20th century Modern Art Movements: From Impressionism to Cubism | Timur K. | Skillshare

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20th century Modern Art Movements: From Impressionism to Cubism

teacher avatar Timur K., Teacher, Life-Long Learner, Traveller

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

22 Lessons (1h 8m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:44
    • 2. Impressionism. Historical Background.

      2:30
    • 3. Edouard Manet.

      2:45
    • 4. Term "Impressionism".

      1:08
    • 5. Claude Monet.

      1:38
    • 6. Manet or Monet.

      0:32
    • 7. Japonisme. En plein air.

      1:34
    • 8. Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

      0:36
    • 9. Cropping and Focus in Impressionism.

      0:34
    • 10. Public attitude towards Impressionism

      1:06
    • 11. Summary of Impressionism.

      2:30
    • 12. Post-Impressionism. Georges Seurat. Pointillism.

      2:59
    • 13. Paul Cezanne.

      2:02
    • 14. Vincent van Gogh.

      2:36
    • 15. Paul Gauguin.

      2:37
    • 16. Term "Post-Impressionism".

      0:50
    • 17. Summary of Post-Impressionism.

      2:12
    • 18. Art Nouveau. Organic and Aesthetic Design.

      4:56
    • 19. Art Nouveau. Lautrec. Klimt. Gaudi. Horta. Tiffany.

      7:33
    • 20. Fauvism. Matisse. de Vlaminck. Derain.

      8:00
    • 21. Cubism

      8:54
    • 22. Dada

      9:05
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About This Class

If you are the one who always confuses between Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism, not to name all other ISMs of the 20th century, then this is the course for you.

Indeed, the today’s society obliges us to keep up with the modern fashion, technologies, cinema and of course the modern art.

That’s why we created this course in which we are going to cover all major movements and styles in the modern art, starting from Impressionism and going through Art Nouveau, Fauvism, Cubism, Dada, Abstract Expressionism and up to Performance art. In each lecture we are going to show you the most important paintings and sometimes even architectural projects, which became the landmarks in the development of art in the 20th century. You will learn the differences between the various art styles and movements, and you will also get acquainted with the main personalities who created these masterpieces, including Monet, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Gaudi, Cezanne, Klimt, Picasso and many others.

By the end of the course, you will be able to understand the style in which the painting in front of you is painted, and you will be able to speak freely about the art geniuses of the late 19th and 20th centuries.

Spend one hour of your time to take this course and become more confident during a small talk about the modern art.

The course will be regularly updated with new lectures, so be sure to enroll for it now.

See you inside the course!

Meet Your Teacher

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Timur K.

Teacher, Life-Long Learner, Traveller

Teacher

I'm an MA graduate with degrees in International Relations and World Economy. Learning foreign languages, travelling and working in cosmopolitan environments has always been indispensable part of my life.

My work experience includes working on challenging projects for government and private sectors (security products, banking, investment) across 5 continents, including Africa, Middle East, South-East Asia and Americas, and internship at the UN Office in Geneva, Switzerland.

I'm totally passionate about psychology, craftsmanship, motivation, skills, and languages - I speak English, Russian, French, Turkish and little Arabic, I also started learning Hungarian a while ago:). I'm keen on reading, sports, football, and playing the guitar.

