the beginning Phil, sabotage, take it easy with a little practice, you will be able to see at first glance if the boss is balanced or not. 34. The weight and strength: The weight and strength, although to a large extend will determine the weights and a strength through the timing. The posttest would create have to show it correctly. And depending on the number of muscles and joints involved in each post to make an effort. And the line of force of the posts are proportional weight and force will be perceived. The lines of force. The lines of force will help to transmit strength and weight when your character is making an effort, as stemmer, direct align or lines of force are towards the direction we want to push or pull something the most strength will be perceived. And as you can imagine, the heaps are a key part in transmitting the weight and strength. Since the better aligned himself with the body in relation to where we want to push, the more force will have to make the movement. Similarly, the level of exaggeration on the line of action of will clearly convey the level of place-making. Also exaggerating the balance of the Bose's would be a very effective way to transmit the width of someone or something asteroid weight. Then we will have to move to the opposite side where we have the weight to keep the same amount of weight on both sides. And so maintaining balance. If we wanted to convey that are lifting something very heavy, probably would want to make the movements of the effort is lower and with the most symmetrical spacing. Although they could also live in a most targeted way, making short-term foster folds. Doing these will also create much more variation in the timing and spacing of our animation. So if your character is Elephantina heavyweight in a slow and more even way, is a really good idea to make them read just the position of the hands or feet to create contrast in the speed of the movements. And if the character is moving will tend to leave defeat as little as possible from the ground and take smaller steps. In addition, we will make the process more rigid since the greater the weight of the object, rarely 15 more tense muscles will be. And therefore the more retweets are movements would be. And that is why it's so important that when you record your references, you do eat with real weights. So the effort you're making is the closest to the one you want to convey in your animation. Because otherwise your offense will deceive you more than it will help you. 35. The moving holds: Moving holds. In 3D animation, we can't make anything that we want to convey that is alive to stay completely still. And that even for a few frames, as CODASYL quickly noticed that the character is fake and it will appear to be a lifeless object. But in the other hand, we don't want it to be continuously moving for a reason. So if we want our character to stop or not move for some reason, what we'll do is to create a moving hold. A moving hold is basically animate them within the pose so that their body keeps moving ever-so-slightly, although good, almost unnoticeable. For example, one way to make moving holds is to continue the movement very slightly according to the direction of the inertia. So that first Teresa quicker, slow into their pose, and then it maintains a very, very smallest spacing throughout the month of frames that the post lasts. And even if you want a few frames, who's also a very, very smallest spacing recalling back as a circle. Most of the times, just by settling denature for character will give us enough time to start the next movement. But if you need to keep your character Steel for a long time will create a small adjustments on the opposes. Look for ideas that feed their personality, such as which achieved a slight adjustment on the head or arms. Omega, the glass somewhere to convey that is thing gain and a still alive. Although the most effective way to convey that they're alive without moving the march is by animating them breathe in when the character is still or moving very slowly. It essential that unit made their breathing acid will not only give a lot of credibility to your animation, muddied will also serve as a moving hold. Keep in mind the actions that your phone just before. What are the emotions? And remember, the inhalation will normally lasts longer than the acceleration. Be sure to look for the idea that best feeds what you want to convey, but always avoid completely freezing your character. 36. The main poses, breakdowns & inbertweens: The main poses, the breakdowns and the in-betweens. We will create a mean posts for each movement or action that is necessary to tell the story. Generally, these will be the extremes of each movement when the character changes posture or line of action. And if there was any frame where it interacts with other characters are objects. So basically you should analyze your reference and tried to find the process that best represent the idea you want to tell. The breakdowns. Although we have already been juicing them now will explain in detail how to create good breakdowns. And the breakdowns are the second most important imposes. The breakdowns are the poses that will create between all the main poses. With the main process, we establish the story and with the breakdown so we define the movement. Keep in mind that because of the complexity of most over movements and the breakdowns are approximate scenes. Most of the time you won't be able to create a breakdown world. The parts of the body are in the middle of a movement. So use your own judgment and tried to create the breakdowns that best defying the movements of each action. Sometimes you will need 123 breakdowns to define a movement. So wherever you feel is right. In the breakdowns will decide the size and type of arcs that the characters will draw on the screen. Analyze your animation closely and make sure you start creating X for all the parts of the body when you are creating the reg downs. With the breakdowns will also decide the level of acceleration that are animations we'll have. And as you can see, the possibilities are almost endless. So think carefully what you really want to convey to the audience and create the breakdowns With that in mind. Also taking into account the speed of the movement, will apply the overlapping principles accordingly to great a fluid and organic animation. Unevenly doing them in process that you are creating the breakdowns. There is not much contrast on the line of action. Try to find a way to create contrast on the breakdowns. Since it will make the movements much more organic and it will reduce the stiffness of the animation. The in-betweens. The in-betweens are basically the second breakdowns. In the in-betweens will have to analyze the movement of each part of the body to decide the size of this low means the size of this law out, the overshoots. If there is any Festina fast out and the size of the spacing and the overlap between all the different parts of the body is the hand is still dragging back. Thus the band have a fasting when heating and then slowly into the final pose. Do they heaps have practically settled already? Or are the last one to settle? Is the food completely planted or is raised from one side? With the main process, you create the story. With the breakdowns, do define and accelerate the movements. And with in-betweens, you'll break up and create variation in the movement to give credibility to your animation. Scenes. All these details from in which frame and at what speed the hips begin to rotate after the food contacts the ground to how the torus or rotates for the spacing at which the legs are straight. And all these will be the details that will confirm to the audience that the characters leave in a real-world and have real bones and muscles in the body. To grading betweens anyone breakdown and the breakdown is a great tool as it will create an equal percentage in-between posts on all the controls you have selected. This way, you know that the correct controls and rotation axis have been used and that all the body parts move at least the beads. In addition, it will save you a lot of time, scenes as it creates mathematically exact process among other process. When really good trick is to select all the controls, create a keyframe with the breakdown or in between the process on the frame you want to create the breakdown and then adjust to different parts of the body to create more overlap and more contrasting the spacing. Because the breakdown I come back via scenes if you get too lazy and if you lived in betweens pretty much as the breakdown, I created them, your animation, we'll probably end up being floated on boring. So yeah, don't be lazy. 37. The hips: The heaps and body rotations. The heaps allow us to move connecting the legs with the rest of the body. The heaps are probably the most important part for creating physically credible animations. Since the heaps is where will convey most of the weight of the character. When the character stops any movement with their feet, the Heaps will take several frames after the impact to be able to slow down the inertia and settle. When any maintain Keep in mind that any judgment on the Heaps will affect the leg poses, the abdomen, the chest, the arms, the neck, and the head. So any Pope or jerky movements on the heaps, we'll create Pope's or jerky movements on the rest of the character's body. So it is very important that the first thing you polish your animations, the heaps, making sure that the ins and outs to and from each pose, I correct that they move in fluid archs under the timing and spacing is good. Also apart from how they move, you have to pay close attention to how they rotate. Since the heaps can rotate in any direction depending on which leg the character is supporting the most weight. Which one is higher? Which ladies in front and which one is behind? And how much is the body leaning forwards or backwards? Something very interesting is that practically always the upper part of the body will rotate in the opposite direction to the heaps. Therefore, the visual angle of the shoulders will almost always be opposite to the heaps. Decide to say rotations of the Heaps will determine which leg is in front and which one is behind. So the rotation of the Heaps will always be proportional to the position of the feet. And as you can see, the chest angle will be opposite to the heaps. Like for example, when we walk. When we wait for someone opening other movements, the up-and-down rotations. We can voluntarily rotate the heaps up or down things to their muscles we have on the sides with which we are able to lift them support the width of our body. But although in reality we have a lot of autonomy deciding how much we rotate them up and down. Realistically, we never rotate them without a reason. So this rotation will depend on the height and position of the legs. And on which leg we're supporting await. The Heaps will rotate upwards over the leg that we're putting the most overweight. So as we move the weight from one leg to the other, Heaps will gradually rotate. On. Obviously, the faster you transfer the weight, the faster your hips will rotate. As I mentioned, the angle of rotations of the heaps up and down will also be determined by the height to which each leg is raised, planted, synced them all we want to lift the leg, the more we'll have to rotate the heaps over that leg. For example, when we go up the stairs, will rotate up the side of the heaps of the leg. We went to leave in order to reach the next step. The higher we want to position the foods they model will rotate the heaps. And once we reach the ground with the food, will start to transfer our weight to that leg, which will rotate the heaps even moreover, that leg. When we decide to take the next step, the heaps would rotate in the opposite direction to lift up the other leg. And just like before, there will rotate even more when we have fully shaped that our way through these other leg. On the other hand, if we were to go into understood as the hips rotations will be a tiny bit more complex. As always, to lift the