100 Anatomy & Physiology | Lauren Bapst | Skillshare

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Lessons in This Class

6 Lessons (41m)
    • 1. 100% anatomy & physiology open video

    • 2. Introduction

    • 3. Cytology

    • 4. Histology

    • 5. Lymphatics

    • 6. Urinary

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Do you want to overly prepared for A&P? Check out these videos to supplement studying for class. I will be posting more of the systems videos soon.  Thanks for watching!  

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Lauren Bapst

Doctoral Student & Educator


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1. 100% anatomy & physiology open video: 2. Introduction: Welcome to Anatomy and Physiology. Week one. An introduction with medical terminology. There will be 13 videos. Gunnell for this course. This is the first meeting which we'll discuss. An introduction to anatomy and medical terminology. This isn't outline of all the luxuries by video. The new one introduction video to sell the new three tissues. The do for Integra monetary system. Did you revive the respiratory system? Video six. The Lymphatic System Video seven. Urinary System Video eight. Digestive System. The Neo Night, The Endocrine System, Video Time Skeletal System Video 11. Muscular System, The Neo 12 Cardiovascular System and Video. 13. The Nervous System These air Our Goals for Week one. First comparing contrast microscopic anatomy with gross anatomy that identify the major levels of organization in living organisms. To find the various branches of anatomy. Describe the basically functions of an organism. Identify the organ systems of the human body and understand their major functions. Use anatomical terms to describe body sections. Regions. Relative positions in the anatomical position. Identify the major body cavities and understand their function and gain exposure to medical terminology. The difference between microscopic and macroscopic and autonomy is microscopic. Anatomy cannot be visibly seen without magnification. Such a psychology or histology macroscopic anatomy or gross anatomy considers a relatively large structure is visible by the human eye. This may be a superficial original. Horses stomach. There are four basic types of tissues or histology. Muscular connective apathy. Leo and nervous tissues in combination form organs or inspire visible snow. We have crossed into Gerson out on me territory. Gold. Two levels of organisation. Adams build into chemicals into cells. Tissues which form organs and organs. Composed organ systems which create the organism. There are 11 anatomical systems of the human body. The first system is the muscular system, followed by the skeletal system. The endocrine system that I just of system, the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the urinary system, the lymphoid er, lymphatic system, the respiratory system and documentary system and reproductive system. Homey of Stasis is the vital state of affairs of maintaining a normal internal environment within the human body. For example, temperature regulation disorders are diseases. Result when Hovey a Stasis is out of balance system with purpose theater. Documentary's system protects the body from outside conditions. The cardiovascular system transports fluid. Philip out of system provides immunity and defense. The respiratory system delivers air and allows for gas exchange. That I just system involves food processing and absorption. The urinary system involves waste elimination and the pH. Billings. The indifference of stuff directs long term changes in the activities of other organ systems. The skeletal system provides support, protection of soft tissues, mineral storage and blood formacion. The muscular system involves locomotion support and heat production. The nervous of some dorks. Immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems. And I'm realize ical or reproductive system involves hormones related to pregnancy. All living organisms share these processes. They respond, grow, reproduce, move an exhibit metabolism and excretion. Cool for what is the anatomical position. The anatomical position involves a patient holding hands at the side pumps for not impeaching other standing. What is supine lying Face up? What is prone, lying face down. Regional in directional terms. Interior This front ventral belly side posterior back. Dorsal back. Systolic cranial had superior above. Coddle, tell inferior below medio midline lateral away from in line approximately toward the attached space or distal away from the base. Superficial skin deep or deep internal. What are the 20 regions of the human body. Students should be familiar with the 20 regions. Remember to always refer to the patients terms. You're right. Is the patients left and your left? Is the patients free? There are three major planes to know the transfers. Playing the frontal plane and