I'm always eager to learn new... See full profile

Related Skills

Fine Art Creative

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello, guys. And before we dive into the contents of the course, please tell me, have you ever been in a situation when you see a famous painting in the Internet or in a gallery? And it seems very familiar. But you know, neither the name of the painting now the painter or probably your at an interesting event, and people around you are talking about the modern art. They mentioned the names of the artists everyone has heard of. But you can't maintain the conversation because you just confuse between Impressionism and Post Impressionism. You can hardly understand the difference between Art Nouveau and art they called obstructionism and terrorism, not to mention all other ISMs or the 20th century. Indeed, the today society obliges has to keep up with the modern fashion technologies, cinema and, of course, the modern art. That's why we created these course in which we're going to cover all major movements and styles in the modern art, starting from Impressionism and going for Art award for visible Cubism, Dada, abstract Expressionism and optic performance art. In each lecture, we're going to show you the most important paintings and sometimes even architectural projects, which became the landmarks in the development off art in the 20th century, you will learn the differences between the various ourselves and movements, and he will also get acquainted with the main personalities who created these masterpieces , including Manet, Gauguin, Bongo, Gowdy, Suzanne Cleaned and many others spent one hour off your time to take this course and become more confident you're in a small talk about the modern art. The course will be regularly updated with the lectures, so be sure to enroll for it now and see inside the course. 2. Impressionism. Historical Background.: one of the main art movements that had a tremendous impact on the development of modern art . And that question centuries old classic perception of Fort was Impressionism. In order to understand the origins of Impressionism, we need to look quickly into the historical context off. That time France was the cultural capital of Europe and the Academy Day Bouza dominated French art. They kept me preserve traditional painting standards in terms of content and style. What was important and valued during the classic period was the realistic depiction of events that had historical or religious significance. Classic art paintings would show some battle scenes from history or stories from Asian, Greece and Rome. Portrays or famous personalities from the history were also common. Paintings in this classic style looked realistic. Brush strokes were carefully landed toe height, the artist hand in the painting colors were toned down, and sometimes golden varnish was applied. However, if the cultural scene of the time relied mostly on classic foundation, the political, social and economic environment in Europe was changing dramatically. The middle of the 19th century was a time of change in the political context. There have been a number of European wars and revolutions, which led to the institution of some kind of early democratic close in European monarchies from the social and economic point of view, it was not in the world off industrialization and urbanization with the rising of the middle class in the cities. So it was evident that the world was changing, and the artists and intellectuals who gathered in configurable in Paris wanted to capture the transients off this world around them. They were disillusioned by the classic school off the continual Boza, which relied on historical a significant events and mythology. And neither did they desire to follow rallies who were more concerned with depicting the political and social millions of that time. Instead, impression is try to represent a visual impression off these changing and fleeting moments , taking a completely different approach to capturing the reality. These new kind authorities were early Impressionist, started to violate the rules of academic painting and were considered as radicals by many people. In the beginning, 3. Edouard Manet.: probably the first artist who played an important role in the development of Impressionism was Edouard Manet. His paintings featured anti academic sentiments and seemed too provocative for the public. Let's have a look at his painting, the luncheon on the grass. Why did it seem so provocative? And why did it anger the public? Because before my name, it was only possible to paint the new the woman if she was some kind of mythological. Got this. But in this painting, money obviously depicted an ordinary woman who was Newt and who was just spending some time with other ordinary men. Thus all people could see not a myth but the scene from an ordinary life which everyone wanted to hide. But money revealed it. Another thing which was provocative is that this nude woman was looking straight into the eyes of the public. Before my very few characters in paintings looked directly at the public. They were usually looking sideways or somewhere into the space, so this was a kind of a shock for the viewers. Money continued to challenge and broke tradition perception of four after three years. In 18 65 he presented another painting, Olympia which again showed an ordinary woman lying nude on the bed. The painting has certain symbols. We show that this woman is definitely not a goddess. It is a black get on the right, a flower off orchid near the woman's here, which is a symbol of desire and seen, and the neck bent on the neck, as if saying that I'm a present for you. The luncheon on the Grass and Olympia opened the new page in the history of our where many things were now allowed. Without these paintings, all other further experiments would not have been possible. Monet's paintings, however, were not only provocative, but they also focus more in texture, tone and color rather than tradition. Concepts off perspective for that, and he's a bar at the Folies Bergere. There he tries to capture the motion of the crowd of people in the concert hall and then dangling chandelier. And he does it by blurring technique, which uses thick brush strokes and sharp saturated. Here's the background of this painting is actually the reflection in the mirror, and we can see the reflection of the man who is buying something in the concert hall canteen. It may probably mean that the person who is looking at the woman is the painter himself, and he wanted to capture this Monday, an occasion in his painting. Although many never identified himself off the core group of Impressionist, he inspired greatly its key members by emphasizing the importance of texture, pilot and artistic manipulation in conveying the meaning. 4. Term "Impressionism".: So how did the Impressionist came to be known? The first mention cough this term A cured in 18 74 during their first independent gallery show in Paris, with paintings by Camille Pissarro, Berthe Morisot and Edgar Degas, the show was held at the photographer's studio on Boulevard. They kept Racine, and there were 165 paintings. Altogether. The building was modern, and the paintings were modern to pictures of ordinary life painted in such a way that many visitors thought that they were unfinished and by the way, the works were in sales. Most of the artists were unknown to the public, and they call themselves the Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptures, Engravers, it said, trying one of the art critics who visited the show wrote a satirical review in his newspaper and called the show Exhibition Off Impressionists, inspired by Claude Monet's painting, which was called Impression Sunrise by calling that the critic want to discredit their works. But instead he invented their identity and their name 5. Claude Monet.: that later became one of the most famous Impressionist. He used broken color, which means that instead of using uniformed brown paint to paint the brown surface, the artist creates new ones with strokes off other colors, like red, blue or yellow. From a distance, the surface appears brown, but look closer and you'll sport all the variations. The end result can appear like a vibration of color as your eyes jump between all the different colors, thus creating optical color mixing. When your eyes are particular, mix two distinct colors and see various years. If you look closely at minus grain stack, you can see all the different colors utilized purples, yellows, reds, oranges and blues. And he's another painting march to the west from TRATA when they used the like yellows, oranges, blues and creams to paint the texture of the arch. He also depicted the sun's reflection on the waves in a very volatile and inconsistent way of the seawater painting blues, greens, yellows and craze. This technique of broken color, enabled to show the transitory and volatile essence oflife. This is the advice that another Impressionist coming, Pissarro, gives about how to pay in the landscape work at the same time on sky water branches ground , keeping everything going on an equal basis. Don't be afraid of putting on color pain generously and unhesitatingly, for it is best not to lose the first impression. 