leg off the ground, that side of the Heaps will rotate up. By this, we're going to position the food lower than before, the heap sooner they down over that leg to allow the food through which the flow. And as soon as we start to draft the way to this leg and the Hebrew root AdaBoost again over that leg. You will also have to take into account the weights of the character since degraded await with eighties body weight or that we're carrying something heavy, delaware will be our ability to support this weight with a lateral muscles. So in order to update the hips up to lift one leg will need to turn for a much more weight to the other leg to reduce the effort that these lateral hip muscles have to make to lift up that side of the body. In other words, we would make a bigger anticipation. And likewise, once it's moving, wiki broken from side-to-side more than normal to take advantage of the nature of the swing to keep walking, thus reducing the need to use these muscles to lift the legs. And as you can see, the rotations of the chest will almost always be opposite to the heaps. But of course, keep in mind that if one of the shoulders is raised, it will make the angle of the chest appear much different than how it release. So although the shoulders can be a good reference, but you have to analyze is the rotation angle of the chest. Forward and backward rotations. The heaps also have the ability to rotate forwards and backwards. Although the backward rotation is much more limited. This axis of rotation will depend on if we're leaning forwards and backwards and in the line of action of our spine. So it will be directly connected to the movements of the torso. And although there are other times when the hips and the dose or rotate in the same direction. For most everyday actions, the hips and the torso will rotate in opposite directions, which at the same time will create a more defined line of action. Although many times it may be very subtle. Leg when we try to reach for something and put a shelf or relax or posture, there will almost always be a certain amount of rotation in the opposite directions between the torso under heaves on that axis. But as in everything when moving, this rotation in opposite directions between the hips and the torso will not happen at the same frames and at the same speed. They will generally be overlapped by one or more frames. Sometimes it may be the chest that is starts rotating first. And another time. It may be the heaps. So you'll have to closely study your efforts to find out which rotations and movements start and finish first. For example, it will info with too big an object from the ground will most likely look at it first and then rotate the head down, then continue rotating the torso. And finally we rotate the heaps. But if willingness and anticipation to throw a ball up, the heaps are likely to rotate first. So as I said earlier, analyze your reference to see which parts of the body is 30 movements and rotations. And finally, keep in mind that by default are heaps are not parallel to the ground, but instead they are slightly rotated forwards when we're in an upright posture. 38. How to set up your scene: In this class, I'm going to show you how to set up your scene to start animating. First, create a fluorophore you seeing by going to add mesh plane. And if you want create there was two. Or you can also buy or download an already created environment. Now organize and create your entire scene, appending all the probes and characters that will appear in your animation. To do so, go to file append, select the folder where you have the rig. Click on it. Opened the object folder, select everything inside, and click on upend from library. I recommend that you move each one of them out of the original position before appending the next one to the scene. Otherwise, they will stand on top of each other and it would be more difficult to select them. Next, orient the character so that is aligned with the main direction of the action that is going to do place and orient the main camera. Selected the render mode to see how the Render Animation will look like. But before set up the new lights, deletes all the current lights of the scene so that they don't interfere with the ones that you are going to create. And don't worry, we have to modify it later, but at least create a provisional lighting. In my case, I will create a light that illuminates the character. And another one that will be strategically placed to greater glitter on the floor and thus giving the impression that these wet. But since this light will eliminate areas that they don't want them to be eliminated. I will create a couple of planes to block the light and create the shadow. Next, select all the characters and props are you're going to animate and change to pose mode, set the axes to gimble mode. Opened the floating panel and open the bigger of the character or characters that you are going to use. Remember at activate this box. The activated the third icon on the top right to hide all the controls and thus clean up your scene. If you are going to animate the arms in FK, configure them so that the rotations are independent. So you want to break the animation blurring the RXD you would have polished if you make any modifications on the torso when your animation is at an advanced state. But if you are going to animate the IMCI K, configure them so that the position of the hand is independent of the movements of the body. And finally, also configured the head and neck so that the rotations are independent from the torso. Now to bring your reference to blend data, go to object mode and then go to Add Image reference. For now, select any image from your computer. Since in this step we cannot select videos. Now change the source option to movie, and click on the folder above to select your reference video. Furthermore, you have several display options on frames. You can determine how many frames of reference will be seen. On a start, you can determine the frame of the timeline in which the reference will start playing. And enough said that you can determine from which frame of reference it will start playing. The finish will place it where we want and activate the icon to see our FNs. But in additional options, The activates everything else so that only the extras are visible. Now I just arrange our frame C on the timeline so that it fits your reference. And if you are going to create the blogging with constant tangent, go to Edit, Preferences, animation, and make dungeons constant by default. But remember to switch it back. When you finish plugin. If you want to save the render you create, Click on the printer icon in the properties editor, down below peak on the folder and choose where you want it to be saved. If you don't do this, it will save it in a temporary folder. And you will only be able to see the latest version of the render that you've created. To finish minimize the side panel so that you have more space. And remember to save and create new versions periodically to protect your progress. Ok, so now you are ready to start animating. 39. El torso: Let us have the torso is a very important parts of your character's body. Not only to make physically credible animations, but also when it comes to giving your character personality, seems a simple change on the postural contrast made completely different things and feelings. We could divide it also into two parts, the chest and the belly. Normally they chest will rotate in the opposite direction to the heaps on all three axes. And the valley will work a second xor between them. So it will be rotated in intermediate points between both. So make sure the rotations of the belly are proportional to the heaps and chest. And they same way, make sure that you animate the overlap of the cursor very cleanly or northerly scenes in many actions, whether the movement starts at the top or at the bottom, you will have to respect the rotational, the making so it moves with a wavelike effects. Lastly, when you're already refining your animation to the dosage controls for a couple of frames just after the heaps to slow down or stop the downward movement on a slightly stretching the two. So after the downward movement. And just as they start an upward movement will give an extra attach of his question is an appeal to your animation. But make it settled, not visible, only perceived. In this example, although it may seem that this question should occur. And extreme low POS is since all the different parts of the body move with overlap, that also will slow down its movement down was a couple of frames after the characters hips too. And since the hips instead moving up right away, still settling its movement than was in the opposite directions will keep the doses question until Linda immediate pose. 40. The feet: The feed. The feed, they're responsible for supporting the weight of our entire body and to a large extent to maintain a balance. But many times when, when he made them, we don't give them the attention they deserve. Appropriate animation is essential to create credible animations as they will be interacting continuously with the environment you have created for your character. When posing defeated, don't live them straight and parallel to each other. Generally, there will be pointing slightly outwards. And even if the character is standing still, almost always one food will be further than the other. As you start adding my bosses, don't forget our defeat. Look closely at your reference and you will see that as you move your weight and perform many of the movements, defeat will make a small adjustment, such as lifting a slightly from one side, lifting the heel, rotating, or even repositioning. These will make your characters feed feel more natural and real and not appear to be glued to the ground. When the feed lift off the ground, make sure you animate the transition cleanly. Animate the spatial rotations to a certain point. And then in the next frame or set them all to 0 and post the food with the Janeiro rotations. It's important that you don't mix, especially rotations with the general rotations as the special rotations are designed to animate defeat when it's touching the ground. And as you can see, it will also change the pivot point of the rotations. So yeah, make sure you don't use both types are rotations at the same time. Once they're off the ground, avoid posting demonstrate and violet to the ground, since as you can see in the references, they have a certain degree of inclination most of the time. And even in the contact policy, you'll see that the line to decide. And it's only when the food is flat on the ground when they become parallel. Another very important thing is that you post the feed even if they are not seen in camera, you should animate them as if they were inside the framing, as they dictate the angles of the legs and the position of the east. If you don't, although you may think you save time, chances are that you will end up with legs that don't move credibly. And it will take you much longer to polish them than if you would have taken the time to post their feet correctly from the beginning. And finally, make sure that the feed doneness light for no reason. These usually happens when which NCAA tangents to spline basis. Since these kind of tangents, we'll create curves in the graph editor between keyframes, even if the two key frames have exactly the same values. Although it's very easy to fix, the easiest and fastest option is to select the feet, select all day keyframes, and change them all to auto tangent. 41. 