the Sodje. It'll plane six major body comedies, one ventral body cavity, which houses for respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary and reproductive organs to let Terraza cavity, which houses the lungs in the heart. Three pleura houses the lungs. Poor pair cardio. The heart peritoneal cavity houses his stomach in the intestines. The public cavity houses the bladder and reproductive organs. Winter viscera, internal organs. Medical terminology. Week one. What is the medical terminology? Medical terminology is a lot in system of labelling. Medical terms are job, a scientist, physicians and researchers is to decode medical terms that could be a little too complex. How does medical terminology work? They're prefixes, suffixes and root words. They're like building blocks connected by vowels. Therefore, we must numerous the prefixes suffixes in the root words to know medical terminology. Example of the medical terminology Word in this lesson is home yo Stasis home, home, you meaning the same static condition and it's her pertaining towards 3. Cytology: psychology. The study themselves cells were first discovered in 16 65 by Robert Hooke. Have you tried quirk under a light microscope? The cell theory has three components. One seltzer. The building blocks of life to cells are produced by the division of pre existing cells, and three cells are the smallest structural units that perform all vital life functions. Psychology is the study of the structure and the function of cells. The fluid surrounding cells is called extra cellular fluid. The cell number and suffered societal plasm from the extra cellular fluid. The cytoplasm of a cell contained find us all fluid and organelles. This is a quick help shape for the components of the cell. The cell membrane is called the possible up in violator because it has two distinct layers . Hydro filic, Hodson hydrophobic tails. There are two general types of membrane proteins. Peripheral proteins attached to the inner on remembering surface and integral proteins embedded in the membrane. Some interval proteins have channels. I control the passageway of materials. The cell membrane provides physical barriers, regulation of exchange, sensitivity and structural support for the entire cell. It should be noted that the memory structure, however, is fluid. Cholesterol is used to help anchor structure together. Number in permeability determines barrier effectiveness. Cells are selectively per available. The permeability of the cell depends on passive and active processes. Passive processes include diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion. Active processes include active transport in and of psychosis. The fusion is that up movement from an area where its concentration is relatively high to an area where concentration is relatively low. The difference between high and low concentrations is the concentration ingredient. Someone, roots are permeable toe water molecules. The transfer of water molecules from high to low concentration is called osmosis. Compounds such as glucose and amino acids can be transported across the membrane by special carrier proteins. This is notice. Facilitated diffusion. The molecule to be transported first finds terrorist after site on an integral membrane protein. All active membrane processes require energy. 80 p to allow the salt transport substances against concentration grain. Ian's observable by active transport and Ando psychosis. Active transport require specific carrier proteins but does not depend on a concentration. Grady It I am pumps move specific cat diet or and I am in one direction, into or out of the cell I know Soto Sis also noticed bulk transport involves three processes. Pino psychosis, a geo psychosis, a receptor mediated Ando psychosis. What is the difference between piano psychosis and fijo? Psychosis? Pino is to drink, and Pedro is to eat. Receptor mediated at a psychosis is similar to Pino psychosis, but vesicles that enter the cell membrane are coded by Legans, bound to receptors on the meme bring surface. Small projections of a pleasant lemma are termed micro ville i child by absorbing material from the extra cellular fluids, such as the cells of the small intestine and the kidneys. The general term for material inside the cell is cytoplasm. Cytoplasm includes site US all and organelles. Cellular organelles can be divided into two broad categories. One non member in bound organelles and to membrane bound organelles. The internal protein framework that gives the site a positive strength and flexibility is a sight. Oh, skeleton. There are four major components micro filaments, intermediate filaments, dick elements and micro tubules. Slender strands, composed primarily of the protein active, are termed my grove elements. Micro filaments have two major functions. One they help by anchoring the sido skeleton to the plasma lumber proteins and, to they hope, interact with