6. Manet or Monet.: you may ask, how is it possible to differentiate between the authorities and the workmen and court? For now? Well, it's quite simple money with a focused more on people where his money with old concentrated on light and color and people in most of his paintings are like in the background as an addition to the landscape there. We've almost never used the black color like other Impressionist, while many with a didn't consider himself an impressionist, and so he used the black color. 7. Japonisme. En plein air.: it is quite probable that Impressionist and one, especially where somehow inspired by Japanese art, which became quite popular in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, it is known that money collected large numbers of Japanese wood blocks in his home in Giverny. Like many other artists, money consider Japanese culture is very artistic. I prefer Japanese veep landscapes, views. We can see how the subject mentoring the paintings off Impressionist seems to reflect that of the Japanese wood blocks, although the painting technique is completely different, of course. Claude Monet also introduced the technique, called Uncle and Air, which is translated as in the open air and which means that he liked to paint outdoors by using tube pains, which had been just invented. Painting in the open air allowed Morning and other Impressionist to capture the movements in the nature more accurately, and it was completely different from the students and artificiality off. The artist union even purchased a small world, which he often used as his painting studio. Other impression is started to use the fast developing crazy way system to travel to the countryside with the tube paints and canvases in the search for inspiration, One of the brightest examples off the zone clinic technique. His minutes. What are really serious, which contain about 250 oil paintings? 8. Pierre-Auguste Renoir.: all right, So what we should also mention is that not all Impressionists prefer to paint nature, though pure. August Reynard, for example, who was another pioneer off Impressionism, is famous for depicting Parisian city life as well as female characters. One of his most renowned paintings is dancing. He shows a crowd of people dancing and chanting at the beautiful mark he uses set any brush strokes and vivid colors to give energetic sense of the courtyard and utilizes some photographing, blurring and cropping. 9. Cropping and Focus in Impressionism.: before the Impressionist composition in paintings was quite traditional and predictable. The various elements of paintings would lead your eye to the focal point. The impression is, however, put focal points in more unexpected places and started cropping paintings on the site influence, most likely by what photographers off That time we're doing, you can see the cropping techniques in Vegas racecourses, for example, where he completely eliminates parts of the writers or horses. 10. Public attitude towards Impressionism: the public was at first hostile and disapproving. Off the Impressionism looks off. People didn't like the new paintings as they looked rather messy and just unfinished, people thought, or it should be neater. And the subject in art should be more important than just everyday scenes. Gradually, the general public started to appreciate impression is fresh and original vision, which reflected the world that was changing so rapidly. By the end of the century, however, it was mostly for the general public. But most of the art critics and art establishment continue to disapprove of the new style for many decades to follow. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Impressionist held a number of their own exhibitions, their final won. The seat was held in 18 86 and it was evident that the artists were starting to develop their own styles and techniques, such as George Seurat's point to reason. This new approaches would later become known as Post Impressionism Movement, which will discuss in our next lecture 11. Summary of Impressionism.: so, to sum up, Impressionist prepared the art world for future departures from traditional representations and started to incline towards abstraction, which would become prominent in the upcoming century. The main features of Impressionism were the following distancing from the academic painting which focused on important events, instead focusing on the transients off life, fleeting moments and ordinary things. People in places Inclusion off movement is a crucial element of human perception and experience. Unusual visual angles. Yusof New and different painting techniques broken brush strokes off, mixed and pure on mix color not blended smoothly or shaded. It was customer at that time to achieve an effect off intense color vibration painting very thickly and quickly Use of photographic effects like cropping can blurring, which make the picture less realistic and more as a reflection of how the artist fields. Images are usually with less details, like a glimpse off what they so attention to light, and it's changing qualities, texture and color. The colors are usually bright and vibrant. Impression is very rarely used black collars. If any many pictures were taken, our doors were unclean there with the use of newly invented few pains, and here are the main artist off the impression is movement. This is not the whole East, of course, influence the development of Impressionism. He painted everyday objects Community Cero and Alfred Seriously painted the French countryside, and three other scenes enjoyed painting belly dancers and horse races. There's more easily painted women doing everyday things Auguste Renoir love to show the effect of sunlight on flowers and figures and court. Mona was interested in subtle changes in the atmosphere and light. There have been quite a few of Impressionists, and many of them will have numerous paintings which are now dispersed around the world. So I suggest you check in give. There are some impression of galleries in your city or area and in the meantime, seeing the next lecture. 12. Post-Impressionism. Georges Seurat. Pointillism.: in the previous lecturers who learned how Impressionist changed the perception for how they challenge the classic schools, a realistic depiction off religious and historical events and instead proposed scenes from ordinary life with common people and places. They also utilized new techniques such as broken color, blurring can cropping, and we can say that they seem to be more creative in proposing different ideas off how painting could look like. So to cut it short, Impressionist prepared the artistic world for further experiments in painting. In this lecture, we're going to get acquainted with new personalities who brought in the boundaries off art even further and said the stage for 20th century revolutionary modern art movements. In the 18 eighties, Impressionism started to come to the deadlock, and young artists try to rethink popular style, develop it and come up with new techniques. It wasn't the last exhibition of Impressionist in 18 86 that the post impressionist movement lay these foundations. One of the first artist who presented his own unique style of painting, which was different from that of Impressionist, was George Sarah, who introduced his pointillist technique in one of his greatest works, called Sunday afternoon on the island off Grand Doctor in point. Tourism artists use colors and subject matter similar to Impressionism, but they're brushstrokes are different. This is the main difference between pointillism and Impressionism. Sarah, in his La Granja death, placed very small dots of pure colors side by side to create a larger image. It is very similar to what we call pig cells on our screens today from a for the painting shows quite typical scene, just like any other impressions paintings. However, if you move closer to the canvas, you can see separate small dots off individual colors, which result in a shimmering effect, like when you experience on a hot and sunny day. These color vibrations created by these points of color were described by Sarah is neo Impressionism, and his ideas inspired a number of contemporary artists who would constitute the post Impressionist movement, even community. Several who was one of the founders of Impressionism, supported George Sarah in point tourism and continue to paint using these techniques for five years in point tourism. The dots on the painting can be large, like in Paul Signac spines on top. We're very small, almost invisible, like in George cerise models. One of the most expensive works of point least is The Painting of George Legrand, which was sold in 1999 for $32 million. 