34 The knees: The nice thing is extremely important to transmit the weight of our character, depending on how much they bend and the speed at which they straighten or band will know the inertia with which the character has fallen. A suede energy strength, and the effort is making. The direction with any points will largely be dictated by where the food is pointing. But the more bent then E is, the more independence the food and Denny will have from each other regarding where there are points in when animating pay special attention to the nice, since together with the heaps are the most important parts when creating physically credible animations. And if the character doesn't flexed or Australia and his legs enough when walking or doing any other movement or if the speed at which they straighten our band doesn't match or is not consistent with the way you are trying to convey. It will be very obvious that the character is fake and your animation will lose credibility. One of the most common mistakes beginners make the bulbs, which often occurs when the need goes from being a straight to bend and vice versa. But remember before fixing the bulbs underneath, any changes to the fetal Heaps will greatly affect the reflection. So it's important that you first focus on policy in the hips and feet animation and then instead eliminating the bulbs. First, try to see if you can reduce them by adjusting the feed rotations a little bit. And if it wasn't enough, USDA leg pollution controls to completely remove the popes. But use these controls carefully. Because if you go over the top, the audience will notice that the leg is a stretching and shrinking, which would almost be worse than the pope. 42. The shoulders: The shoulders. Although in reality the shoulder and the arm are directly connected, therefore, they cannot individually move one without the other. The animation characters have two different controls for them. When are more for the I am I gay or FK? And one for the shoulder. The are designed this way so that the animators have more freedom when creating the process. Having a greater manipulation capacity, which will allow them to create more appealing poses, but also to move the arm leaving the shoulder completely still. And this is one of the most common mistakes or begin is, which takes away a lot of credibility from their animations. So remember whenever you post DRAMs and rotate and move the shoulders accordingly. The shoulders will also be a key point to represent weight and strength. The shoulders will tend to rotate in the direction in which we're exerting the force. Except many times when we're using a whole body to create the false. And accelerating these rotations in our characters will help us to convey to the audience that they are making a great effort. When willing on something. If they shoulder is relaxed, it will rotate upwards. But if we don't, it will appear as if the character is not really leaning on the shoulders. A personal being essential when creating physically gradual animations have an enormous capacity to transmit the character's personality and emotions. If a character is tired, side were boiled, the shoulders will be relaxed and you can accelerate those emotions by rotating them down a little lower than their normal position. If a character is nevertheless are excited, the shoulders will tense and therefore will raise up accordingly with the level of emotion. And sometimes when we're thinking, I don't know what to do, we'll also lifted shoulders ever so slightly. If a character is a scared or angry, the shoulders will also tends and rise up, but in addition, they will also rotate forwards. So yeah, don't forget about the shoulders and not be afraid to exaggerate them. Experiment with them when you're creating deposes until you find the point that best assent to aids what you want to convey to the audience. 43. The head & neck: The head and the neck and the head angle, we largely convey the character's emotions and attitude. If it is rotated up, it can convey confidence, arrogance, or happiness depending on how the character moves. Or if it is tilted to one side, it could convey that the character is in love or both, depending on the pose of the rest of the body. The head rotations will have to make sense with the body posture scenes. The same head angle with different postures can convey completely different things. The head movements, some process will dress me the thoughts of your character. Since most of the times the server sense where your characters are looking at, the audience will be looking at the head of the character and most of the time. So it's very important that the head moves smoothly and creating access path of factions on the screen. And even more in action-packed animations. In most physical movements, the head will try to keep itself as sustainable as possible. So although it's important that you always create a bit of overlap in the head, make it settle, otherwise it will take degradability away from your animation. Another very important thing to keep in mind is to rotate all three axis. Since otherwise the head movements will feel much more rigid and the character will look like a robot. It is not necessary to make it super obvious that is rotating and all three axis, often a small rotation and one of the axis that is felt rather than being seen, will be more than enough. In many cases, when you see that there is a pop in your character's head many times is not a mistake on the animation of the head, but instead is because there is a pop on the neck that also, or the heaps. Since any small Pope on any of these paths, even if it is very small, will create a much more visible Pope on the head. Check first that all these pilots move smoothly before trying to correct the pope directly on the head, the neck. Then AIG is one of the most neglected paths by beginning animators. As the enemy to the head and torso believed in a completely rigid. And while it's true that the neck doesn't have a very wide range of motion. It also moves and rotates. So don't forget to rotate it accordingly with the head when you are creating deposes. The AIC has a medium range of motion back and forth. I'm very limited to the sides. And as you can see, it will rotate more at the top where it connects with the head. Unless on the base of the neck. Keep that in mind whenever the character you are animating has two or more controls on the neck, then AIG will always move in relation to the head and torso movements. But it wasn't always move in the same direction, depending on the movement that they can rotate together or in opposite directions. So take a good look at your events to see how your neck is rotating. 44. The hands: The hands. The hands are very important to create high-quality poses. As these can convey very clearly what are the characteristics and what are the emotions. In addition, on the Yara clear mirror of the degree of tension or relaxation that the character has and will also help to transmit the weight unfurls onto another object. We'll animated hands will give a lot of dynamism, credibility, and personality to your animations. So analyze your reference and pay close attention to see how each finger moves. And since not a living guess move at the same time, then the same degree on all the joints. You have to spend time on each finger to make sure that the hand poses an interesting, attractive, and credible. And of course don't forget to post there is to imposing the hands. Keep in mind that handles and curves and much more interesting than just a straight lines and a simple rotation on the wrist will improve and add a lot of personality to the post you are creating. So if you can avoid posing, the wrist is straight with the forearm. When you have opposing the fingers tempos them at exactly the same distance apart from each other. Find ways to push your fingers asymmetrically. Grouping them in a way that best communicates how the character feels. And in the same way, avoid posing both hands alike. This will make the process much more dynamic and appealing. The finger controls will allow you to rotate them in all directions and much more than in reality. And although for the most part you want to create somewhat realistic campuses, there are many times when for aesthetic reasons you want to exaggerate the rotations to create an ICER silhouette. Who to create overlap, dragging the fingers in the transition from one pose to the other. Leg with the limbs tried to make all the fingers peaceable. So it doesn't seem like somebody missing or have drastically Shelton. Although there will be times that could be an avoidable. So when you are creating the process, always keep in mind the silhouette of the hand and try to make the process as clean and clear as possible. Remember that the hands are not made of histone. Don't think that because they're holding something or the alien in onto something, they no longer move. You will see that once you become an object, movies or gesture with it, the hands and fingers will make a small adjustment. Or even when women enter something with a hand because as the weight is transferred to that hand, Willis question, debate, slightly spreading the fingers apart from each other. And a secretary gestures and moves the body. It will also make minor adjustments, although is much easier to live it in the same position and post all the time. It's a very good idea to create a small adjustments throughout your animation. Since although these details may seem insignificant, they are very important parts to make the audience believe that your characters are alive, are really interacting with the world around them. Keep in mind that the relaxed position of the hand is not with the fingers I stretched out, but rather it curled. So many times when you gesture unopened your hand, that tension will create a small settle with their fingers rollback ever so slightly. So avoid leaving them completely frozen after reaching each pose and add a slight recoil of about 23 or four frames. Once you have the pulse is created and started to put more details on the movements. Analyze your refers to see which fingers straight in, move or bend first. Scenes as in everything, the fingers will move with overlap between them. And if when he made all the fingers moving all together at the same time, our character will appear to have a robotic hand. For example, if you were to animate the character making a feast, generally the transition will begin with the little finger, and the thumb would finish it. Also viewed closely the Hondas and freeze once the feast is made, but actually the fingers will curl back a little acetyl also in an overlap to a. But without a doubt, the most important part is to keep in mind the character's feelings, personality, and the reason why they are performing each action. Scenes, for example, the posts wouldn't be much different if the character grabs the object with disgust. Anger. Delicately. If he's imagining something, always worried. If he's nervous or relaxed, et cetera, et cetera. Our hands transmitter emotions and thoughts much more than we think. And this is one of the reasons why I think is very important that you don't animate facial expressions just yet. Scenes in this way you will be forced to search and explore the hand poses that distress meet what you want to tell to the audience without having the character's face as an animation lifesaver. In this way, when you learn to animate facial expressions, they will serve to enhance your animation, not just to replace the lack of emotion and personality of the characters, body language. To become an expert in handling nation, get inspired by hand drawings on the internet. Look at the gestures of the actors in your favorite movies. And analyze what meaning and emotion from them. Analyze your referencing depth and pay attention to your own hands. If you learn to animate the hands very well, your animations will improve enormously and you'll be able to create really unique and special personalities for your characters. 45. IK VS FK: Hi, in this class, I'm going to teach you the difference between IK and FK. There are two types of settings to pause your characters. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. So you will use one or the other depending on what you have to animate. Fk or forward kinematics means that each joint will have a control which you can rotate about, not move. And it will affect the position of all the controls down the chain. The advantage of this morality is that these much easier to create goods visualize scenes joint, rotate from our pivot point. So it will organically create arcs. Also, it will reduce the number of pumps that can appear on the joints because as long as your graphs or curves are clean, the movements of the FK controls will be smooth. And on the other hand, we have IK or inverse kinematics, which means that you can move the controls wherever you want by establishing the exact position of the last control of the chain. The ones that adapt to the movement. The advantage of this modality is that it allows you to move their control to a specific point. And no, that doesn't matter where you move in the rest of the body as the control will remain in the same position, which is essential when your character is interacting with the environment, either by touching the ground with their feet or by grabbing or pushing something. The disadvantages of this modality is that it creates more popes. And you should pay more attention to make sure that they move in arcs scenes by default, the interpolation created by blender will be a straight line. So basically you almost always want to have the Hamsun FK unless they interact with the environment. And almost always you want to have the legs and IK sees who will lead to maintain the foot planted without a sliding most of the time. Okay. Now you know the difference between f k and I K. So see you on the next class. 46. The elbows & the arms: The elbows and the arms. The elbows like Denise, largely represented the weight unfolds. So you must analyze in detail how and how much do they move in relation to the rest of the body? And as you can see, the elbows have a very wide range of movements and also have a great independence in relation to the rotations with erased. Even when the arm is fully straightened. Something very important to keep in mind is that although the controls of the character give you the possibility to win the elbow in all directions. In reality, they can only rotate in one direction. So try to rotate them only in this direction when creating all deposes and use the other axis of rotations only in the polishing faces to do a small adjustments if necessary. You want to post your character in a relaxed pose? No, that they will keep a certain degree of band. And if you pose them fully straightened, they will dress me that there is tension in them, which could be a great idea. You want to transmit that your caretakers neighbors, but not when it's relaxed. Once you are in block in place and you have created all the places, you can start using the symbols, which are especial controls that allow you to bend rigid parts of the arm to make the process more attractive. I mostly used in fast transitions from both the bows to make the animations more dynamic and fluid. But use them carefully. See is if you go over the dope, the character will appear to have broken or jelly arms. Although as always, it will highly depend on the animation style you're animating. 47. How to analyze references: How to analyze where offenses, to analyze references. The first thing we'll do is to make sure that they have variation in the timing and that they feel natural. When you begin to sell posts and your character analyze which one are they called impulses of your reference and look for ways to convey your idea with greater intensity. As you progress. Analyzed closely how each part of the body moves on each frame in relation to the other parts of the body. The important thing about the reference is to get the essence of it. Hanna coherent relationship between all the different parts of the body in each movement. It's not so important how much they are moves in the reference, but how it moves in relation to the rest of the body. How the hips move before the food moves? In? What position is the body when the fluid moves? How fast is it moving relative to the rest of the body? What part of the body starts moving first? The more you analyze your reference, the more credible your animation will be on. Although you always want to accelerate the movement, speeds and postures, creating coherent relationships between the different parts of the body is what will allow you to create a small or a huge accelerations while your animation remains credible. For example, if you accelerated a bunch of your character so that these very, very strong but didn't accelerator that also move in accordingly will give the feeling that the arm is disconnected from the rest of the body. That's why it's so important that you pay close attention to the small details. All of them together will be the ones that will give credibility to your animation. 48. The Blocking: The blocking, although for Professional animation wouldn't want to exactly what this couple reference. It is very important that we currently established the relationships of the movements of the different parts of the body. In these way, you train your ability to analyze every single detail. So in your first full body animation exercises, I highly recommend that you focus on making your character move exactly as senior reference. Since although the acceleration isn't essential principle in animation, if you don't know how to animate credible or realistic animations, would be much harder for the audience to believe that the characters are alive. In the blocking look further processed that define the story. To create them Infosys, look for the extreme pulses of the movements. Look further Bose's that convey the most emotions. Or if, for example, your character is lifting something very heavy and the process that better trust me, the weight of the object and the character is a struggle to lifted in the blogging, you need to create the idea. So put all the pieces that you consider are essential to clearly tell the story. So that if the audience only see those process, they would understand what is happening. That's why many times you will include the process with the food contacts the ground. When the heaps change the movement or the mean anticipations. I remember that these very important that all deposits you create algorithms from all angles, not just from the main camera. They don't need to be ready and have good silhouette from all angles. Just make sure they are coherent enough. Once the block is finished, I highly recommend you to take a day or a couple of days off to seek your animation with pressurize the next day and see if you can improve the process and exaggerate the timing of your animation. Now is one of the best moments to check on which movements you can remove or add frames to make them faster or slower. And so making sure that there isn't of contrast in your animation. Okay, so once finished is a really good idea to us, your colleagues for feedback. 49. The Blocking +: The blocking plus in these parts will start creating this Lewin's slow out, fast touts, phosphenes and averse shoot, establishing how all the parts of the body on all the movements begin and end. And what they do they create on the screen. On the block implants, we must create all deposes that define the movements of our animation known as breakdowns and in-betweens. When we said transitioning from one post to the next, we will have to decide which part of the body begins to move or rotate first. Which part of the body settles later? Is there any parts of the body that settles within overshoot? How much will overlap the different joints of the arms? Generally, when you have established all these details, you would have opposed every two to five frames depending on the timing of their movements. So as you can imagine when you finish the block in class, every single detail of the animation should be there already. Make sure that when you're creating betweens just before and after the main poses, the different parts of the body have different length of distances to move until the next post. And that started and finished the movements at different frames. Maybe the whole body is finishing to ease into the main post. But theorems I'll just instead into a scene. Or maybe they are just starting to transition to the next bows. Or that one of the parts of the body has already started to move towards. And expos and other parts of the body are on their last frames of VCE into their current pose. And as I mentioned in previous lectures, you don't want to have the character's body freeze at any points as they would appear to be fake. And you also learned that when any parts of the body moves, the whole body moves at least a little. Therefore, when you are creating the in-betweens am breakdowns make sure that all the parts of the body readjust accordingly with every movement. You may think that that's a lot of work and that you'll fix it when you get to splines or best here. But trust me, is not a good idea. I did that for long enough to realize that that made my work much harder later on. And I would lose a lot of time struggling just to make it look okay. In other words, is spending a lot more time doing a good blog in unblock implies, removes a lot of the frustration of the animation process. And don't worry if at the beginning you feel it's too hard to pay attention to all the different parts of the body to create organic movement. The important thing is that just drive to do it the best you can instead of just approximately person your character because he went to see your animation finished. Arieti. Also avoid hiding and important parts of the body such as the phase for any important objects on the transitions between process. So for example, instead of having one frame where the arm is in front of the glass of wine. Make it so the spacing jumps over eight. So there is not even one frame where it disappears. And while do need, you'll have to make sure that you agree genetics on the buffer functions of older movements of all the buds of the body. Blocking class is also important that you check your characters from all perspectives to make sure you're gonna make it an important mistakes that then are visible at first glance through the main camera. And keep in mind that you can still continue adjusting the timing and the main process. But it is very important that if you modify a main pose, make sure that it continues to flow correctly with the posters around it. And be even more careful if the character is making small movements are small adjustment in the main post would completely transform the motion Ay Ax and spacing. So you'll have to adjust the following process to make sure their movements remain coherent. 50. The Breakdowner: Hi, in this class I'm going to show you where is the breakdown and how useful it is to animate faster. The breakdown allows you to create the keyframe with values that are between the previous and the next pose. For example, if you have a ball that goes from point a to point B. And we want to create a good frame where the ball is in the middle of its movements, will go to the frame where we want to create the keyframe. Select the controls that you want to modify and go to pose in-betweens and select post breakdown a. As you can see, the mouse arrow becomes a double arrow. Now we can decide if we want to favor one pose or another. Moving the mouse to the right, we'll get the controls value closer to the next post. And moving the mouse to the left will get them closer to the previous pose. And finally to kids, just to a left-click. If we wanted to create a post exactly between the two, just to a left-click without moving the mouse as soon as you click on Post breakdown. And this tool will allow you to create breakdowns much quicker and will help you animate in a cleaner way, since it will prevent you from making many mistakes, such as using the wrong control or over rotating them. Therefore, ensuring that the transition between the process will be smooth. And that's it. See you on the next class. 