micro filaments or Maya's and intermediate filaments provide strength, stabilize the positions of organelles and transfer materials within the cytoplasm. Intermediate filaments are specialized and they're also hold narrow filaments there found a neuron, sir. They provide support within Exxon's their filaments composed to Mirelson protein. Some units are abundant and muscle cells, where they interact with active elements to produce powerful contractions. Micro tubules also possess hollow tubes called micro tubules made from tubular. In my car, tubules have the following functions. They provide self straight in virginity attached organelles form spindle apparatus and for structural components, such a central's cilia and flood. Ola Central's organized micro tubules in a spindle Tamir chromosomes. During cell division, cilia propel fluids or solids across the cell surface flow. Gela propels cells through the fluid. The central zone is the region of side opossum. Surrounding the pair of Central's It Drexel organization of the micro tribunals of the side of skeleton problems are small down structures. I cannot be seen with the light microscope. There are free rhizomes and fix rob ISMs that help manufacturer proteins. Mitochondria contain an unusual double membrane and out remembering in an in remembering, continued Christie Christie, I increase the surface area or the matrix of the mitochondria. Similar to a bookshelf, the nucleus is the control center of the cell. A nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the side. Is all the nuclear Plasm also contains a network of fine filaments called the nuclear matrix, that provide structural support and may be involved in the regulation of genetic activity. Each chromosome contains DNA strands bound to special proteins called hissed, owns at intervals to dan experience. Wind around his stones, forming a complex called a nucleus. Um nucleus also contains crow mention, which is loosely coiled filaments. The underclassmen articulo is a network of intracellular, remembering that for Impala tubes flat in sheets and running chambers called sister name. The under placement particular, um, has four functions. One to synthesize carbs, steroids and lipids to to store molecules or substances absorbed from the side of salt. Three. To transfer substances of them. The cell four to detoxify Cellou cellular toxins. There are two divisions of the e R. The smooth and a positive particular, um, and the Rock and Joe plasmid particular, um, the Golgi apparatus consists of a lot numbering discs called cistern. A. The major function of the Golgi apparatus includes a synthesis in the packaging of secretion packaging, special enzymes for use in the side, us all and the renewal or modification of the plasma dilemma. Racism's Our bicycles filled with digestive enzymes formed by the rough E. R and then sorted by the Golgi apparatus. Primary lice ISMs contained in active enzymes, which rapidly destroy the proteins and organelles of the cell in a process called auto slices. Paroxysm enzymes performed by free Robert zones within the cytoplasm, paroxysms absorbed and breakdown fatty acids and other organic compounds. Large areas of opposing plasma. Lome may be interconnected by trans membrane proteins called Selanne Yuzhin Molecules or cams. There are three major types of cell junctions, one tight junction to communicating junctions and three anchoring junctions. Tight junctions involved interlocking membrane proteins. Communicate injunctions are also called gap junctions. They involved two cells held together by member and proteins called connect sons. Three anchoring junctions provide mechanical linkages between two adjacent cells at their lateral or basal surfaces. The life cycle of a cell cell division of one cell attitude on ourselves, reporters my toes. Us. The steps of my choices include interface G one asked and J two stages that my toes is followed by an indefinite period of time. Do you want involves normal cell functions plus all girl duplication of organelles and protein synthesis. The S stage involves DNA replication, synthesis or hissed own formation. N G two involves protein synthesis and DNA replication. The original parents trains unwind and DNA primaries begins attaching complementary DNA nucleotides along each strand. This process produces two identical copies of the original DNA molecule. Adenine as a nucleotide base is always period of time, mean just as guanine is always paired with cytosine and DNA. These were the four stages of my toe sis pro face not a face and a face and tell a phase. 