13. Paul Cezanne.: another representative of Post Impressionism poll. Suzanne was friendly with quote whenever coming Pissarro in the Impressionist painters and even used to show his paintings in the Impressionist exhibitions. But after some time, he still became quite different to theirs, pulses and decided to concentrate on geometric shapes and bold outlines. He continued to paint from nature, but he ended some kind of figure into his works. He tried to structurally order what he saw, and he simplified the forms off objects into simple shapes. For example, he would be in the tree as a column. Unlike many artists who focused on one or maybe two, subject matters says unpainted. Still, life landscapes portrayed and nude scenes in his large betters season presents a modern interpretation off a nude figure. We've unfinished bodies in some kind of obstruction. These unique style of schism would later give rise to Cubism and inference are the artists like public because so sees unlike the work in isolation in his hometown in Provence. And although his paintings were disapproved by the general public, he was respected by young artists who often sought after him. It was later that Suzanne would become one of the most renowned painters off all times. He's painting the card. Players was sold at an auction in 2012 for more than $250 million.1 of the highest prices ever paid in the world for painting. He's another painting. LaMontagne sent Victoire bruschetta shot. Anwar was solved the next year in 2013 for an astonishing $100 million. The influence pulses on head on. Modern art can be described by the worst of publicly Castle and 100 Mateas, who both cold season the father off us all because in many ways season was the first Western artist to lead the way towards what we know today as abstract painting. 14. Vincent van Gogh.: probably one of the most renowned post Impressionist artist and one of the most influential artist in the history of modern art, was been saying Mango Bangkok died when he was 37. But in these very short period of his lifetime, he created enormous number of fascinating card works, which today are sold for record breaking sums at the auctions around the world. This time off, one book was very different to any other artists. He used bold colors and genetic, impulsive and expressive brushwork. Bangkok suffered from mental illness, says most of his life, and it is thought that his style was affected by his illness. He tried to many parade different elements of the painting as a means of expressing his inner self. In his one of the most famous paintings Story Night, which he painted while in an insane asylum in 18 89 he makes a swirling clients of clouds and contours with vibrant colors of stars and decrease end. This combination offers an inside interferes, chaotic psych, which was a whole Marco Van Brooks approach. Quite a number of artists were influenced by Van Goch style. He showed that you could be free to express your feelings in the paintings instead of trying to be introduced. Ycl e. This led to the rights of Expressionist movement leader. Although he suffered my from his mental instability, he often didn't care about his health and used to drink heavily his friendship with another post impressionist artist bold again and that in a severe argument during which he allegedly caught part of his own left year with a razor, it seemed that treatment in psychiatric hospitals didn't help him as he continued to struggle with strong depressions. And in 18 90 at the age of 37 he showed himself in the chest with a revolver and died two days later from the injuries. During his short Live and Go created more than 2100 artworks, including 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life. However you're in his lifetime, Bangkok sold only one painting. He was rather poor, and his brother, Taylor used to support it financially, and many people consider Dongguk a madman and the feeler. But his art became astoundingly popular author. His death, and especially in the late 20th century, when he started to be considered as a misunderstood genius, and every honorable museum is proud to showcase his paintings while some of his works are sold for record sums at auctions around the world. 15. Paul Gauguin.: another famous post impressionist and close friend of Van Gogh, pulled again, moved away from Impressionism by using strong outlines, very bright colors, fled patterns and childlike figures. He was disappointed with Impressionism as he felt that it elects in bowling depth. That's why he enjoyed the art. If every can't Asia, which was full of symbols and vigor, Gogan wanted to escape the urban and industrial environment of the Western civilization and look for a tropical paradise where he could express his ideas and paintings. Gergen moved to turn it in French Polynesia for a couple of years. There he focused on what he described as primitive fourth and five style. His painting Day of the Gods, presents a colorful beach scene and shows exotic and corneal country. What captivates most in this piece are the proofs of saturated, colorful hues, which add intensity to the painting smooth. The central figure off a day. T represents the cycle of birth and death and ed stability to this exciting painting. One of begins masterpieces is definitely his painting. Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? Which was also painted in 18? It can be considered as the combination of his ideas. The three main figures in the painting represent the free questions off its title. The figures are arranged from the beginning stages off life, from young figures with the child to the middle aged figure in the middle and then to the elder finger on the left of the painting. The idol in the bank round, situated behind the elder figure, represents the beyond. Apart from being an artist, Grogan was also sculpture, printmaker, ceramist and tryingto. Gergen leave his later life in poverty. His art didn't become famous until after his death. Some of his paintings have been sold in the beginning of the 21st century for tremendous prices like He's When Will You Marry, which was sold in 2014 for more than $200 million were Otaki 430 million worth of far for almost $100 million. His ideas about color and pattern influenced other authorities, such as Andre Matty's to paint brightly colored pictures in a style called for Busan. He also paved the way to the appreciation of primitivism as his paintings employed many of the simplistic techniques employed by 94 artists 16. Term "Post-Impressionism".: one of the art critics once said the term post Impressionism is not a very precise one, though a very convenient one indeed, Post Impressionism can be considered more of a period of painting rather than a style or movement. The spirit lost that approximately from 18 85 to 1910. It was a time when many authorities departed from Impressionism and develop their own style . And interesting enough. The during Post Impressionism was first used at the end of this period by British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 when he organized the 19th an exhibition, Money and the Post Impressionist. So this term was going to post Factum together all artists who came after Impressionist. 