51. Splines: Splines in these phase will suit your animation from constant to base year. Or if you're awake in a Maya from a step mode, two splines. These means that instead of seeing the image every several reframes, the computer will mathematically generate frames in between making the animation play at 24 frames per second, which is the frame rate in which the movies are played at the cinema. Although many beginners fear these phase seen sometimes it would seem that our animation has broken. If we haven't spent enough time grading good breakdowns, adding all the information necessary in the blogging plus, we have animated cleanly and we have gotten feedback from our colleagues. These phase will be a matter of just making a small adjustment. Before we realize it we have almost finished. In this phase, you must ensure that the feet are not the sliding on the ground and that older parts of the body moving arcs, analyzing them frame by frame, and that at the beginning, middle, and end of the movements, the spacing is coherent and transmit the strengthen force you want to convey. Here you should be creating motion paths for every part of the body to polish the spacing and make sure they all move in arcs. I recommend you to work in fragments of our 30 to 50 frames. Since if you try to work on the whole scene at once, it would be too much to look at Alcinous. Your eyes will get used to all the movements of your animation. It would be counter-productive since it would get increasingly difficult to silly mistakes and what you need to fix. It is also highly recommended to her video open of the block in class to remind you of the essence and timing of the animation you had designed. If you feel lost at some point when the animation doesn't look as you want. Other tricks to see your animation with pressurize and a sport mistakes easier, could be rotating, flipping the video, or even playing it backwards. 52. Polish: Polish. Polish is the best moment for most animators. Our animation has already come to life and in this phase will just dedicate to polish in DevOps and adjusting the small details so that everything moves very fluidly and exactly how we want. Make a list of all the details. You want to just fix them all at once instead of doing a new render every time you fix something, since that would waste a lot of time. So basically due a few police rounds or you write everything you need to fix and write down the new things you notice until you don't see anything more to fix. Use the members to police the silhouette. Make sure that on the frame with the hands change from F K, 2K or vice versa. On the frame with the feet change from a special rotations to generate rotations. Or the framework of strain is activated or deactivated. The spacing is coherent that there isn't any Pope or jerky motion. And if the hands contact any surface, make sure the tip of their fingers slide when they have to slide. And a stay on the same place when there is no reason for them to slide. Finish digester moving hole so that the acetylene off. And a WH question is stretched to the dorsal to give that extra attach with this question is to your animation. 53. How to create good references: How to create good references. References are one of the most important parts of animation. And it's essential that you spend enough time making them the best they can be. To make good animations is not enough to play the animation principles correctly. If you want to create animations that are memorable, your characters will have to have their own personality. They will have to be unique in the way they move, their posture and gestures. When you record your reference, you have to think can keep in mind how the character would move. So if you had to animate this Emerick doing various actions and repeat them with different personalities, you should be able to clearly distinguish which one is. So designing detail, who your characters are, the personality, the emotions. And if there is anything unique or special in the way they move. This way, you will avoid making Qj choices. Lake is scratching your head when the crack they supposed to think or putting your feast on your hips when it's supposed to be angry. Records, many takes. Ideally, you should have few hours of footage where you try different things for your idea, as it will take you time to internalize the characters, to be able to think, feel, and move like them. It is very important that the references as natural as possible, avoid overreacting or faking your references. If you are going to do an animation where the character lift something heavy, lift something, having your reference. If you want them to jump very high, record yourself jumpiness highest Again. If you want them to lose balance, regards yourself until you really lose your balance. And if there is any reference you cannot do. There are millions of videos on the internet that you can analyze and use for your animations. Like this. Also very important that your references are as close as possible to what you want to animate. And then you will be in charge of Excel, you're 18 and stylizing the movement. Although the ideal would be for you to have a single video with your complete reference. You can perfectly do a Frankenstein with several references selected only the pallets of each state that you want to use for your animation. To make your animation more entertaining and interesting when designing the idea of the animation and tried to create a situation in which the character goes through two or more emotions. Make something happen in between that, for example, makes your character go from happy, too stressed out, or from angry to happy, and from hobby too scared. These will generate a lot of contrast, not only in the motions, but very likely in the tameness, basion, and everything else. Therefore, it will make your animations much more entertaining. Senate days say. I said that my C as somewhat of a surrogate stoic, Barack. 54. The 7 questions: The seven questions before records in your references, you should know who your character is, when and where it's happening. What relationship do the characters have with replacer situation that you have created? What's around them, what happened just before the animation and what will happen next? What do the characters? One thing your animation, and what obstacles do they have to face to achieve it? Who are the characters? Define the character's personality. Is it an extra belt and the belt, how're they emotionally? Usually serious, worry about everything or laid back and always happy. How do they usually react to the situations that happen into animation? How old are they? 122780. What are their hobbies? Their careers? What do they like or dislike? Are their nature levels or computer geeks or both? Are they a teacher, a carpenter, a politician? What are their physical abilities? And affiliates are professional Ninja or other, they still learning to be one. Define also the beliefs and hobbies. Perhaps they are very superstitious or are the ureter maniacs define what are their origins? Where are they? Do they have a tradition or a different way of doing things? The more information you have about your characters. The molar specific Europe and CIS and ideas will be, and you will come up with more original secondary reactions, therefore, creating truly unique animations. When he's your animation happening, determine what the arrows entry they are in. And thus the animation happen when the phone didn't exist yet. In the nineties. Happens in the Stone Age and your characters leaving the jungle? Or is it happening in the future? Knowing when it's happening will have determined your character's behavior and mindset. Be as specific as possible about the time scenes, for example, knowing which were lessees and are they in, you will be able to determine if your character is cold. If he's hot. Or maybe it has apple analogy. Knowing the day of the week could mean that the character is moving fast and stressed out because it's late to work. Or super relaxed because it's Sunday. And knowing the time of the day may vary the energy levels of the characters. Where they define where your characters are. Either inside the room, in a museum. In a restaurant on the beach, or maybe on a skate park. In which country are they? What type of neighborhood that they live in? For example, you could play with the contrast of how they move when alone and how they move when they leave their house, depending on the personality and the type of neighborhood they live in. So yes, w Hebrew animation happens in the countryside, in the city, in the beach, or at any other place. How does your character feel being in that place or with those people? Are they happy, scared? They feel respect for them. Are they in their comfort zone? Or maybe they are intrigued because they have never been there before. For example, depending on whether they're at home, at a friend's house, who at the stranger's house, they will move more relaxed, more impossibly, Omar cautiously, always depending on their personality. So define the specific emotional state your characters have regard in that place, a situation. This information could manifest in your affairs with a generic state of mind, or maybe with a small gesture, a secondary reaction, which will definitely make your animations much more special. What's around them. Once you have defined well your characters are, you can define what's around them. Is there anything dangerous or interesting? Or maybe there is an object that they will interact with. The more you make the characters interact with the surroundings, the audience will have a greater feeling that the place you have created is real and will also make your animations much more interesting and specific. What are the circumstances in which the character is find themselves? Either in a hurry because they are late for work or happy because it's lunch time and they are hungry. Defining the past and the future will allow you to give to your animation astronomer emotional depth. Scenes, for example, depending on whether your character has just started to learn to tap the bowl or have been practicing all day and fail all the time, the reaction will be completely different. And finally, something that you have to have extremely clear is what your characters want in your animation and what obstacles so they have to overcome to get where they want. It is essential that you know what the chi plus final goalies and what are the intermediate goals that they have to complete to reach the final objective? For example, it may be that the final goal is to play music to the girl, and intermediate goal is to jump over the fence. Also here you will have to decide if he wants to play music because he likes a girl or because he wants money. The more we exaggerate the obstacles and difficulties that the characters have to face them or interesting or animations will we? For example, you could make so that before they realized that the object doesn't fit well through the door. The door is also closed. Anesthetic don't have any free hands. They have to open it with their head. Remember, don't animate the first idea that comes to your mind. Think of completely different options and tried to be original. And the audience loves original things. And the recruiters at the animation studios to, to having all of these things define unclear when you record your reference will help you internalize the character you want to animate to be able to think like them and put yourself in their shoes. These way your characters movements, and therefore your animation will be much more specific, unique, and entertaining. 55. The personality curve: The personality curve. Once you have established the character's personality, a very good tool to guide you when recording references is to create a personality curve, which consist on drawing a line that represents how the girl that moves. For example, if your character is a kid with a lot of energy to personality line might be something like that. If he's a lazy, overweight character, the line may be like this. Or if he's an expert in India, you could make the personality line something like that. There is no rule to create personality lines. It's just for you. Just a line drawing that clearly represents for you how the character moves. That way it will be much easier for you to internalize your character when you recall references. And so creating much more unique animations. 