4. Histology: histology. The study of tissues. There are four types of tissues. Apathy. Leo Connective, muscular and nervous. There are approximately 200 types of cells that establish the four types of tissues. Histology is the study of tissues, and psychology is the study of cells. A peculiar tissue contains glandular cells. Epithelium is a sheet of cells that covers an exposed surface or lines, a cavity or passageway. Apathy. Liam covers every exposed Bonnie surface. They're six characteristics of epithelial tissues. One. Cellular parity with reduced facing two polarity. Uneven sole distribution. Three Attachment, then Visalia. Mina Selby's for a vascular charity. A lack of blood vessels. Five. Layering multiple cell sheets in 63 generations. Stem cell division apathy. Lyall Tissue completes four functions that protects, provides permeability, allows for innovation of senses and offers glandular cells. Epithelial cells are classified by three subdivisions. One. They produce secretion to allow for fluid movement over the epithelial surface. Three. Provide fluid movement through the epithelium. Most epithelial cells have micro bill. I. I'm exposed. A pickle surfaces. Such a stereo. Silly. I located along the inter portions of the year, maintaining the integrity of epithelium. Cell junctions promote apathy. Liam integrity. Stem cells promote integrity through replenishing the salts. Apathy. Leah can be classified into simple or stratified cells, which then could be classified further into school. Miscue, portal or Colomb are simple. Epithelium is one layer of cells covering the basal Ameena. It's very thin and fragile, such as the Chamber of the Heart. Simple epithelium involves secretion, absorption or filtration, such as the lining of the intestines. For the long. This is a chart I created. I would encourage all y'all allowing all the students here to do the same chart. Just copy it in your own handwriting, but you can copy it verbatim On issue. The internal tissue contains three components. One specialized cells, two extra channeler protein fibres and three girl substance fluids. Extra cellular fibers and girls. Substance flu and create the soul matrix. There are six key combinations of connective tissue. One. Establish a structural body framework to transport fluids. Three. Protect organs for provide tissue support. Five allowed for energy storage and six allow for immunity to funds. This is a secondary chart that I created for the classification of connective tissue. We have connective tissue proper connected to achieve fluid and connective tissues supporting again. I would encourage all the students watching this course to go ahead and create your own chart. You can use different colored paper. Her marker is just whatever helps you memories this material best for their classification of connective tissue. Loose connective tissue can be divided into particular aerial ER or out of post tissue. Does connective tissue can be divided into collagen or elastin fibres? Last produce college in particular in the last in fiber well, fibrosis ites maintain college in particular. In the last in fibers, there are three types of bone. Cartilage. Highland elastic and fibers. Bone cartilage, muscle tissue specialize for movement. There are three types of muscle tissue. Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissues. Skeletal muscle tissues contain very large muscle cells. Cardiac muscle tissues are located in the heart solely and smooth muscle tissues composed organs. Narrow tissue, consistent cells called neurons or you're ugly up. The neuron has a cell body with done droids, and an axe on nerve tissue is most commonly found in the brain and spinal cord. Yet nerves innovate or exist throughout the body. 5. Lymphatics: the lymphatic system. Oh, lymphatic system, Defense against infection and fight against disease is the fluid connective tissue that transferred substances and provides moisture. The vessels that carry one are called lymphatic vessels, and the salt suspended within the liquid are known as lymphocytes. Specialized tissues and organs control the lymph environment. Lymph consists of interstitial fluid similar to blood plasma, but with a lower concentration of protein lymphocyte cells responsible for the immune response and macro beiges of various types. The functions of the limb system include maintaining the number of lymphocytes by primary structures such as bone marrow and thymus, which produced BT and UN castles. Secondary structure such as the lymph nodes and the tonsils, produced B cells to maintain normal blood volume and the chemistry of length and to provide an alternative route for the transport of hormones, nutrients and waste products. Lymphatic vessels. Kerry Lynn from peripheral tissues to the Venus system, lymphatic vessels range in size from smaller capillaries to larger lymphatic ducks, cap laris or terminal. In politics. Nevada Kapler's are larger, both in diameter and in sectional view. Lymphatic Kapler's have thinner walls because they're under ethereal cells. Locker continuous basil limit up when thought vocabulary is typically have a flat for regular outline. Lymphatic Kapler's have ecology, nous, anchoring filaments and lymphatic Kapler's have ended. Feel yourself that overlap