17. Summary of Post-Impressionism.: so to sum up post Impressionist extended Impressionism, while at the same time rejecting some of its limitations and ending some new ideas. On the one hand, they continue to use lead colors, often used, think brushes and depicted the real life subject matter. But on the other hand, they started to use geometric forms and distort forms to have a more expressive effect. They also like using somewhat unnatural colors, and in general, post Impressionist paintings tend to carry more emotions and artist personal expressions. Although post Impressionist were dissatisfied with Impressionism, they could not agree on the common way forward. Four major figures were at the forefront of post Impressionism, and each of them extended Impressionism in different direction. These artists are George Terra pulses on Paul Gauguin and Vincent Bangor. They all lived in France and knew each other and often exhibited together, but they didn't work together. As a group, George Serra and his followers were focused on pointillism or the systematic use of tiny dots of color. Pulse is on wanted to provide some kind of order in structure two paintings by reducing objects to their basic shapes. Yet he tried to retain the situated colors of Impressionism in sandanme book used color and vibrant, swirling brushstrokes to express his emotions. And he's in their state of mind. Google also maintained intense light and color, but rejected painting from nature and tree introduced imaginative subject matter. Each of these post Impressionist artists offer their unique perception and provided insights into how modern art can look like the late Foundation and inspired what would be leader called as there is revolutionary movements or the 20th century such as Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, Surrealism and others, which we're going to explore in our next lectures. Stay tuned. 18. Art Nouveau. Organic and Aesthetic Design.: if you have been to Paris or seen some photos, you recognize the swirling plant line gates with their distinct lettering that serve as entryways to the city's metro system. This time off mental entrances is a nice example of Art Nouveau movement. It was unveiled to the general public during the Paris World Fair in 1900 but it had started some years earlier. The late 19th century was an age of industrial revolution and technological innovation. Design of good sent interior was dictated by the methods of mass manufacturing, and several artists reacted strongly against bulky and similar concepts from Victorian age . We remember from our bus lectures that Post Impressionism introduced a provocative use of color and line. And there was another concept called S Statism, which called for symbolic wars off art for art's sake. At the same time, the Arts and crafts movement, which originated in breeding at about the same period, encourage traditional modes of production such as hand craftsmanship. An article incorporated all of these aspects in painting and graphic art architecture manufacturing into a single concept and became a rapidly popular across Europe. In late 18 nineties and early 19 hundreds, the motor off art novel was Forget some quince work. We're total work apart from German, which meant incorporating various media and eliminating the hierarchy between liberal and decorative arts. The term partner will first appeared in the Belgian Are journal lower down in 18 84 to describe the work off live in a society off 20 progressive artists. These painters responded to leading theories by French architect Regina Manimal Village LaDuke in British critic John Ruskin, who advocated for the unity off all arts in December 18 95 the German born art dealer Secret being open to gallery in Perry's named Mazandaran. He was famous for selling Japanese ceramics and Tokyo pains, and he started to promote these new art in his gallery, selling specific furniture, fabrics, wallpapers and objects of art. So what is the essence off our role? First of all, representatives of Art Nouveau movement were inspired by Rocco Curves. Japanese masters under Hiroshi again got so shaky. Hokusai and Celtic graphic motives. They borrow the plant, forms they so in nature and then threatened and obstructed them into elegant organic motives. The distinguishing characteristic in the design off all Art nouveau objects is it's a symmetrical line, often taking the form of flower stalks and buds or some tendrils or some insect wings and other natural objects in graphic arts. Particularly the line is the main element, and it subordinates all other pictorial elements, including former space and color. The second important feature, off Art Nouveau style is that it's theories promoted a greater coordination between art and design. They wanted to incorporate organic forms and patterns into the design off everyday objects . This idea was probably coming from Breeden's Orth and Crafts movement. One of the founders of FARC, Nivel. English designer and businessman William Morris, defined the main goals off the style to give people pleasure in the things they must perforce years. That is one great office of decoration to give people pleasure in the things they must perforce make. That is the other use, if it more is despised. Working conditions in factories and low quality goods manufactured as a result of industrial revolution and a mess in homes by more and more people In that period, we re more is believed that everyday objects should feature more aesthetic and functional design instead of being just bulky, cumbersome things from the Victorian period with heavy ornaments. These ideas soon dispersed around the world, and many countries had their own understanding off this style. In Scotland, there was the rectilinear Glasgow style in Italy are turnover or still liberty after London firm Liber Tentacle style New or could've where in Belgium, Juergen Stehle in Germany and Austria, Tiffany style in the United States and in France style metro. Some people consider it Art Nouveau as the unified style for others are never represented a variety of many nations styles. 19. Art Nouveau. Lautrec. Klimt. Gaudi. Horta. Tiffany. : first experiments in a symmetrical design and flew incline. Work can be found in the works of graphic artists such as French painter and printmaker on the reader to lose track and young English illustrator or briefings. And Beardslee. The usual attracts Jane April shows and a pony most Can Can Dancer with energetic color and simple arithmetic contours. Where is Beardsley's? The peacock Scared evokes decadence for thing curation lines against both negative space. What is interesting to note here is that both artists flat on their subject matter in the style of Japanese, um, mimicking the Japanese woodcuts that became popular in the West in the late 19th century. We talked about that in our lecture about Impressionist in that period, periodicals, posters and other print media where everywhere and so they help to expose article works to a larger audience and broad printmaking techniques to a new level of artistry. Probably one of the most prominent visual artists off article period is Eunice Painter Gustav, claimed in the Austro Hungarian Empire Art novel, had its own name, which was called Juergen Stehle in his first portrait off Adele Bloch Bauer. We can see an example off the movements reach Yusof ornamentation and flattening go form. The picture is dominated by the Brilliant and Decorah Ocean over the golden and silver relief, which was screened. Distinctive Style claimed also uses some kind of obstruction and irregular patterns which indicate his desire to add some new elements into the kind of heart he was creating. Gustav claimed leave and created in Vienna, and the city's atmosphere in early 19 hundreds was full of erotic love and sexuality, which, it seems, had somehow powerful influence on the artist. In his painting The Keys, we can see two figures male and female, embraced in an organ keys, rectangular, black and white shapes and forms on the men's depiction and colorful circles on the woman symbolized the manliness and community, respectively. Art Nouveau style was often used in architectural projects off that period. It was directly opposed to the traditional architectural values, off reason, symmetry and clarity of structure. Two of the most famous architect who are making full use off article ideas. Where Belgium architect Victor Horta and his Spanish counterpart Antoni Gaudi, perhaps the most original artist of the movement, their buildings may seem different, but both of them were inspired by organic, curved and biomorphic designs of nature. These organic and green a rhythm creates a fusion between structure and ornament. Even the interior design was also subject to our general concepts. The island and the glasswork inside, ceramics and furniture have vine and angel design, with windows seem like openings for light and a year. Victor Horta's building is a home to a museum, which incorporates vine like Iran, work inside and outside the building and varying quits along the first state to capture the fluid and multileveled interior. In contrast, Gowdy utilizes Masonic technique and floral patterns to create an animated dynamic castle similar to the ones in the Dragon and Princess Legends. The art novel movement, which originated in Europe, made its way overseas and influence the designs of American artists. One of the most recognized American