56. Primary & secondary action: Primary and secondary action. The primary action is domain action. The main idea that you want to tell to the audience. The primary action could be that the character is pouring himself a glass of water. That is going to explain something to an audience. That is looking for something important in the newspaper. That these waiting for something to happen. Or for example, that is writing something. In all these references, we clearly see what their actions are. And these are what we know as their primary actions. In the other hand, the secondary reaction is a repetitive movement or a spontaneous action that the character can do when thinking Tolkien or doing any other task. If we add a secondary action to our animation, it will have a much more emotional and personality depth, since not only do we tell the audience what's going on, but we convey much clearer how a character feels given the audience much more information about their personality, their hobbies, or whether they think in at the moment. Explore different ideas in your references and tried to find the secondary reaction that best conveys your personality. And remember, secondary reactions should be only that. Secondary has to be something that helps to convey the idea clearer. If we remove it from the animation or ideas would continue to be understood. Make sure it doesn't distract the audience from the main action, the secondary reaction to compliment them in action, not fight for the audience's attention. 57. The peculiarities: Peculiarities. To create memorable animations, you must create unique characters with a specific personalities and characteristics. And one of the ways to make your character is more specific is to create peculiarities on them. Have peculiarity can be a gesture. A certain movements are a posture. Like in this animation where the peculiarity wouldn't be that opens them out with a smile and takes the tongue hotel. It'll, every time that tries to get closer to the fruit, which gave us a lot of information about the character's personality. And making us feel from the beginning that we know the character much more, which will help to make the animation unique. I'm memorable. The peculiarities are repetitive and specific for each character. And although often your animations won't last long enough to repeat the same peculiarity several times. It doesn't matter. Scenes, even if it only happens once the audience will already perceive a higher level of personality depth of your characters. The peculiarities can be anything that make our character's unique, such as the Chaplin's gate. How she reacts by putting her hands in front of her chest. For this specific gesture, he uses one leaving. To create a specific peculiarities. You have to study the biography that you have created for your characters and think about what kind of move events best embody those characteristics. For example, if your character is another's person and it's doing something illegal, maybe before doing each action quickly looks to both sides, stay still for a few seconds. And then thus the next movement. If your character is a dancer and a cleaning maniac and the Arabs of the movements could be much more defined and overdone. If your character is set going probably will tend to make more open and broad movements. But if your character is introverted, will probably tend to do is molar gestures closer to the body. Many times you'll use peculiarities or secondary reactions, but remember to make sure that they don't distract the audience from the main action. 58. Characters that think by themselves: Create characters that think for themselves. We think before we act, whether it is to grab a cup, bring the charity closer, or choose what to eat. And the best way to express that I gotta pay thinking is through poses, process not only served to create variation in the timing, the audience feels. They have observed or realized something important. Or if they are thinking about making any action. If there were no poses, it could give the impression that our guy pays a robot. And all the movements were already pre-programmed from the beginning of the animation. Many times these pulses will just authentic IPA has come up with an idea. Well, some kind of thought that goes through the mind. And many times you will want to previously creates some kind of a reaction in the characters regarding those thoughts. And then the post happens. For example, if they were stealing something and heard a noise. If they saw something strange, smell something delicious. However, be careful to not overreact to your references are sometimes when we have previously done those same actions, we will tend to read subconsciously. Therefore, we don't need to pause and think before doing them. But if we pause before doing those movements or animation would feel over acted. So if you want your character to look like this alive when you record your references tray acting as if the situation was really getting into the characters. Use Android to act as if what you're recording is happening on that very moment. Something fundamental to create the perception that the character is thinking is the angle of the head. The head movements and rotations will tell a lot about whether your character has anxiety. Don't understand something. If you shy. If he's falling in love. If it's just remembering something, etc. Making the character glands or look at something could also be a type of anticipation. Since in addition to the anticipation of the movements that you already know, there is also the anticipation of thoughtful than dissipation of thoughts is the moment when we think about making the action. Such as when we look at the object that we want to approach or leaved. When we look at the chair that we're going to see done. The place where going to stepper food on the place r direction we're going to go, et cetera. The anticipation of thought tells the audience about the gravities, intentions before they do the anticipation for the movement. And in the same way sometimes for some movements who don't need anticipation. Sometimes if the action we're going to perform in symbol it within our visual range, or we have already done it on many occasions. It may be that we don't in anticipation of thought. For example, if you were to turn on the lights of your room, you probably already perfectly now with the switches. And you'll switch it on automatically without even thinking about it. But if you just move to a new house, you will surely look to see where the switches. That is one of the reasons it's so important that you answer the seven questions. Also sometimes not create in anticipation of thought can create a funny or special effect in your animation. So have a very clear idea about what you want to convey, the circumstances and the personality of your character to decide whether you create an anticipation of thought or not. Another thing that can make your animations much more credible, natural, uninteresting as the changes of idea and the mistakes. If you make your character change up their mind in the middle of an action, instead of doing all the movements perfectly an orderly, it will create a stronger feeling that the character is alive. Scenes has the ability to analyze and rectify situations. So meaning that they think for themselves and therefore that they are alive. Also. Making mistakes were unexpected things happen to them. And so they react to those events will make your animations much more entertaining. Intention and suspense in your animation, it will convey that as they have the ability to make decisions if something doesn't go as planned. 59. The exaggeration: The acceleration. I have already mentioned it several times in this course. And thus because we could say this is the main principle of animation. The principle that gives the unique are humorous touch. Acceleration is largely what sets apart an animation from a normal movie. Scenes when he made it exactly how things move in real life, it would be much more boring. Animations allow us to accelerate the emotions, movements, reactions, personalities, et cetera. For example, if you want to make your cat, they upset and he made him angry. If you want to make her happy, exaggerated, and make her almost euphoric. If they are supposed to jump high, make them jump very high. For, for example, if they are supposed to be scared, find ways to make them look terrified. This is a very useful trick that consist on lookin for the most extreme world of the feeling, attitude, or movement you want to convey. And animate as if you wanted to trust me that that's extreme feeling. When it comes to accelerate in your animation focus and accelerating the main intention of the animation. Find the essence of what you want to tell. The most important part of the idea, being clear about what exactly is the key point, what you want to convey an accelerated whether the backpack weight. The character is angry for some reason, if you will. If he wants to look cool. Or even if the backpack is their best friend. Something that you will almost always want to accelerate is the width of the characters. Scenes where we transfer real movements to 3D characters, they lose quite a bit of perceived weights and therefore tend to appear a bit floaty. A very effective way to solve this is to slightly accelerate the up-and-down movements of the heaps on all actions. These will add a lot of weight to your characters and make your animation was much more appealing towards, for example, at the beginning of the show to the girl, despite being very tired when we should perceive the even mode. Instead, it seems very weightless because there is a very small vertical movements on the heaps. But at the end of the animator exaggerated the vertical movement much more, which conveys her away to much better. Remember this is animation, exaggerate everything. The Arabs make them bigger and more defined. The line of action make it the most fluid and dynamic possible. Overlap. Whether A's in a wave mode, dragging back the different parts of the body or defining more clearly which part of the body initiates and finish their movements. This question is straight, creating more contrast between poses. The anticipation, making it very clear to the audience that the character is going to make a move and telling them as much information as possible about the move. The process, make sure that they transmit the emotions and thoughts clearly and with great intensity. But above all, exaggerates the diamond. Any spacing. If you want to convey that any movement is very slow or fast, take it to the extreme. As I mentioned before, it's very important to create contrast in the diamond, making the different movements have different durations. But we must also accelerate the spacing scenes in real life, the movements tend to have a rather symmetrical spacing. And if anybody have acceleration and deceleration periods, the difference in spacing is not very significant frame-by-frame. For example, if we wanted to say rate a super-fast movement, but we follow to closely the spacing from a reference. It will tend to feel much weaker than it actually is. Scenes. When we see an animation, we went to see much more contrast and intensity. So to animate the movement much faster or intense, what will do is so that in the first two to four frames, the movement is starts with the smallest pacing, gradually increasing with this law out. Then make the transition to the unexposed over only one or two frames. And finally, for the animation to settle accordingly will create a slowing of about two to four frames to the final pose, but with a very, very small spacing. Basically to accelerate the movements are far animations without making them lose credibility. What we'll do is to accelerate the transition speed of making this space in much bigger, but maintaining a relatively realistic clouds and slowing things. The more you exaggerate the spacing of the transitions, the more cartoony your animation will be. And in many occasions when we want the movement to be very fast, what will do is to stretch the object or a part of the character on the frames where the spacing becomes too big as these will make the audience perceive their movements with total fluidity, removing the Pope's that the larger spacing could have created. And in this way, we can also continue creating visualize, even if we don't have enough poses to throw them on the screen. Similarly, another technique also used to animate quick movements without loosing fluidity is the multiplication of limbs are objects which consist on having one or two frames where this one is multiplied. In this way, the audience will perceive that the object has moved throughout the screen and the RFC has created, even if the movement only last 102 frames. When accelerating animations, keep in mind that it is much easier to reduce acceleration of your animations if you see that you have crystalline and he has lost credibility or is not reading well than to be accelerating each time, a little more analytical, more analytical, more until we find the right spot. So remember, don't be afraid to accelerate and accelerate everything. 