instead of being tightly bound to one another. The region of the entity, Leo Cell Overlap Acts is a one way valve, preventing the passage of interstitial fluid into the lymphatic cap Ilary but preventing its escape and ethereal cells are finished rated with pores and the cells and gaps between cells to allow for limp to really access vessels. The Gap Sitting and Attilio cells are large enough that the lymphatic Kapler's might absorb any viruses or other abnormal items, such as salaries or bacteria. Prominent lymphatic cap Hillary's in the small intestine called black deals, transport lipids absorbed by the digestive track. Did you know limp is absent in the cartilage in the ice cornea? Bone marrow. In the central nervous system, oedema is swelling. The valves is a lymphatic. Vessels go from Capitol Aries, two vessels to lymph trunks than two cavities. The lymphatic system pressure is less than that of the cardiovascular system lymphedema. If the lymphatic vessel is compressed, air blocked or its bowels or damage lymph drainage slows or ceases in the affected area when fluid continues to leave the vascular cap. Hillary's in that region, but the limb point system is no longer able to remove it. The interstitial fluid volume and pressure gradually increases. Lymph vessels are found. Your blood vessels. Arteries are often depicted as bright red veins dark red in them. Fax. Powell Golden color Major Live collecting vessels can be superficial or deep superficial in products. Travel with superficial veins and are found in the following locations. The subcutaneous layer next to the skin, the loose connective tissue in the muscular mucous membranes lining the digestive, respiratory urinary in reproach tracks. The loose connective tissues are the serious membrane lining the pleural, pericardial and peritoneal comedies. Deep lymphatic accompany the deep arteries and veins, and these loan product vassals collect limb from skeletal muscles and other organs of the neck, limbs and trunk. Israel's Mr Organs in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities within the trunk, superficial and deepened products converge to form large vessels called emphatic trucks. So Charles the lumber trunk, the interstitial trunk, the Bronco Medio spinal trunk, sub cleaning and trunk, and the jugular drunk Dylan, fatter trunk empties until emphatic docks that deliver live to Venus systems. The Jurassic Doc collect slim from both sides of the body, inferior to the diagram and from the left side of the body superior to the diaphragm. The base of the Jurassic Duck is an expanded Sokolich chamber. Notice the cistern A Kylie, which receives limp from the inferior region of the abdomen, pelvis and lower, limps through the right and left lumber trunks and intestinal trunks. The inferior segment of the thoracic doc lies interior to the vertebral column permits origin Interior to the second lumbar vertebrae. It penetrates the diaphragm with the A word at an opening known as they were. No que nous in the sun's along the left side of the vertebral column to the left level of the left clavicle. After collecting limp from the lodge Bronco meet a spinal trunk, the loves of Cleveland and trunk and the left jugular trunk at empty since the left subclavian vein near the base of the left internal jugular vein, a relatively small right limb product Doc Culex limb from the right side of the body. Above the diagram, the right lymphatic doc receives limb from smaller, lymphatic vessels that converge in the region of the right clavicle. The stuck empties into the Venus system at or near the junction of the right internal jugular vein and the rights of clay. The in vain lymphocytes respond to the presence of bacteria and viral right. Abnormal body cells, known as cancer cells, are foreign particles, such as toxins released by some bacteria. There are three types of lymphocytes T saws, B cells and unq a SOLs he sells 80% of lymphocytes are T cells underside of toxic or attack cells. T cells attack for insults ourselves infected by virus. Cheese cells provide all cell mediated immunity. There are helper T cells and suppressor T cells, which assist in regulation and coordination of immunity. There are also regulatory T cells and memory T cells, which record exposure to a particular Auntie Jen. He sells like help. For 10 to 15% of circulating lymphocytes, B cells differentiate into a plasma se, which is responsible for the production and secretion of antibodies. NK cells are 5 to 10% of circulating lymphocytes. They have talk for insults, cancer cells and normal cells infected with fire. I NK cells provide immunological surveillance. The goal of the immune system is the destruction and an activation of pathogens. Abnormal cells. Important molecules such as toxins to sell a starkly attack, be so circulate. Antibodies also notice the entire body mediated immunity the distribution of life span of lymphocytes. The ratio would be cells to T cells, Berries, depending upon each organ. Blood 8 to 1 spleen 1 to 1 and bone marrow. 