promoters off this new style was weakened for Tiffany, heir to his father. Silver empire off definite core. We invented an innovative Eurydice and glass inspired by the glasswork he saw at the Paris exhibition in 18 89. His glass used changing coloration as well as some flowery curving patterns. These glass became hugely successful and allowed the company to expand into the industry of decorative art and jewelry that is still popular and successful today. Louis Sullivan in that American designer made some ornate, expressive patterns to go with his modernise building projects, such as the entrance to Carson Perry and Scott Building, which is recognized for its exchange recline working tournaments. Coupled with go take intricacies, the ornaments contain highly complicated organic and for a motives that became homeworks off Sullivan's design aesthetic. For Sullivan, the decorative design and those are functional purpose. It helped to distinguish his building from those surrounding kid and to make the store attractive to potential customers. The influence of Art Nouveau style is visible in the development of advertising in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the invention off chromatography, which was a unique method for making affordable multi color prints, meant that advertisement posters could be reproduced hundreds of thousands of times. The great open boulevards of Perry's became like art galleries for these new poster art, and now these art was directly accessible by urban messes. In those days, advertising posters became the art in its own right. Turn of the 20th century was also the time of public fascination of machines more than transport and technological progress, and this was reflected in the advertising cough that era. Many posters featured is their subject. Travel sheeps, airplanes, bicycles, cars in some public events, such as motor races in sailing regattas, the poster images were also quite aspirational reflected fashion, wealth and social status off the growing bourgeois regime. Despite its popularity within a short period of time in the early 20th century, the embellishment and elegance off article was very soon overcome by modernist design and after 1910 art never seemed old fashioned and was mostly abandoned. However, movement inspired are the experimentations in abstraction and configuration that would dominate the first half of the 20th century. So to sum up, art novel is a total are style. It covers not only painting but also greatly card jewellery, glass and metal work, interior design and architecture, art nouveau style, copious organic, symmetrical shapes of flowers and natural things. That is why we can see lots off embellishment, curves and ornaments, and it's works. According to article advocates, everyday objects such as furniture had to be not only useful but also have nice aesthetic design. Art Nouveau spread around the world. In every country, Art Nouveau had its own nation, all flavor. Main representatives off article movement are William Maury's on Reduced Track or Brilliance and Beardslee. Gustav claimed Victor Horta and Antoni Gaudi. We come for Tiffany and three Sullivan Overall. Art Nouveau inspired other experimentation in abstraction and pellet in the first half of the 20th century. It also influenced the development of advertising at the turn of the century. 20. Fauvism. Matisse. de Vlaminck. Derain.: In the previous lectures, we saw how Impressionist and then post Impressionist and then art Nable artist challenge the perception of fourth and present their subject matter in less realistic forms. Fauvism, which came to prominence in the early 20th century, continued and invigorated this shift towards abstraction and emphasized the expressive possibilities of color. Fauvism comes from the French word May 4, which is translated as the Wild Beast, when critics so paintings or forest for the first time. They call this artist Lee fourth, because they believe these paintings were a disgrace to the art. But these artists like that and accepted this name with pride and decided to call themselves like that. The folks were the wild beasts. Why did we decide to take a closer look at for ism? Although it only lasted for less than a decade in early 19 hundreds because its major contribution to modern art was that for ism separated color from with descriptive purpose and allowed it to exist on the canvas as an independent element and more like the projection of artist moved, color in forest paintings didn't have to be true to the natural world, one of the many representatives of four vision is on dream a tease. Initially, he experimented with post and now Impressionist techniques such as pointillism. He also traveled a lot and was influenced by art from other cultures. He went on to see a number of exhibitions off Asian art and child, North Africa. He also used some of the decorative qualities of Islamic art and of African sculpture in the flatness of Japanese prints. In his own style, for example, in his early works, looks calm, developed a. We can see his extensive use of dots of color, like in point to reason technique. However, unlike his predecessors like George Sarah, Matisse uses different plate of colors with the full spectrum of pigments, which adds more energy and dynamism. Toe his works also will the yellows, greens, blues and other colorization Matisse's painting have their own place on the canvas. Where is both Sarah and Bosnia tried to marriage dots of color closely together, together, harmonious tonality in 1905 medicine. The group of his followers and like minded artists hosted their own exhibition, which they called Salon downtown, opposed to the traditional salon. By that time, for visa had or developed its own distinctive style with full years of pigments and color palette. One of the most important works of Fauvism is undoubtedly Matisse's ribbon. Over the evil nude bodies are completely flattened in treason figures are concert with bold lines. What remains the most striking feature in the painting is it's expressive color palette. One of the critics left the following description off this colorful painting. If you can imagine what a particular Centenary Little Gila fate half crazed with gene would do to a whitewashed wall if left along the books of cranes, then you'll come near defense ing what most of this work was like Matisse's. Another famous paintings include lungs. Matisse arranged figures in a circle, which was quite popular motive for many centuries and suggested harmony and Frazier. However, Matisse simplified and obstructed the bodies of dancers and beating them in a vibrant red color with flat green ground and blue sky. Some of the figures are in such strange poses that it also adds to the dynamism of the painting. When Adams was first exhibited at the salon to Tom in 1910 it shocked and puzzled the public. Now let's have a look at mountains at Rio by another 400 in this work uses purist approach by isolating the colors on the canvas. The painting clocks less naturalistic, but even more emphatic that some elements feature unnatural color like leaves on the trees and some of the heels, which are depicted in the shade of blue. What is more uses short brush strokes like sticks of color, which give to effect First elements seemed to be directed toward the viewer instead of riding death, and second, it evokes motion flow and dynamism in the painting. Expressive Coloration is the most dominant feature in all for his paintings in his autumn landscape, More East of Lemming uses chaotic flames of Fred to the peak, the landscape and vegetation and some sporadic use of blues to the big the sky in the background. The use of color is so expressive here that it abstracts the reality toe almost on recognizability for sure, for vision was influenced by previous art movements, particularly it can be classified as the fusion between Van Gogh exposed Impressionism, George Sarah's Pointillism and other post Impressionist artists like Paul Signac, Paul Cezanne and Gauguin. Matisse's employment of complete areas off saturated color in his works resemble to the use of color by Paul Gauguin in his paintings from Tighty in 18 96 Matisse. At that time an unknown our student visited the artist John Peter Russell on the island of Bell E off the coast of Brittany. Russell was an Impressionist painter, and he was a close friend on beings in Bangkok. Matisse had never previously seen an Impressionist work directly and was so shocked at the style that he left are for 10 days saying I couldn't stand it anymore. However, the next year he returned is Russell student, but he refused to use his bare of color palette and used