60. Analyze the timing: Analyze the diamond. Although I already told you about timing at the beginning of the course, it's important to remember that the variation in the timing and the contrasting their speeds is essential to create interesting and entertaining animations. And a very effective way to see clear or if you have created enough variation is to draw our time in Child, which will show this ice and speed of the different movements of your animation. What we'll do is to represent the timing horizontally and the size of the movement radically. Therefore, if there was a moving hold, we will represent it with a horizontal line. Just like in the graph editor, but one curve representing the whole body. It's a very good idea to use this tool when you record your references before starting to animate. Because although it is true that will accelerate the timing when, when he made modifying the speeds or the length of the Bose's, it's important that you reference already has a certain degree of variation. So when you animate it in your computer that you have to accelerate their variation and contrast, not create them from scratch. 61. The repetition: Repetition. Although it's very important that you create variation and contrast in last planks of your animation, something the audience also loves to see. The action and button repetitions could be a quirk or an action that the character repeats throughout the scene. Or for example, if your character is a garbage collector who's picking up the trash and the animation and he saboteur rubbish. But being very heavy, do not just animate the moment when he leaves the heavy bag as seed would greatly improve your animation. If, for example, your character picks up one or two litre barracks just before. As you can see, repeating the same action but in different ways and with different timings, thus creating a good contrast in the animation. In this animation, we can also see that they use repetition, in this case to establish a change in the feelings of del bagua. As you can see at the beginning of the shots, is trying to move as it was women trying to get the fruit. Then in both shots, the movement is interrupted by the beam when right after that, both times has to decide whether to save the being win or the fruit. In this one, we can see that the USDA repetition of a peculiarity in the way that the girl moves to establish the beginning of the story and the momentum and the main conflict results. Here we can see how they used in the middle of the story, the blood that they used in the main credit. And in the final credits, they use that conflict again. But this time the tables have turned. Or even we can see in this chapter of Charlie Chaplin's how he continuously repeats the same secondary reaction of lifting up. He's had. To create a very good animation. You will have to achieve the ideal balance between contrast, repetition. 62. Cheating: Cheating. Even though in animation technically we can make the characters do anything to make the audience believe it. The animation has to have a certain degree of release them. But above all, it has to be consistent with the world you have created. However, sometimes we may encounter situations where we'll need to cheat, which could be for a technical or aesthetic reasons, for simplicity or limitation on the number of frames assigned to that scene in the movie. That is why in special situations we can cheat astronaut nasty audience don't realize where cheating. For example, in this animation as their NDA's so big and being halfway into the house to make the animation more dynamic so that he runs away quicker and easier to animate. What they did was these. In this case, they wanted to accelerate the gay mocking the girl. So do Iike memoria flower power outage? What they did was to when there is much more than they realistically Good. In this animation, if we look closely, we can see how the probe of the plant changes when only being winds passed by. And then we can see how a smaller plant appears a bit further away than it was before. And there is unshaded, this is probably so that they'll Bagua still has their fruit alter reach. And so that when the little pink when arrives in the fruit dessert or perfect height for him to pick it up. And here we can see how they'll PPACA is seeded, turns the head. And when they make a cat to the next short framing, they'll pack again is already standing. These Jid was probably made because the objective of the last shot is to see the Joe full face of the backup. But if they had to animate the turning around and a stand-in app, it would distract the audience when the main intention of the short. These td works because we only see the head world ripping winds appear. And as by now several seconds have passed into law. So they'll pack, acetate the audience to realize and don't remember that should be seeding. And therefore, we can say is a good cheat. 63. Appeal: Appeal. Creating appealing your animation is the mix of having correctly executed all the other principles plus the acting choices that you have decided to animate. The audience doesn't understand about principles of animation or about rules. What they want is towards something that is entertaining. They want to feel that the world you have created is real. That your animation makes them feel something and they want to watch it over and over again. Just like any type of eyelid ptosis and ideas as an animator at the end of the day will be the ones that will determine if you are average or an animation pro. So make sure you spend enough time thinking about what kind of acting choices you're going to animate. But if I had to define appeal with a single world, it would be contrast, contrast mixer animations entertaining and enjoyable towards find ways to create contrast in all aspects of your animation. Your character's emotions, the timing, the speed and size of the movements, the poses, et cetera, move the different parts of the body in opposite directions. One thing that will make you animation is much more interesting and attractive towards is that the different parts of the body, in addition to we never loved, move in opposite directions. Since as you can see in these examples, the posters and actions in which to parts of the body move closer to each other or away from each other, are much more entertaining and have much more personality than those who were. They move in the same direction. So when you're creating the main poses and breakdowns, look at the main movements and ask yourself, is there any parts of the body that you could move or rotating in the opposite direction to emphasize what you want to transmit. Overlapping actions and ideas. Although one of the most important things in animation is to show the idea studio audience one-by-one. And that doesn't mean that we need to completely and fully finished and action before starting the next one. You can animate the ideas or actions so that when the character is just finishing one movement begins to start the next one. These will make your animations much more entertaining. Many times when we already know how are we going to finish an action, our head will start looking for the next section to perform. And then the rest of the body will begin to follow as the Finis thicker and task. If you convey this correctly into your animation, it will feel much more natural and you will avoid making your character look-alike robot. And ends the tasks methodically. 64. How to create constrains: Hi, in this class, I'm going to show you how to create constraints for animation. The constraints are essential when you have an image Jakarta interacting with other objects in the same scenes, it will unite them and make them move together, but giving you the possibility to separate them whenever you want. Please note that the greater constraint we must have the controls of the rig visible. In this case, we're going to constrain them up to the FK controls of the arm. So first place the object on the part of the character where you want to constrain it. So in this case, we want the character to move them up. So we will select each main control and in the properties editor, we'll go to the bone constraints section. Click on the dropdown menu and select child off. Now in the next section we must establish where we want this control too weak constraint two. So we will select the name of our rig. Next, we have to set which part of the character's body exactly we want it to be constrained to. In this case, I want it to be the right hand. So my right hand, as you can see, we have several options which have an Arab or an L at the end means rides, and L means left. So there are several options that could work. But since we're animating the IRM with f k will go simple, unsafe, and select the option, hand f, k, r. As you can see, the mob has moved elsewhere. So we'll have to click on set inverse so that it returns to its position below in the Influenced by, we can establish the degree of influence that the hand will have a weather map. But normally we always want to have it at maximum. As you can see with this configuration and the movement of the hand will move them up. But you can continue animating them up individually so you can make small modifications easily. But if we wanted the object to determine the position of the hand will have to create the constraint in the hand. But to make the constraint these way, we need to have the arm set to IK scenes. As you already know, the FK mode does not allow the two hominin deposition of the hand, but instead the angle of rotation of each joint. If we want to eliminate the constraint, will do it by clicking on this x. But if we just want to deactivate it, we'll do it with this eye with which we can activate it and the activated on any frame. This way if for example the character where to throw an object and beaker up again, I would deactivate the constraint in the frame. I want the character to release the object and activated again in the frame I want him to grab it. To do these will go to the frame where we want the constraint to be activated. Place the mouse over the smaller I am. Press as too great a keyframe on it. Now will go to the frame where we want the constraint to be deactivated. And click on the i to set Jackie for him to deactivate it. However, there is one thing that you should keep in mind in the frame where you deactivate the constraint, the constraint control will go back to its original position. So we'll have to relegate it, which is not very difficult, just a minor inconvenience. And if for any reason you need to change the frame in which the constraint is activated or deactivated. You will see that as soon as we create a keyframe on the small i in the graph editor, a new curve called disabled child off will appear, which although we can move up and down indefinitely, it will only recognize two values below 0, meaning the activated, and above one, meaning activated. Okay, so if for example, we wanted the character to take up his cup, we would just need to create another constraint where the cab is constrained to the hand. Thus