123 Limpopo uses begins in the bone marrow and thymus employed stem cells can either one remain in the bone marrow and divide to produce NK cells. And B cells, which gain immuno competent and migrate into the peripheral tissues, were to the second group migrates to the thymus acquired immune deficiency syndrome. AIDS results from infection with a virus that selectively destroys T cells. One point issues are connective tissues dominated by lymphocytes. Lymphoid nodule are oval aggregations of lymphocytes contained within a supporting framework of particular fibers. I'm a lt or because associated lymphoid tissue was found in lymphoid nodule. Large na jewels in the wall of the bearings are called tonsils. They're usually five tonsils, a single Perrin jewel Tunsil, known as the adenoids a pair of Palantine tonsils, a pair of Lauren Jail tonsils. Please memorize the location of the tonsils. Plus there's a lymphoid, tissues or nah, jewels. And the mucosal lining of the small intestine are known as aggregated lymphoid nodule. Zara payers patches. The of Hendrix is a blind pouch that contains a mass, a fuse lymphoid nodule. There are three lymphoid organs, the notes, the thymus and the spleen. The notes are small oval lymphoid organs raging in diameter from 1 to 25 millimeters. Each note is covered by a dunce fibrous connective tissue capsule that extends from the capsule into the interior of the node, known as the tribe. Picula blood vessels enter a fair in Brussels and exit E fare. The note at the highland thundered. Excels collect antigens from the live and present them in the cell membranes going through the Sinuses. At the deep core truck, so limp continues into the court, or Majola of the lymph node. The core containing the cells are organized into a long gait. Masses. Minusma, Julie records. The largest lymph nodes are found were peripheral lymph attics, connect with the trunk, the distribution of lymphoid tissues and lift notes include cervical includes axillary lymph nodes, pop political influence. There are single includes abdominal lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues of pairs patches, the time a slice posterior to the manoeuvre of the sternum and the posterior portion of the media. Sinem fibers Partitions are SEPTA. Extend from the capsule to divide two sections or lobes, into the lobby. ALS averaging two millimeters in with bone is the outer cortex. In the central Mendola. The blood thymus barrier prevents premature stimulation of the developing T cells. By circulating antigens, particular cells are scattered among the lymphocytes of the thymus. In the medulla. These cells, clustered together in concentric layers forming district of structures known as the time occur preschools whose function remains unknown. This plane is the largest one point organ in the body. It is 12 centimeters long and weighs 5.6 ounces and is attached to the lateral border of the stomach by a broad. Mustn't Eric Van noticed the gastric Selena Glicken mint. The functions of the spleen are to remove abnormal blood cells and other blood components there farrago psychosis, the storage of iron recycled from broken down red blood cells, and the initiation of immune responses by B cells and T cells in response to antigens and the circulating blood of the spleen. This plane contains red pulp, right blood cells on way. Pope early employees modules. Cell population of the red pulp includes all of the normal components of the circulating blood. Knock privations large, sinuous Lloyd's, Tribeca, July and Highland system. Because of aging, the limb system is lost, effective T and B cells decrease, and there is an increased risk to disease and infection. 6. Urinary: you're in here is the stuff. Purpose of the ordinary system is to eliminate waste at the cellular level. The system also controls electrolyte levels, regulates blood pressure and blood volume, stabilizes pH. Re absorbs nutrients, eliminates nitrogenous waste, synthesizes Calista Troll Day three and assists and limber detoxification. Urinary system components include the kidneys, thier orders, the urinary bladder and very throw. Kenny's produce urine as an excretory function. The kidneys are capped by a super renal gland. There are three concentric layers of tissue that protect and stabilize the kidney. The fibers capsule parent Africa Fat renal fascia. The superficial anatomy of the kidneys include the highland, the entry point for the renal artery renal vein and your Inner Marino Sinus, or the internal cavity within the kidney and the renal cortex, renal, medulla and renal Sinus. The court. Texas granular and red and brown and color. The medulla involves 6 to 18 conical or pure metal structures called renal pyramids. The base of each pyramid faces the cortex and the renal papel, a project into the renal Sinus. Renal columns