Impressionist colors instead. Matisse later stated, the Trussell was my T shirt and Russell explained color theory to meet in 1901 Another future for the authorities. More east of Lemming encountered the work of one book for the first time at an exhibition. He was so impressed by van Gogh's paintings that he soon declared that he loved fungal more than his own father, Maurice de Vlaminck started toe work by squeezing paint directly onto the canvas from the tube. This technique is called imposter and it was practiced by many forest for reason. As a movement lasted only a few years and head free exhibitions, most of the forest soon turned to other mode of painting. However, their ideas continue to leave among Expressionist and Cubist, thus link another cornerstone in the development of modern art. So to sum up for Visa emphasized strong and expressive color, they considered intense color as a means to communicate the artist emotional state. The depiction of elements on the painting was less natural than the previous art movements , and it shifted more towards obstructionism. Most of the elements in forest paintings are flattened and have simplified forms. Where is saturated colors? Maybe the visual impression strong in for Busan, the artist individual expression is intuition, and his emotional response to nature was more valuable than academic theory were an important subject matter. The leaders of the movement were under Matty's. Norway's The Bombing and under and over in the movement was most active in the years 1904 to 1910 for visa influenced later art movements, particularly Koby's Mint Expressionism, as well as some other future wars of obstruction 21. Cubism: before we dive into one of the most controversial art movements of the 20th century, let us remember. The brush seek leaves off on a colorful night sky off fun joke and pointillist seems off Matty's And now imagine how you would feel when you would first encounter the non representational painting by George Brock in the early 19 hundreds. Every element in the picture is simply find into boxes, rectangles and other geometrical forms, and the picture seems more like a college rather than an artwork when art critical, We've ourselves So the landscape painted by George Brock in 1908 He was shocked by the abstract forms of the painting. He later described it in a Parisian periodical that broke despite us for producing everything places and figures and houses to geometric schemes to cubes. It was then that Cubism obtained its name and later on the status off one of the most influential and controversial art movements of the 20th century. Actually, George Brock was not the first artist to experiment with obstruct tendencies. Post Impressionist main Repulses on. We're also starting to use some simple forms when the cameras, but it was Pablo Picasso who invigorated the keep his movement. Brooke was particularly inspired by because so spending the name was a leading young where because so do pigs. Five women were a. Some critics claim one woman from multiple perspectives and heading geometrical and non proportional body forms, not to mention all of the shapes on the canvas, and it's abstract background. It is believed that because he himself was inspired by African art, especially after his visit to the Ethnographic Museum in Paris. So what was the idea behind Cubism? Well, Cubist painters rejected the inherited concept that art should be representative and copy the nature, or that artists should use traditional techniques off perspective on death. Instead, they wanted to highlight the canvas, and it's two dimensionality. For this reason, they simply fight objects into geometric forms. They also used various contrasting viewpoints to completely get rid of symmetry and perspective in their pictures. You may wonder why different parts of people's bodies or faces in Cubist paintings are located in unnatural places. Well, here is whole public because so puts it ahead, said, because it is a matter of eyes, nose, mouth, which can be distributed in any way you like. because Sign broke both leaved in the Bohemian Montmartre district of Paris, and they met quite often to discuss their ideas and progress. Their collaboration was so intense that sometimes it was difficult to distinguish between the works of artists, and it seems that they liked similarity in their works in their early years off work on charism, both because and Brock were rather poor, and they had to rely on the financial support from a gallery owner, Daniel Kahnweiler, who used to buy their works as they painted them. That's why most of the works of because when Brock were exhibited only in Kahnweiler is gallery. There were two distinct phases within Cubism. The 1st 1 which lost it approximately from 1908 to 1912 was called Analytical Cubism. During this period, paintings were abstracted through a Siri's off overlapping planes and facets, geometric shapes with right angles, usually in monochromatic dark colors, grace grounds or blacks. They also use letters in the paintings to make them even more two dimensional, for example, in Manzhouli because so inserts the words marginally in the bottom, as well as a travel clay to flat in the picture plane. Even further, they prefer to depict still life with bottles, playing cards, grasses and musical instruments. Sometimes human faces and figures. Landscapes were not some common. Starting from 1912 until 1914 Cubist continued to experiment with eradicating depth even further and came up with so called topically. The spirit became known as synthetic Cubism, in which artists frequently used foreign materials and expects off everyday life, such as newspaper headlines or tobacco rappers, and pasted them on the canvas in combination with painted areas. Although this college technique was known hundreds off years ago, it was Cubists who made coal ash an important new modern art form. With these colleges made a fragment of mass produced culture assembled together. They change the very definition of heart in analytic cubism, small pieces. So what dissected object were reassembled to produce that same object? Where is in synthetic cubism? Pieces of a different color paper were cut out in the desired shape to them combine them in a particular object. Other major Cubist artists included horn, Greece and Fernand, unlike because, so in Brock, whose cubist works were mainly monochromatic, Huang Grease used bright colors in some of his combinations, reminded the works of his friend Matisse. By the way, it was one Greece who coined the term analytical Cubism in which he painted in the beginning and later on. He also made his transition to send that Cubism and started to use popularly or colleges as for for non treasure. In his early works, he created a personal form of Cubism that the critics termed to Busan for its extensive use off cylindrical forms in his paintings. Probably another important figure in Cubism, which we can't but mention is loner Claudia. He's an American cosmetics billionaire entry, noun, philanthropist. Over the past 40 years, he collected more than 80 masterpieces of Cubist artists, including those off Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, to make one of the most important private collections of Cubist art in 2013 their promise to give his entire collection to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Cubism also had a significant influence on this culture and architecture. Off the 20th century Alexander Hockey, Panko, Joseph Taqi, Raimond Ducharme, the young and chocolate sheets can be named as the renowned Cubist sculptures, just like in painting. Cubist sculpture is characterized by the abstraction off object into components and geometric figures, cubes, cylinders, spheres and cones. The objects can be visually interpreted in different ways, and that's why every Cubist sculpture had their own distinctive manner in style. So to sum up, Cubism completely abandoned their representational aspect off art and fully embraced obstructionism. It paved the way for pure abstraction that would dominate Western art for the next 50 years . Cubism is characterized by distorted figures and fragmented subject matter be constructed in such a way that it can be viewed from multiple angles simultaneously. It was the kids who intron used college into painting, and there were two distinct phases and cubism, namely analytical and synthetic cubism. Cubism was invented in Paris by public because on George Brock in around 1907 in the style was adopted and sometimes developed by many other artists, including Fernand Leger, Kuang Grease, Marcel Duchamp, to name but a few. Many important artists who became popular in