create into constraints 12 the head and the other one to the hand and keyframe them so that when one is activated and the other one is deactivated. And when the object is India, both of them are deactivated. It's very important that you make sure that you never have two constraints activated at the same time for the same control because it wouldn't know where to go. This method is ideal when you want to go accessories to your character or make simple constraints, scenes, it has its limitations. So to make more complex constraints, you'll have to use the next method. Imagine that we want the character to move them up with both hands. And since we want the hands and the mob to have the freedom to move individually, will need the third control that moves the hands and the mob together in such a way that there is not a direct constraint between the others. Keep in mind that for this method, you will also need to have the arms in IK. So firstly, we'll go to object mode, create an amateur and press F to frame it. As you can see, it has a bigger side and Athena inside the ball on the big side will be its pivot. So depending on what you want to animate and how it will rotate, you will have to place the armature accordingly. And if you need to modify it, say's Go ahead and scale it. In this case, after analyzing how the map moves in my reference, I think that to have a good control over the movements, the pivot should be on the tip of the stick. Now we'll select them up, their character and their mature, and change everything to post mode. Next, I'll select them Ops main control and constrain it to the armature. We could write its name as in the previous example. Or we can also use the tool on the right, which is used to select the target on the viewport. And in the section below, we'll select the only option available called bone. And as before to reposition it, click on Set inverse. Now we'll do the same with both hands and done. We have created the constraints. As you can see, we can rotate both hands and the mob individually or altogether with the armature. Lastly, to make things easier and cleaner, we'll create a new picker for this armature so we can animate it without having to continuously hide and unhide all the controls. And remember to click on set namespace before creating the beaker. Otherwise it won't work. But what if instead of a mob is a box and I want it to be attached to the chest or hips of the character array. Now with this configuration, we would have to go frame by frame, making sure that the box doesn't get into the character's body, but is always barely touch in it. To solve these will just have to create a constraint on the armature to which the hands and the books are already constrained, unconstrained design material to the chest or any other, but we want it to be attached to. The box, will not move with the chairs as long as it has these constraints activated. Ok, so now you know how to do constraints. So see you next class. 65. The Euler filter: The Euler filter. If you ever find that when you switch the tangents to best year or the appliance, the EM seem like David can crazy provably is because the Gimbal rotations have overlapped and over rotated in any of the axis. And so the mean poses I correct at all the frames in between or not at all. So to fix this, select all the keef limbs of the curve. You are having the issue. Good two key and click on discontinuity all the filter. But as you can see, it doesn't work. This is because we are selecting only one axis. For it to work. You need to select all the rotation axis. So blender knows to which curves have to match it so that the movement is fluid. So we'll do it again. And wallah fixed. 66. How to configure the X pose picker: Hi, in this class, I'm going to show you how to install and configure the ex-post speaker. The beaker is sensational to be fast animating, since you will be able to select the control you want without needing to have invisible on the viewport. These will give you a much cleaner view of your character and allow you to select the controls much weaker. Once you have downloaded it to install, it will go to edit preferences. And in the other section we'll click on Install. Next will go to the folder where we have the zip file. Unwanted selected will click on Install add-on. Now we will write speaker in the search box and make sure the pKa is activated. As you can see now in the floating panel, it will appear a new section called Expo speaker. Open it. Click on pickers, start. Open the drop-down panel cold host preferences, and activate the option case Muslims reforms. And remember that you'll have to check this box every time you create a new blender file. Now, we only have to open the beaker of the character that we're going to use. And as delta animating. Do you see it every time you want to select the control, you must select the tool you want to use so that it appears over the joint that you are going to modify. That's why it is essential that you use the hotkeys w, e, and r to select the tools quickly. If you're using another character and you want to have multiple pickers open at the same time. Just go to file, append tab, select and open. The bigger you want to use. Click on untitled and click OK. You also have the option to keep aids at the front of the screen. Well, let it go into their background by turning on and off the pushpin icon. If you want to create a new Pekah, firstly, it, you'll have to create an image of the character. Either by taking a screenshot or rendering an image. You policy to the Pekah using this icon. Then select one of x controllers and click on Set namespace. So love the beaker links with the rake. Now just select the controls one-by-one, right-click on the bigger and left click on Add one button. Below, you can set the color, size, and name of the button. And if you want to change the position of an already graded button, hold Control plus left click on it to move it. Now I just have to save it wherever you want and that if you're bigger, is done. 67. Picker controls: Hi, in this class I'm going to show you an example of a pizza that I created. I recommend that before you start animating a new character, you experiment a little with its controls to see what each one does and their limitations. Okay, so the white buttons are the arms and legs configuration controls. In the first option, you can configure the FK controls to be independent of the body rotations. 0 means that they will rotate with it also. One that they will remain independent. Also, you can choose if you'll animate it with IK or f k, 0 being IK and one being FK. And if you choose IK here you can set the maximum stretching level that the limb can have on the AK space. Which option, or in this character called root parents. You will determine if the ag controls will move together with the central control or will remain in the same place. But almost every time you use IK, you will want to set this option to 0. So the IK controls only move when you move them. And of course, keep in mind that depending on the character using the names of these controls may vary. The blue buttons are the legs and arms, FK controls. And the red ones are the IK controls of which there are two for the hands to further legs. To set the orientation of the elbows, to, to set the orientation of Denise. And two, for the special rotations of both feet, which are designed to animate the rotations of the feed when they attach in the ground. But make sure that you don't rotate the same axis with the normal rotations under special rotations at the same time as the special rotations will change the pivot point of the generic rotations, making it much harder to animate and polish. The green controls are the universal ones. These can be used regardless of the configuration that you have. They are the head, the neck, and the shoulders, that also the central control. The hips, the fingers of the hand, and the toes. If we go to the central control, will see that two extra options appear, head follow and neck follow. With these, we can determine if the head and neck follow the cursor rotations or maintained or individual rotations 0 meaning that they remain independent. And one that they would rotate with the torso. The grey buttons are the polishing controls, which you will only use when you have almost finished your animations to make small adjustments, correct? Bulbs or arc, body pilot. And finally, the black control below is the positioning control, which you will only use to position and orient your character before you start animating it by dual, never create any animation on this control. Another very important thing to keep in mind is that when you are using several characters and you want to select the control from another bigger. Before selecting the other control, make sure to first left-click on the view port to deselect everything. Because for example, if you have selected won control of this rig and you want to select the control of the other one. The previous control will not be the selected. So any action you make would affect both controls. And that's it for now. See you on the next class. 68. How to insert audio: Hi, in this class, I'm gonna teach you how to bring your audio files to blend the two. Insert audio or sound effects in your scene, just change momentarily. The graph editor for the video segments have drug they owed you inside. I'm placed it at the moment you want in your animation. As you can see, you can put multiple sound effects on different trucks. And remember that generally you want to listen to the audio uncoupled frame Safdar, what creates the sound happens in your animation. And if you're doing lip-sync, you will surely want the audio to be heard when you drag the mouse through the timeline. So just go to the playback drop-down menu and activate the oldest grabbing books. When you finish, put the graph editor back, I'm done. That's it. See you on the next class. 69. Blender Lights: Hi, in this class, I'm going to show you all the lights you have to eliminate your scene. To render your scene. First, you will have to create lights. And there are four types. Point, sun, spot, an area point. We'll create an omnidirectional light, which will eliminate in all directions san will create a light replicating what the Sun would do. With sport. You can focus the light on a certain point. And with area, you can also direct the light to a certain point, but this one is designed for big areas. Moreover, you can see that the four types of lights have several configuration options, such as the color of the light and its power. But keep in mind that depending on the type of light you have selected, it will need a different amount of power to generate a similar lighting. Next, the specular option allows you to adjust ugly test that the light will create. But also depending on the light you have created, you'll have additional options. In point. You have radius, which will determine how far the light will propagate and dissipate. The smaller the number, the brighter the light will be. And the big idea is, the more it will fade out. On sand, you have the angle option, which will determine the size of the sun, and therefore it will affect the quantity of size that will be illuminated in the objects of the scene. And we can also establish the place and the angle from where the light is coming with these small ball. Sport also has the radius modifier. But moreover, you can modify it size, which will allow you to increase and reduce the area that the light illuminates. An implant, we can establish the degree of glory in on the edges of the light. In area. You have the option to modify the length and shape of the light bulb. And additionally with spot point, an area in the custom distance box, you can set the size of the area where the light will propagate. In other words, the lead me to where the light will not eliminate it all. And finally, you can decide if the light will create shadow or not by activating or deactivating this little box. That's it. Now you have a basic understanding and the lights are blender. So see you on the next class.