are banza tissue that separate renal pyramids. One E Trina load contains one renal pyramid, renal cortex and Reno Hollow to urine production occurs in renal lobes. And three. The formula through the kidney is the renal docks to the minor. Kalac's is There are four minor. Kalac's is entering the major Calix please number. I sees three box production occurs. Microscopic tubular structure is called Neff broadens. The blood supply to the kidneys involves 20 to 25% of cardiac output. Blood flow through the kidneys. Under its The renal artery goes to the same mental arteries, followed by the internal over orders to the ark you it arteries to the cortical radial arteries. Then to the affair, it arterials to the nuff. Ron's blood closer. The deference to the internal over globular veins are. Q. It pains to the intern low bar veins and then to the renal vein. The candy simulators are innovative by the renal nerves. At the Highland, the highland regulates blood flow and pressure. It stimulates runnin release and directs the stimulation of electrolyte re absorption. The histology of the kidneys they're no trouble is a long, tubular passageway. Beginning at the real core preschool, which is a cup shaped changed containing Cap Ilary network, I noticed the Bloomberg A list and involves 50 intrinsic cap. Hillary's blunder asked the graph flummery list by a parent arterials and deep parts by Eve . Very in arterials. Here is the approximate complicated to mule the Nef run loop, the loop of Hundley and the distal convoluted tube. You'll you should have Front empties into the collecting system, which flows for the connecting tribunal to the collecting duck to the popularity doctor. The renal pelvis 85% of Neff runs air critical. Neff runs where the most re absorption and secretary functions take place. 18% of no phones are dark somebody, Larry. This means that our friends are located closer to the medulla and have long enough run loops, which create renal pyramids. There. In Oakland, preschool includes a cop, Hillary, not of the bomber Ruelas. They expanded an initial segment of the renal tubular Arenal Notice, the glamour ruler capsule or Bowman's capsule. The outer wall of the capsule is lined by a simple schooI miss period. Will apathy Liam and this layer is continuous with the visceral epithelium that covers the glamour ruler, Capital Aires. The visceral epithelium consist of large cells with complex processes that wrapper on the glamour realists knew in his Pato sites. The capsule er space suffered superior it'll and Israel EPA. Thalia The connection between the period Elin visceral, epithelial wise at the vascular poll of the renal curfew school filtration occurs is blood pressure forces fluid and dissolved solids out of the bomber realists and into the capture space. There is all they feel. Trade is very similar to posit, with blood proteins removed. The filtration process involves passage across. Three physical barriers won the Catholic Larry and Natalia, too. The basically Emina and three the Glomeruli. Our apathy. Liam Luke involves the descending in a sending limb. The descending limb troubles in the middle of towards Serena pelvis, and they send England returns towards the cortex. Each lend contains a thick and thin segment. The vast character returns water absorbed to general circulation. The distant competent to Buell is an important site for one, the secretion of electrolytes and to the absorption of sodium and calcium ions. It also involves a selective re absorption of water. Simple a mural are complex, involves four types themselves. When the macula Dunn's the cells monitor electrolyte concentration to the jock struggle number ruler excels are muscle fibers and three extra guy Amarilla rights. NGO cells occupy the space between the globalists and the parent to a fair in arteries. The jocks so glomeruli complex secretes to hormones. Brennan, an E p o which pain and blood pressure. The collecting system consists of connecting tubules, collecting ducks and popularity ducks. It makes the final adjustments to the osmotic pressure of the concentration in volume. Never on loops have established very high solid concentrations in the interstitial fluids. If the collecting duct permeability is low, the most of the tribulation fluid retain. The collecting dock with flow will flow into the renal. Pelvis in the urine will be dilute. If the collecting duct permeability is high, then the osmotic pressure and the water will be promoted, which will result in a small amount of highly concentrated urine. Three short shares figure in transport, storage and elimination. They are the your owners, the bladder and the urethra. Mick tradition. Reflux in urination, the process of urination or emptying the bladder is coordinated by stretch receptors, a parent fibers and the pelvic nerves carry the impulses generated to the sacred spinal cord. Then we become conscientiously aware of the need to urinate