their own styles, went through curies and face in their development because it was like a paradigm changing CART movement. PBS and also had a significant impact on sculpture and architecture, and its liberating concepts influenced major art movements, which followed in particular that the Surrealism Constructivism, supra, Matiz, um, and Futurism. I hope you enjoyed this lecture team the next ones. 22. Dada: today, we're going to talk about what was called an anti art movement, and we'll start our lecture at the satirical nightclub Kabir. I will there in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1916 when Europe was grasped by the First World War, many people who were against the war fled to Switzerland. And there a group of flight minded artists, namely Huebel and Tristan Sarah, founded this club. Over there, it was the space full of artistic anarchy, political dissatisfaction and a vanguard performances. Although that was not the movement that had a common style, it shaped significantly the modern culture and modern art in race that can still be visible today. That was the first conceptual art movement where artists didn't try to create something that would aesthetically priest the viewer's eye. But instead, with their works, they wanted to pose difficult questions to the society into the bourgeois class. In particular, they also called into question the purpose off art and the roll off the artist in creating art. That is, despite the world war that was going on, and they believe that there was something crunk with the society that could start and then continue waging these devastating war. That's why many of their concepts were antiwar, revolutionary and satirical. Comfortable there. The founder off the does movement huggable, first introduced his famous sound point, Paraguana. At first glance, the point was just a collection of meaningless sounds and emotions. It didn't resemble any known language. It looked like the biblical episode off the Tower of Babel, and with its lack of sense, it was designed to reflect the insanity off the First World War and to demonstrate the inner beauty of European countries to resolve their diplomatic problems using creation. All discussions, his strange custom made his speech even more foreign and generational, and his hope for four months was seen as a protest against nationalism and bourgeois mindset, which encouraged violence, colonization and class struggle the central worth for the racism that demonstrated the essence of the revolution. A large movement is the founder of the Hugo Ball stated in his dinner manifesto that that comes from the dictionary. It's terribly simple. In French. It means hope. The horse in German, it means goodbye. Get off my back. They seem to it sometime in Romanian. Yes, indeed, you are right, that's it. And so forth and so on by using the word that the artist denied a singular, logical understanding off their art. In unpretentious proclamation, Sarah found the way to visualize the ideas off Dadaism by combining various phones in one piece, he destroyed the harmony of the work, making it look charity can trough. This work can already be seen as the beginning of conceptual art, which use of materials, settings and approaches aimed largely at challenging ideas rather than representing the real world in order to challenge the norms of traditional art. It was necessary to invent a new aesthetic language in order to do so that the artist started to use ready mades, everyday objects that could be bought and presented as art with little manipulation by the artist, the use of the readymade forced questions about artistic creativity and the very definition of fart and its purpose in society. These new style can be seen in the early works of Parisian. Expect tree Marcel Duchamp, who incorporated everyday ready made objects into his works, for example, in Fantine Do. Some presented the audience with an upside down urinal, claiming that there was a funding in front of them. Later it would provoke a heated debate in artistic community. In this funding would become one of the most iconic pieces off modern art. Why a ready made objects can be considered as art? Well, according to Duchamp, there are three reasons. First, the near fact that the artist chose this object is a creative Arthur say. Secondly, when we can so that practical or useful function off the object, this object also becomes art. And finally, when the artist gives the title of the object he presented to the audience all these these and new meaning to the object and it becomes art. This idea when artist is not the maker but rather a chooser, is often regarded as the beginning of conceptual art as the concept authorities and the object or called into question. At that time in the early 20th century, these ideas of using credit mate objects were considered as an attack to the traditional understanding off our status and nature. Gradually, they became more and more incorporated into the essence of modern art. Marcel Duchamp was also an important figure in the movement because he important that the ideas from Europe to New York it inspired many American oranges to challenge classic ideas and come up with new and bold concepts to further challenge the very concept off what it means to be an artist that I used to used for the montage, collage and assemblage in your most famous thesis cut with the kitchen knife, the Berlin artist Hunter Hope made a county college off cut out on political and cultural themes. In one piece, she combined radical and conservative politicians female figures, including your own self portrait and household objects and, as a result, blurs the borders between the domestic and social spheres, as well as between Hobie and Serious Art. Another 100 based other artists called Schwitters, used scrap and trash materials, which he collected on the streets of post war huh, never to create obstruct and semi abstract colleges that he called merits. Schwitters was once quoted for saying that everything had broken down in any case, and new things had to be made out of the fragments. Sweet there is wanted to emphasize that art and something beautiful can be made from destruction. That art had this potential to remake fractured world by using the object off everyday life that the artist wanted to criticize the symbols of modernity. This technique of college and dissemble age, however, was not something you by that time we know from our previous lectures that Cuba is also used very subjects off everyday life, such as newspaper headlines and tobacco rappers on the canvas, especially during the synthetic Cubism face other than a, such as hunts are explored acts of chance and spontaneity in their work for his college three squares, arranged in accordance with the laws of chance, the artist ripped pieces of color paper and threw them in random order on the larger sheets covered in group there by calling into question the importance of logic and reason in making art. The introduction of chance was away for the days to challenge artistic norms and to question the role of the artist in the artistic process. The slack off artistic control over artwork would also later become an important element off Serialism, an art movement that try to unlock the unconscious world and get rid of the racial control of creativity. So to sum up that that was an art movement which was formed by Huebel and Tristan Sarah in Zurich in 1916 as a negative reaction to the horrors and disasters of the first World War. The art and performances produced by that iced were often satirical and nonsensically nature. They frequently used the methods off satire Irony weekend parody to show their critical attitude towards art in society. That is also favored the concept of chance and spontaneity, in contrast to the logic and order that I utilized a wide range of different mediums from college and Fordham and age, toe everyday, ready made objects and even performances. They called into question the traditional concepts of how art should be made, as well as the role of the artists and the art object that I inspired artists to follow their own artistic voices rather than adhering to set of rules or logic. That the movement was born in neutral Zurich in Switzerland but rapidly spread to Berlin, Hanover, Paris and New York. Many days eventually turned to serialism, social realism and other artistic methods in the 19 twenties. But their influence kept being strong, for without the rest of the 20th century in action, painting, design, culture and elsewhere, you got it short. It was that that that laid the foundation for the freedom of expression that artists have been enjoying until today